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Opium - Forensics

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Ria Rastogi

on 18 June 2013

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Transcript of Opium - Forensics

Opium
Ria & Priyanka
Opiates and Crime
Opiates vs. Opioids
Opiates are drugs that come from the opium poppy plant, are naturally occurring, and bind to opioid receptors found in the body
Opioids are opiates that have synthetic chemicals added to them; they still bind to the same opiate receptors and have the same effects
Opium
CNS depressant & narcotic pain-killer
crudest form and the least potent of the opiates
the milky latex fluid contained in the unripened seed pod of the opium poppy
as the fluid is exposed to air, it hardens and turns black in color
this dried form is typically smoked, but can also be eaten
Opiates
Morphine
CNS depressant & narcotic pain-killer & cough medicine
soluble salts of the alkaloid extracted from opium
both legal and illegal manufactured forms
legal morphine is usually white to brown powder or in pill form
illegal morphine is usually found in powdered form
injected, smoked/inhaled, snorted, or ingested as a pill
Laudanum
tincture of opium
10% powdered opium by weight
equal to 1% morphine
combination of morphine, codeine, thebaine, papverine, and alcohol
extremely addictive and very easy to overdose
not narcotic but pain-reliever and induces severe vomitting
nearly 75% of the morphine is excreted in the urine within 48 hours
Codeine
more than 90 percent of the morphine produced in the United States is converted into codeine
the most widely prescribed narcotic in the United States
controlled substance that requires a prescription
intravenous injection can cause a serious reaction that can progress to anaphylaxis
Opioids
Where it comes from
Opium Poppy
Papaver somniferum
plant
both opiates and poppy seeds come from here
Oxycodone
CNS depressant & pain-killer
semi-synthetic opiate
derived from thebaine
similar to codeine but is more potent and has a higher abuse and dependence potential
taken as pills
dissolved in water insoluble material filtered out injected
Classes of Opioids
Natural Opiates
resin of opium poppy
alkaloids
morphine
codeine
thebaine
oripavine
Esters of Morphine
opiates
natural drug but bonds are moved around
no additives
Heroin
Semi-Synthetic
opioids
isolate compounds from natural opiates or morphine esters as starting materials
Oxycodone
Fully Synthetic
opioids
fabricated drugs to have similar effects as natural opiates by acting on the same opioid receptors
Methadone
Endogenous Opioid Peptides
produced naturally in the body
morphine is produced in small amounts in the body
Endorphins
Methadone
pain-killer & anti-addictive
synthetic
similar effects to morphine and heroin
used by patients with opioid dependency
used in managing severe chronic pain
long duration of action
extremely powerful effects
very low cost
much lower dependence
Opiates were really popular in the 18th through 20th centuries
Recent major increase in addiction to opiate pain killers (vicodin, percocet, xanax, etc.)
In 17 states, deaths from drugs — both prescription and illegal — now exceed those from motor vehicle accidents, with opiate painkillers playing a leading role.
The number of people seeking treatment for painkiller addiction jumped 400 percent from 1998 to 2008, according to the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
The use of opiates has been seen to discourage violent crime except in the case of addiction where violent robberies can occur
Main concern is major increase in deaths due to overall abuse and the production of illegal heroin
Police look for possession of pills, syringes, track marks, etc.
Crime Today
Crime Scene
color tests expose an unknown drug to a chemical or mixture of chemicals
Marquis color test uses formaldehyde and concentrated sulfuric acid and will turn the solution purple in the presence of opiates
Presumptive Tests
Crime Scene
Confirmatory Tests
microcrystalline test -- a drop of the substance is added to a chemical on a slide
crystalizes viewed under a polarized light microscope drug is indentified because each type of drug has an individual crystal pattern
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry isolates the drug as different molecules move through the chromatograph's column at different speeds based on their density
Opioids in the body
Drug Tests
Urine
(immunoassays, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectometry)
Hair
Perspiration
Saliva
Blood
Half Life
detectable for 2-4 Days in urine and for 1-3 days in the saliva
Lethal Dose
variable
around 200 mg
depends on tolerance
Origin
Cultivation of opium poppies for food, anaesthesia, and ritual purposes dates back to at least the Neolithic Age (new stone age)
The Sumerian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Indian, Minoan, Greek, Roman, Persian and Arab Empires all made widespread use of opium, which was the most potent form of pain relief then available, allowing ancient surgeons to perform prolonged surgical procedures
Harvesting and Smuggling
skin of the ripening pods of these poppies is scored by a sharp blade by hand and air-dried
raw opium isn't usually sold because it is really bulky and strong smelling making it hard to smuggle
it's usually converted to morphine before export
Indian Subcontinent, Afghanistan, Central Asia and Iran are the biggest producers of opium
, injected, or taken in pill form
Effects
Chronic Effects

