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History of Special Education
Transcript of History of Special Education
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act was enacted in reaction to congressional hearings that brought to light the fact that 3.5 million students with disabilities were not receiving adequate education and 1 million more were not receiving any education (Martin, Martin, & Terman, 1996). EAHCA provides proof to administrators of education for students with disabilities. The act also helps formalize teachers' lesson plans and provide caring parents with a voice. This act was one of the first step in ensuring that students with disabilities received an adequate education. Their education included "nondiscriminatory evaluation, individualized planning, and education in the least restrictive environment" (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). Overall, this act called for students with disabilities to receive appropriate funding for free. The federal government helped provide funding to ensure these programs were in place and of quality. This act was renamed in 1983 and in 1990 and is now called the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) (Martin, Martin, & Terman, 1996).
Monday, July 7, 2014
SPED Before 1960
Meaningful and Measurable Education
1997 - IDEA Amendments
Physical and mental disabilities have been the target for discrimination and exclusion throughout history, all over the world. These differences have been the wrongful reason behind isolation and institutionalization for many years. There have been advocates for moving individuals with disabilities out of institutions and into the workforce and school system (Martin, Martin, & Terman, 1996). The first school for students with disabilities was established in Hartford in 1817. Although the American Asylum for the Education and Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb made some form of education available to students (Special Education History Timeline, 2008), it was more about exclusion than providing meaningful experiences to students . In 1840, Rhode Island passed a law that makes education for all children mandatory and by 1919, all states had mandatory education programs (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). In 1870, The School for the Deaf and the School for the Blind extended programs to provide more comprehensive programs for youth. Yet, in 1919, rulings concluded that schools were able to exclude students until they were in the 5th grade and in 1939, indefinitely based on ability (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). Because of this exclusion over the next few decades, parent advocacy groups, new classifications, and societies increased awareness and acceptance of people with disabilities.
This legislation amends and reauthorized IDEA. One major change to the act was that there was an expansion to the parent's right to participate in decision making. Before this amendment, parents were only a part of the group that created their child's Individualized Education Plan (IEP). Now, the parental role was more specific and stronger (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). In addition to parents, Regular Education Teachers are also required to be a part of the student's IEP team. Another major part of the amendment is that states are now required to include students with disabilities in assessments. The amendments of 1997 also change the way and specify how evaluations are conducted. These changes aim to strengthen the programs for disabled youth and standardize assessments so the failures and successes can be quantified (NICHY, 1998).
History of Special Education
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, was written to aid in the "War on Poverty" which was President Johnson's legislative plan (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). This act strives to create high standards and accountability through equal access to education regardless of socioeconomic or racial differences (Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), n.d). The authorization of state-run programs, that are funded by the federal government, was among the most influential aspects of this act. Title VI of the ESEA created a Bureau of Education for the Handicapped. This Bureau is now known as the Office of Special Education Programs (Peterson, 2007). Title VI also provided grants for states to begin, grow, and improve education programs for children with disabilities (Martin, Martin, & Terman, 1996). The ESEA was reauthorized and amended in 2004 ans is known today as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), n.d).
2001 - No Child Left Behind Act
On October 3rd, 2001 George HW Bush creates a Commission on Excellence in Special Education in order to gather information on many jurisdictional levels in order to create better educational programs for students, including those with disabilities. This act also reauthorized and amended the ESEA of 1965 and included the provision that non-custodial parents also have the right to participate in a child's IEP group (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). NCLB aims to close achievement gaps and improve proficiency (No Child Left Behind Act, n.d.) by calling for all students "to be proficient in math and reading by the year 2014" (Peterson, 2007). Assessments are a major part of this act and students are tested in reading and math every year for 3rd - 8th grade, and once in high school. The major aspects of education that NCLB aims to improve upon are accountability for disadvantaged youth, flexibility in state's use of funding, the use of research-based education that has proved effective, and parental options in Title I schools (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, n.d.).
