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COPD Nursing Presentation

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Nicole La

on 24 March 2014

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Transcript of COPD Nursing Presentation

COPD
What is COPD?
COPD
stands for
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
WHO definition: "A
lung disease involving
c
hronic obstruction of airflow
which interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible".
It includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Managing COPD
COPD symptoms can be treated in numerous ways including:
Bronchodilators
Corticosteroids
Nebulizers
Antibiotics
Pursed-lips breathing
Oxygen therapy
Pulmonary rehabilitation
Physical exercise program designed for the individual.
Advice on coping with breathlessness.
Lung surgery and transplantation

How is COPD prevented?
Normal Lung Tissue
COPD Lung Tissue
Small bronchiole
Normal alveoli
Alveoli in emphysema with loss of surface area

References
Anatomy of the Lungs
How does COPD progress?
Signs & Symptoms
Potential Effects of Hospitalization
Potential Impacts on the Patient
Nursing Diagnoses
Pathophysiology
How is COPD Acquired?
Average cost of hospital stay for ten days = $10,000.
Total cost of COPD hospitalizations per year = $1.5 billion.

Potential effects of hospitalization include:

• Decreased quality of life.
• Risk of acquiring nosocomial infections.
• Weakness.
• Close monitoring of condition.
• Exposure to health teaching.

Potential impacts on the patient include:

• Decreased quality of life.
• Physical limitations.
• Disability.
• Depression.
• Shorter life expectancy.


Potential Impacts on the Family
In COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways because of one or more of the following:

Chronic Bronchitis:
Inflammation causes the walls of the airways to become thick and inflamed.
The airways produce more mucus than usual, which can clog them.

Emphysema:
The walls of the alveoli become damaged and then rupture and are destroyed.
The airways and alveoli lose their elastic quality.
Gas exchange abnormalities.






Potential impacts on the family include:

• Increased responsibilities.
• Increased stress and frustration.
• Decreased quality of life.

The following actions can be taken to reduce your risk of developing COPD:

Quit smoking.
Avoid secondhand smoke.
Avoid occupational exposure to chemical fumes and dust.
Reduce air pollution by eliminating fireplace smoke and irritants.

How is COPD Transmitted?
Cigarette smoking and second hand smoke.
Air pollution and occupational pollutants.
Alpha-1-anTitrypsin deficiency.

COPD cannot be transmitted from person to person through any mode of transmission.
The signs and symptoms of COPD occur gradually, and may worsen as the disease progresses. These include:

A productive cough
Wheezing
Fatigue and shortness of breath
Depression
Lung infections that last a long time
Acute exacerbations
Difficulty sleeping
Losing weight without trying
Cyanosis
Stage I/ Mild COPD:
An individual will experience shortness of breath when exercising and mild exacerbations.

Stage II/ Moderate COPD:
An individual’s symptoms will interfere with daily activities, making it difficult to ignore.

Stage III/ Severe COPD:
An individual feels shortness of breath even when sitting or lying down. During this stage an individual’s immune system is weak, making them more susceptible to colds and other respiratory infections.

Ineffective airway clearance related to bronchoconstriction as evidenced by increased sputum production.

Impaired gas exchange related to ventilation perfusion inequality as evidenced by adventitious breath sounds, cyanosis and dyspnea.

Case Study
Mr. Smith is a 65 year old retired construction worker who came to the emergency department complaining of shortness of breath, a productive cough and tightness in his chest.

In addition, Mr. Smith has smoked one pack of cigarettes a day for over twenty years. His dyspnea increases with low physical activity such as walking and he frequently experiences exhaustion, whether he has done much throughout the day or not.

Benady, S. (2010). The human and economic burden of COPD: A leading cause of hospital admission in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.lung.ca/cts-stc/pdf/COPDReport_E.pdf

Carter, R., Tiep, B., & Tiep, R. (2008). The Emerging Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Epidemic: Clinical Impact, Economic Burden, and Opportunities for Disease Management. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 16, 5, 275-284.

COPD Foundation. (2014). Understand your lungs. Retrieved from http:// www.copdfoundation.org/What-is-COPD/Living-with-COPD/Understand-Your- Lungs.aspx

Hodder, R. (2001). Every breath I take: A guide to living with COPD. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing Co.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2013). What is COPD?. Retrieved from https:// www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd/

Shimberg, E. F. (2003). Coping with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New York: St. Martin's Griffin.

Sørensen, D., Frederiksen, K., Groefte, T., & Lomborg, K. (2013). Nurse–patient collaboration: A grounded theory study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on non- invasive ventilation. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50, 1, 26-33.

The Lung Association. (2014). COPD. Retrieved from https://www.lung.ca/diseases- maladies/copd-mpoc_e.php

World Health Organization. (2014). COPD: Definition. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/respiratory/copd/definiton





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