pregnant women and their babies face complications
import, export, traffic, or possess opiates for the purposes of selling it, you can be punished with up to life imprisonment
Works Consulted
http://drugfacts.ca/Drug_pages/opiates.html
http://www.drugtestsuccess.com/opiates.htm
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9323525
http://www.ultimatedetox.co.uk/drug-testing-advice-information/drug-testing.htm
http://opioids.com/narcotic-drugs/chapter-3.html
http://billericky.hubpages.com/hub/Notorious-Woman-Serial-Killers-Amelia-Dyers
http://chestofbooks.com/health/nutrition/Diet-Encyclopedia/Opium.html
http://www.pnas.org/content/101/38.cover-expansion
http://getsmartaboutdrugs.com/drugs/opium.html
http://www.identa.biz/geninfoheroin.asp
http://lesjoyeusesboucanieres.net/2011/09/18/
http://ecstasy.com.ua/opium/opium-chemical-organic-composition
http://www.enotes.com/opium-reference/opium
http://www.cas.umt.edu/anthro/anth495cim/opium.htm
http://www.freeprintable.com/view/print-body.html?id=3573
http://www.livestrong.com/article/168908-what-are-the-side-effects-of-opium-use/
http://listverse.com/2010/05/08/10-ways-the-opium-poppy-has-changed-the-world/
http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/andrySCZ_tyle/facts.htm
http://www.drugfree.org/drug-guide/opium
http://www.drugs.com/opium.html
http://firstpage.payvand.netdna-cdn.com/blog/files/2010/06/opium-usage-20081.jpghttp://www.morphineaddictionhelp.com/morphine-addiction-statisticshttp://www.rightdiagnosis.com/o/opium_addiction/symptoms.htmhttp://www.livestrong.com/article/138777-what-are-psychological-effects-morphine/http://www.livestrong.com/article/138777-what-are-psychological-effects-morphine/http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/o/opium_addiction/symptoms.htmhttp://www.soberrecovery.com/alcoholdrugtreatment/article/drug-street-names/opium.htmlhttp://www.drugfree.org/drug-guide/morphinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opiumhttp://www.news-medical.net/health/Morphine-History.aspxhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphinehttp://www.clearhavencenter.com/substance-abuse-treatment-resources/opium.phphttp://www.livestrong.com/article/136837-what-are-effects-smoking-opium/http://www.drugfree.org/drug-guide/opiumhttp://www.livestrong.com/article/78071-physiological-effects-morphine/
What is Opium
Active Ingredients:
Chemical Composition
morphine (12%)
codeine
narcotics
papaverine
thebaine
noscapine
Also has:
muscle relaxer
stimulant
cough medicine
Alkaloids
alkaloids
naturally occuring chemical compounds
usually toxic to other organisms
used as medications, recreational drugs, or in religious rituals
examples: - local anaesthesia
- cocaine
- caffeine
- nicotine
- morphine
opium enters the body faster when smoked
The user experiences a rush of pleasure, a period of relaxation, freedom from anxiety, and then relief of physical pain
When someone smokes opium, their breathing slows, and their pupils become the size of pinpoints.
Acute Use
euphoria
impaired vision
inability to concentrate
loss of appetite
drowsiness
confusion
altered mood and mental process
absence of pain and stress
vomiting
slow heart rate and breathing
sense of emotional detachment
overdose
death
Chronic Use
addiction
deadly respiratory conditions
mental retardation
malnutrition
infections
HIV/AIDS
Hepatitis B and C
death
after several hours
Addiction and Withdrawl
highly addictive because of its physical and psychological dependence
causes immediate euphoric and pain relieving effects
once you stop using it, it causes depression, anxiety, abodminal cramps, vomiting and nausea, sweating, muscle aches and spasm, etc. -- making you want to take the drug
Nabidh
Islamic drink
usually only made of fruit
sometimes is made with alcohol, cannabis, opium, and henbane
said to be used by the Vikings as well
It is illegal to use or to posses opium
opium possession is a fine of $5,000 and up to 12 months in prison
morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and methadone are legal in medical settings and through prescription
but when morphine is made into heroin it is illegal
Legality
Medical Uses
used to treat both acute and chronic severe pain
used for pain from heart attack and labor pains
breathlessness from cancer or cardio-respiratory diseases is significantly reduced by regular, low-dose sustained release of morphine
used in slow release formulations for opiate substitution therapy
Medical Uses
mild to moderate pain
relieve cough
irritable bowel syndrome
added to tylenol, asprin, and ibuprofen (tylenol 3, co-codaprin, nurofen plus)
also mixed with other pain killers and muscle relaxers
Medical Uses
in clinical use since 1917
managing moderate to moderately severe acute or chronic pain
improve quality of life for those with many types of pain
Controlled release oral tablet form is indicated for cancer and other chronic pains
side effect appears to be lesser than morphine
is a valid alternative to morphine
European Association for Palliative Care recommended oral oxycodone could be taken as a second-line alternative to oral morphine for cancer pain
Medical Uses
principle effects are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with opiates
found to be medically safe and non-sedating when used correctly
also indicated for pregnant women addicted to opiates
In Russia, methadone treatment is illegal so patients are often given sedatives and non-opiate analgesics to cope with withdrawal symptoms
Additional Facts
The Wizard of Oz comes from an opium inspired book
Lewis Carrol wrote Alice in Wonderland while on Laudanum
Opium costs around $16K per kilogram
There were 2 wars on Opium between Britain and China
Full transcript