Children's Health Act
The CHA was enacted by President Bill Clinton on May 3rd, 2000 and and primarily focuses on the National Child's Health Study. The act amends the Public Health Service Act bu focusing on the health of youth and allows the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to complete a longitudinal (from birth to adulthood) study on the development and health of children, nationally (Children's Health Act of 2000, 2012). The hope is that this study will shed light on the mechanisms that come in to play with some common health concerns of children including autism, Fragile X, juvenile arthritis, and other conditions that cause disabilities. The National Child's Health Study also hopes to help better diagnose and treat many types of health issues that can render a child disabled. They hope their finding will also increase awareness and acceptance of people with these types of health issues. The study can help to increase knowledge of how to best educate students based on their specific health concerns and give caretakers an increased understanding of their conditions (Govtrack.us, n.d.).
Instruction does much but encouragement does everything. - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Education for All Handicapped Children
1982 - Hudson Central v. Rowley
2004 - IDEA Amendments
In this round of amendments, IDEA is again reauthorized and adjusted to aligned with NCLB. The revised document includes "early assessment, early intervention, Universal Design for Learning, and discipline procedures" (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). Thus, the biggest changes are seen in calling for increased accountability at both local and state levels. This is due to the requirement that more data on program outcomes is required. Special education is influenced in this revision because it allows for alternate instructional methods such as Response to Intervention (RTI) that aims to help keep students out of special education scenarios (Peterson, 2007).
Martin, E., Martin, R., & Terman, D. (1996). The Legislation and Litigation History of Special Education. The Future of Children, 6(1), 25-39. Retrieved July 1, 2014,.
NICHY. (1998). The Legislative and Litigation History of Special Education . National Information Center for Children and Youth News Digest, 26, 1-40.Nguyen, T. (n.d.). Board Of Education of Hendrick Hudson School District vs. Rowley. Bucknell University. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/edu
No Child Left Behind Act. (n.d.). National Education Association. Retrieved July 2, 2014, from http://www.nea.org/home/NoChildLeftBehind
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (n.d.). State of Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from https://www.k12.wa.us/esea/NCLB.aspx
Perez, T. (n.d.). Disability Resources: Americans with Disabilities Act. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.ada.gov/ada_intro.htm
Peterson, J. (2007, July 7). Timeline of Special Education History. Timeline of Special Education History. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from http://www.fortschools.org/m/content.cfm?subpage=62980
Special Education History Timeline. (2008, Spring). Impact of Disability on Learning And Development. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from http://impactofspecialneeds.weebly.com/uploads/3/4/1/9/3419723/timeline_-_the_history_of_special_education.pdf
1965 - Congress Adds Title VI of the ESEA
1975 - Gerald Ford and the EAHCA (IDEA)
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
2000 - CHA Enacted
Alternate Learning Models
Board of Education Hendrick Hudson Central School District
1990 - The ADA is Enacted
The Americans with Disabilities Act
Amy Rowley was a deaf student at Furnace Woods School in New York. At school she was in a regular class with a hearing aid, a tutor, and a speech therapist. Her mother thought she should have a sign language interpreter. After a trial period the school disagreed and her mother took the case to the courts. The courts decided with Amy since, although she was advancing grades, she was not doing so at the same pace as her peers. Thus, her education was not "free appropriate public education" (Nguyen, n.d.). Later the courts found no evidence the school failed to provide an adequate education and reversed the decision. This court ruling decided "once a court determines that the requirements of the act have been met, questions of methodology are for the resolution by the state" (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). This ruling is often cites when school districts argue they do not need to provide optimized environments for students with disabilities just appropriate ones (Special Education History Timeline, 2008). Although there was a requirement to provide handicapped students an education, there were no guarantees that education was quality. This case shed light on the fact there was no way to measure a student's potential since there we no mechanisms in place to compare potential and reality (Nguyen, n.d.).
Children's Health Act of 2000. (2012, April 2). The National Children's Study. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from https://www.nationalchildrensstudy.gov
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). (n.d.). State of Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from http://www.k12.wa.us/esea/
Govtrack.us. (n.d.). H.R. 4365 (106th): Children’s Health Act of 2000. Retrieved July 4, 2014, from https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/10
Information and Technical Assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act. (n.d.). United State Department of Justice Civil Rights Division. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.ada.gov/ada_intro.htm