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Unit 3 Project

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Ryan Gallagher

on 16 November 2014

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Transcript of Unit 3 Project

People without government turn to trash
Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of knowledge; it is thinking that makes what we read ours.
-John Locke
How they affect our Government
The right of nature... is the liberty each man hath to use his own power, as he will himself, for the preservation of his own nature; that is to say, of his own life.

Hobbes
Greeks and Romans
Greeks
Had a direct democracy
All citizens vote on all issues
In the U.S. government, we vote on some parts of legislature
We also vote on our political leaders
Romans
Had an indirect democracy
Also called a republic
People voted for their congress to represent them in government
In the U.S. government, we elect our representatives to vote for our opinion in congress
Locke believed people were generally good
Life, liberty, and property are three rights all humans are born with
Property owners are the most important citizens
If a government fails to protect people’s natural rights, they had the right to revolution
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are three rights listed in the Declaration of Independence based on Locke's ideas
11/5/14
Ryan Gallagher
Hon. Am. Govt. (4th Block Beck)
Philosophers/Philosophical Ideas
No man has any natural authority over his fellow men.
-Rousseau
Rousseau
Greek democracy is very relevant in the U.S. government now and when early U.S. governments were formed
Roman Republic is in the U.S. government as well
Hobbes was an English governmental philosopher in the mid 1650's
Locke was also an English philosopher during the mid 1600's
Rousseau was a French philosopher in the mid 1700's
Montesquieu was a philosopher in the 1740's in France
Voltaire was also a mid 1700's French philosopher
Unit 3 Project
Influential Ideas/People
Hobbes Locke Rousseau
Montesquieu Voltaire
Romans Greeks
Hobbes believed people without government would crumble
people would live lives that were “nasty, brutish, and short”
Government was formed to protect people from themselves
He believed there was a need for an absolute monarchy
This is in our government because we based our government on social contract theory which Hobbes supported
-Thomas Hobbes
LOCKE
Believed in social contract theory
People give up freedoms in order to be protected by the government
All men are created equal is what Rousseau believed
He explained these ideas in his book,
The Social Contract
The quote, "
All men are created equal
" appears in the Declaration of Independence
Montesquieu
Liberty is the right to do what the law permits.
-Montesquieu
believed in the separations of power which is now used in many constitutions
In The spirit of Law
, Montesquieu called the separation of power Trias Politica
This is relevant in our government today because we have three branches of government with a system of checks and balances
Voltaire
I do not agree with what you have to say, but I'll defend to the death your right to say it. -Voltaire
believes all people are equal including women
Freedom of religion is important but inks it starts a lot of wars
These ideas were presented in his book,
Philosophical Dictionary
His ideas are represented in today's government because under the law, all men and women are equal
Influential Documents
Many documents influenced the American government we know today
These documents also influenced the Declaration of Independence, The Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution
The Magna Carta
The Magna Carta was made to limit the monarch's power
It established rule of law
Nobody, even government is not above the law
no trial without evidence
individuals have rights to be protected by and from the government
This shaped our government because there are individual rights, fair and speedy trial, and rule of law in our government today
The Mayflower Compact
The May Flower Compact was the document establishing Government in America after the pilgrims landed in Plymouth Bay
The Compact established a government based on majority rules
As a result, a social contract was created between the colonists and their government
In our government, we base decisions on majority rules and we have a social contract
Petition of Right
The Petition of Right was made because King Charles was ignoring the Magna Carta
The Petition of Right states that only parliament can raise taxes
It also says no imprisonment without a reason
lastly it states that quartering soldiers in civilians houses is illegal
these ideas are represented in today's government because in the Bill of Rights it states that there shall be no quartering of soldiers and a right to a fair trial
The English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights was signed by two new monarchs after a civil war rocked the country
This Bill of Rights transforms monarchs to almost a figurehead with no political power
Gives power to parliament
Right to petition king
right to bear arms
freedom from cruel punishment
King can only act with Parliaments permission
This is represented in today's government because we have the right to bear arms, no cruel or unusual punishment, and a bill of rights
This gave parliament power, in the Articles of Confederation, congress had all the power
Founding Fathers and Their Roles
Founding Fathers helped shape the government we know today
They also helped lead us to independence from Great Britain
They were crucial to the formation of early American government
Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison was a signer of the Declaration of Independence
He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1774
He attended the planning of the Continental Army with George Washington
He became a lieutenant in the militia in 1777
He was elected Speaker of the House in 1778
He was elected Governor of Virginia in 1782
He helped fight for our freedom from Great Britain in the Revolutionary war
After the war, he became involved with our newly formed government helping shape it as Speaker of the House
John Hancock
John Hancock also signed the Declaration
He may be most recognizable for his signature, but he did much more for America
He was elected to the Boston Assembly and the Stamp Act Congress
He took part i n the Boston Tea Party
He gave a speech about the Boston Massacre
Elected to the Continental Congress
He was elected governor of Massachusetts for five years, declined reelection, and then voted into office again where he died in 1793
