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Kayden Norwood

on 13 December 2012

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Transcript of Malaria

Climate Change Climate Change -Distribution and transmission affected by climate
*Vector and parasite are sensitive to temperature Increase in temperatures and rain fall will cause vector-borne diseases to extend to higher altitudes and latitudes

What to expect then?
Increase distribution where currently limited by low temperature
Decrease distribution where it becomes dry for the vector
Increase or decrease months of transmission, due to rain fall patterns "It has long been recognized that a malarious community is an impoverished community."
- T. H. Weller Malaria and Poverty Malaria and Ethics Malaria is commonly found in developing countries Poor health services

Not efficient
No research on their own
Industrial nations to the rescue!
Necessity to build a bridge between cultures Malaria and Ethics Of course, ethical difficulties arise... AUTONOMY Willingness of subjects to take part in trials Locals as part of the research team "It is false to equate illiteracy with the inability to take decisions" Community approaches instead of personal approaches Malaria and Ethics NON MALEFICENCE - BENEFICENCE Scientific and ethical review board
Entomological studies
Collectors Mosquito bait
Use of other tools JUSTICE Trial results are supposed to benefit the communities involved on the trials..... Not so easy
Poor communities and big populations
Responsible rich countries!

WHO Training in Disease Research program World Health Organization, 2010 van Lieshout et al. 2004 Barry M. & Molyneux M. 1992. Ethical dilemmas in malaria drug and vaccine trials: a bioethical perspective. Journal of medical ethics Vol 18:189 - 192
Gallup, John L. and Jeffery D. Sachs. 2001. The Economic Burden of Malaria. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Vol. 64: 85 - 96.
Heinrich, Michael. 2008. The Anthropology of Malaria Control. Central Issues In Anthropology. Vol 6:27 - 40.
Kilama W.L. 2010. Health research ethics in malaria vector trials in Africa. Malaria journal Vol 9: S3
van Lieshaut M, Kovats R.S, Livermore M.T and Martens P. 2004. Climate change and malaria: analysis of the SrES climate and socio-economic scenarios. Global environmental change Vol 14:87-99.
Titilope, B. 7, October, 2012. Personal Interview
Obrist, B. 30, October, 2008. Social and Cultural aspects of ‘Malaria’ and its control in the Ivory Coast. Malaria Journal. 7:224.
Greenwood, Faine. "Researchers Use Cell Phones to Track the Movement of Malaria in Africa." GlobalPost. CNN, 19 Oct. 2012. Web. 12 Dec. 2012.
Shapshak, Toby. "Africa Not Just a Mobile-first Continent." CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 12 Dec. 2012. REFERENCES - "Common as the flu is here"
- Cured at home
- Misconceptions
Cause - Bad drinking water
Immunity Personal account Malaria and poverty are both geographically specific - poor countries predominate in the same regions as malaria. Almost all wealthy countries fall outside of the boundaries of the disease
(tropics and subtropics). Why is this? Tropics: poor soil, low agricultural productivity, spread of other tropical (infectious) diseases.
Geographical trade barriers... Malarial countries are primarily landlocked.
A colonized past - many malarial countries were colonies until recently; weak institutions, poor economic policies, government corruption, and "ethnic conflict." Malaria and Poverty...

Consequence vs. Cause. Successful elimination of malaria requires efficient organization and financial resources. Where has eradication of the disease been successful? Methods of eradication: Historically - the most effective methods aren't necessarily restrained by poverty. Panama Example... Successful elimination of malaria has all been either in subtropical countries or islands. These countries' economic growth in the 5 years after eliminating malaria has usually been substantially higher than growth in the neighboring countries. Countries in moderate climates... i.e. "Developed Countries" DDT and other insecticides The "easy" solution. Insecticides are now meeting some "resistance" in the tropics... Misconceptions in the Ivory Coast Caused by sun
Traditional healers - dry season
biomedical prof - rainy season
Bad drinking water Infectious disease caused by a parasite that attacks the red blood cells of the host. Primarily carried by mosquitoes
Once infected the parasite travels to the liver where it matures and enters the bloodstream

The CDC estimates that there are 300-500 million cases of malaria each year, and more than 1 million people die from it.

Symptoms include:
Bloody Stools
Flu like symptoms (chills, fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, sweating, vomiting)
Convulsion What is Malaria? Insecticide resistant mosquitoes in Burkina Faso. Malaria "Prevention of Malaria is impossible for people who have blood in their veins and who work on the field under the sun. Malaria is in the blood, it is inborn. When the blood begins to change into water (due to the sun) Malaria manifests itself" Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium ovale

Plasmodium malariae

Plasmodium knowlesi What else? Lack of education "Malaria defeated the international community many years ago. We cannot allow this to happen again. A single global action plan for malaria control, that enjoys Partnership-wide support, is a strong factor for success."
Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization Vector Control

Spraying insecticides

Draining the wetlands

Mosquito Bed Nets

Easily find charities that send bed nets to individuals Malaria Prevention $$$$$$$ Folk Treatments - Family
- Home-made
-Flexible treatment & inexpensive Nets are expensive!! Anti-Malaria Campaigns - Free nets
- Cut malaria by 50%
- Limited resources
- Where to implement? Cell Phones in Kenya - Cell phone tracking
- Areas likely spread
- Hone in effective anti-malaria areas Is this reasonable? Jackie
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