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Drama (...and plot)

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l.p. albert

on 9 September 2015

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Transcript of Drama (...and plot)

Drama: A Multi-Act Presentation
Dramatic Structure
Often, plays are divided into five acts. This is what is known as a dramatic arc.
Act
v.
Scene
DRAMATIC VOCABULARY
Character Types
Protagonist:
Types of Drama
Tragedy
A Drama is...
a particular type of fiction designed to be performed by actors on a stage in front of an audience.
An Introduction to Drama
Includes both stage and cinematic works.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drama
http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Lessons/Drama.htm
Exposition
Rising Action
Climax
Falling Action
Resolution
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatic_structure
Exposition
Also known as the introduction, the exposition serves to provide background information regarding "the plot, characters' histories, setting, and theme".
In literature, this is achieved with the use of a (objective and invisible) narrator. It may also be achieved through a character using either dialogue or the expressing her thoughts.
Rising Action
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_(literary_technique)
In a literary plot, a series of incidences that build toward the point of greatest interest (the climax).
In Shrek's story, the primary conflict is whether or not he will get his swamp back. However, in order to do this, he must meet several challenges.
Scare away the angry mob.
Find Lord Farquaad AND defeat soldiers in his tournament.
Slay the dragon and retrieve Fiona from the tower.
Get Fiona back to Farquaad.
As the story progresses, each of Shrek's challenges increases in difficulty which adds to the dramatic tension of the tale.
http://www.fiction-writers-mentor.com/rising-action.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatic_structure
Climax
Act 1:
Act 2:
Act 3:
The turning point, or point of no return, marking a change in the protagonist's journey either for better or worse. This is the most dramatic act in the story.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climax_(narrative)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatic_structure
FALLING ACTION
ACT 4:
THIS IS WHERE THE PROTAGONIST EITHER WINS OR LOSES.
Resolution
Act 5:
Conflicts are resolved
Balance is restored for the characters
A release of tension for the reader
The "Big Exhale"
The moment in the drama when you can relax; when you sit back in your chair a breathe a sigh of relief.
this act can also contain a final moment of suspense in which the resolution in doubt
Sonnet
A poem consisting of 14 lines, written in iambic pentameter, which follows a strict rhyme scheme.
Monologue
A speech presented by a single character for the purpose of expressing their thoughts aloud.
May also be used to directly address another character or the audience.
Other Examples:
"O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo..."*
"...Now I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion..."***
* from "Romeo and Juliet" http://www.shakespeare-monologues.org/plays/35?g=2
** from "Gladiator" http://www.monologuedb.com/dramatic-male-monologues/gladiator-maximus-decimus-meridius/
*** from "To Kill a Mockingbird" http://www.monologuedb.com/dramatic-male-monologues/to-kill-a-mockingbird-atticus-finch/
Soliloquy
When a character speaks to herself to sort out thoughts or feelings. Other characters in the drama are unaware of what is being said.
Aside
In an aside, the character speaks to the audience directly. Unlike monologues or soliloquies, an aside is usually a brief comment. It is a statement which reflects the true thoughts the character.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aside
The main character of a literary (theatrical, cinematic, or musical) narrative who is engaged in conflict usually because of the antagonist.
Comedy
Antagonist:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protagonist
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antagonist
A character, group of characters, or institution, representing the opposing force with which the protagonist must contend.
A rival
Enemy
Opponent or competitor
ANY PRODUCTION (THEATRE, TELEVISION, OR FILM) WHICH USES HUMOR AS A PRIMARY MEANS TO TELL A STORY.
Satire
Farce
Situation Comedy (Sitcom)
CHARACTERIZED BY ITS FOCUS ON HUMAN SUFFERING. ALLOWS THE AUDIENCE A SENSE OF CATHARSIS. ALSO USED TO HIGHLIGHT THE POWER OF CULTURAL IDENTITY AS WELL AS THE CONTINUOUS IMPACT OF HISTORY.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comedy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theatre#Comedy
An act is is a "division or unit of
drama".
Plays can have as few as one act or as many as five.
A scene is the part of the play in
which there is no change in time
or place.
This can also be a single piece of
action that happens in one place
in a play, film, or book.
MONOLOGUE
SOLILOQUY
ASIDE
SONNET
METER
PUN
MOTIF
FOIL
OXYMORON
DRAMATIC IRONY
STAGE DIRECTION
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_(drama)
http://www.ldoceonline.com/Theatre-topic/scene
Example: The balcony scene from Romeo & Juliet.
Meter:
The pattern of syllables in a given line of poetry. These syllables, which can be in pairs or trios, may be stressed or unstressed. Two syllables paired together is called a
foot.
http://shakespeare.about.com/od/thesonnets/a/what_is_a_sonnet.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iambic_pentameter
http://iambicpentameter.net/
Iamb:
A metrical foot. Characteried by the use of one unstressed, or short, syllable and one stressed, or long, syllable.
https://www.google.com/search?q=iambic+pentameter&rlz=1C1AFAA_enUS485US485&aq=0&oq=iambic+&aqs=chrome.0.0j57j5j0j62l2.2064&sugexp=chrome,mod=0&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8#hl=en&tbo=d&rlz=1C1AFAA_enUS485US485&sclient=psy-ab&q=what+is+an+iamb&oq=what+is+an+iamb&gs_l=serp.3..0l4.818541.821314.0.821548.19.14.2.2.2.1.239.1588.7j6j1.14.0.les%3B..0.0...1c.1.1Zi1vnJkBoA&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_cp.r_qf.&bvm=bv.1355272958,d.aWM&fp=677d9cb28fc608b&bpcl=39942515&biw=1366&bih=643
Think of a heart beat: da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM
What, then, is iambic pentameter?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comedy
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/protagonist
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protagonist
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antagonist
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatic_structure
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dramatic_structure
http://www.google.com/search?q=what+is+a+soliloquy&rlz=1C1WYIB_enUS503US503&aq=0&oq=what+is+a+soliloquy&sugexp=chrome,mod=9&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
Stage Direction
Oxymoron
Foil
Pun
Motif
Dramatic Irony
The purpose of the foil is to show contrast with another character in order to showcase a particular skill or quality of that character; to complement that character.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foil_(literature)
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/211951/foil
Foils are most noticeable when they are a part of teams or duos. Can you think of any? Who is the foil in the relationship?
A pun is a (usually) humorous play on a word or words which suggests a multiple meaning or meanings.
http://www.wordcentral.com/cgi-bin/student?book=Student&va=pun
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pun
Modern Example:
I wondered why the baseball was getting bigger. Then it hit me.
Shakespearean Example:
Romeo: “Not I, believe me. You have dancing shoes
With nimble soles; I have a soul of lead
So stakes me to the ground I cannot move.”
http://www.punoftheday.com/cgi-bin/findpuns.pl?q=math&submit=Search
Romeo and Juliet (Act I scene IV)
http://www.vocabulary.com/articles/lessons/exploring-the-power-of-puns/Shakesperean_Puns.pdf
A dominant idea.
In literature, motifs can be created using various literary devices, structure, and language. A single object, when used strategically, can help establish motif.
Do not confuse motif with theme. Motif is a repeating detail meant to enhance symbolic meaning. Motifs can be objects, images, spoken or written phrases, sounds, or physical movements.
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/motif
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motif_(narrative)
Abbott, H. Porter (2008). The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 95. ISBN 978-0-521-88719-9.
When the reader or audience is privvy to information the characters lack.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/170979/dramatic-irony
This is especially true in tragic plays and literature
A combination of contradictory words.
How many oxymora can you spot in the following paragraph?
Ever noticed that it's simply impossible to find seriously funny oxymorons online? The only choice is to ask one of those paid volunteers at the library – the ones in the long-sleeved T-shirts – for an original copy of some obviously obscure documents that were found missing amongst some paperwork almost exactly one hundred years ago.
A description or direction of a setting or character written in to a play (or script).
http://www.fun-with-words.com/oxymora.html
https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSax4-KC79sM5gW13WNVGasyxg9XZ3ACHBU1MRs176qHr7x1OSn
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