His speeches helped revolution spread through out the northeast ad helped form the Constitution
John Adams
John Adams not only signed the declaration, he also was the one who came p with the idea of it
He was an active member in the Continental Congress
He was a part of ninety committees
He headed 25 of them
He proposed George Washington become leader of the army
He was the ambassador to France which helped secure their support during the war as an ally
He later became the first vice president and second president under the Constitution
His role in the Continental Congress helped create the gvoernment we know today
His support for Washington as leader of the army helped us win the revolutionary war
His relations with France helped America drive Britain out of America
Samuel Adams
Samuel Adams also signed the declaration of Independence
He was cousins with John Adams
He was an agitator for revolution in the city of Boston
He was elected to the Boston assembly where he was the first to bring up the idea of a Continental Congress
He served in the continental congress
He was elected governor of Massachusetts for many years until he retired
His avocation for revolution was what caused many people in the city to become revolutionists themselves
His idea of the continental congress helped create the government we know today
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson signed the declaration, but he also did much, much, more, he wrote it
Jefferson wasn't much of a speaker, but his writings and works in committees spoke volumes
He was governor of Virginia during the war
He was hired by Washington to negotiate peace with Great Britain
He joined the continental congress
he was appointed secretary of state
He was vice president under John Adams and the third president of the United States
His work helped unify the colonies against Great Britain to earn independence
The Stamp Act
Britain had a very large debt to pay after the Seven Years War
Instead of taxing the British more, Britain decided to tax the colonies more
The tax required a special stamp to be placed on all paper goods to show that they have been payed for
This started a grumbling from the colonies tcame to be known as "No taxation without representation"
Colonists should not be taxed more until they have representation in British government
This also started the Stamp Act Congress
The Stamp Act Congress
The Stamp Act Congress met in New York City with representatives from 9 of the 13 colonies
They drafted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances which stated that the Stamp Act was a violation of their rights as British Citizens
They clai that they cannot be taxed by a government hundreds of miles away with no representation i n that government
The Boston Massacre
The Boston Massacre occurred on March 5, 1770
British soldiers living in the colonies were aggravating citizens
The people of Boston began to throw snowballs and rocks at a small detachment of soldiers. The soldiers then fired into the crowd killing 3 and wounding 8, 2 of which would die later
This began an aggressive series of speeches by revolutionary supporters
The Tea Act
The Tea Act was passed by parliament in 1773
It created a monopoly for the East India company
This also lowered the price for tea to be much lower than anyone else
This forced colonists to buy from East India instead of other colonists selling tea
this was another attack on colonists' rights through American eyes
No taxation without representation was used again by many speakers against British Oppression
Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party was an act by the colonists in response to the Tea Act
Colonists stormed onto three British ships carrying tea before it could be unloaded
They were dressed as native Americans so they couldn't be recognized
They dumped over 300 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor
The British lost the equivalent to three quarters of a million American dollars in today's economy
Why the Colonists Declared Independence
The colonists were being treated very unfairly
They still had no say in government
Their taxes were outrageous
These reasons and more are why the colonists declared independence
Unfair Taxation
The colonists were being taxed a lot more than British citizens just because they lived in America
They helped Great Britain in The French and Indian War
They received no benefits from this
The colonists were tired of these taxes to keep British Soldiers in America that they didn't want
Taxation without Representation
The British were taxing the American Colonists outrageous amounts
If this wasn't bad enough, the colonists had nobody in parliament to represent them in government
The colonists demanded representation in government before being taxed on things they did not want or need
Unfair Treatment
Under the English Bill of Rights, quartering soldiers was illegal
However, in the colonies, the British ARmy forced homes to house them
The colonists did not have the same rights as citizens living in Britain
Some peaceful revolutionists were thrown in jail and never given a trial even though the Bill of Rights ensures a fair speedy trial with no imprisonment without a reason
Restricted the Right to Trade
The Crown denied the colonies' right to trade with foreign nations
Transporting Prisoners
The crown allowed for transportation of citizens being tried for treason to Britain
Taking Away Charters
The crown restricted town meetings
Representatives appointed by king, not elected
Suspending Legislatures
The king stopped the New York legislature after not following the Quartering Act
Forced Citizens to Bear Arms Against Their Country
American sailors being Forced to serve in the royal Navy
Stealing American Vessels
The king's army has seized American trading vessels that violated restrictions on trading with other nations
Waging War Against The Colonies
He has sent a general in with troops to force colonists to obey the laws passed by parliament
Taken Away Sovereignty
The king declared the right to make all laws for the colonies
The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation was the first government set up after the revolutionary war
It had many problems in it that caused a new form of government to be created
The constitution was made shortly after
Problems with the Articles
Only one branch of government, legislature
One delegate from each state
delegates chosen any way the state wants
all thirteen states had to approve before a law could be passed
States had ultimate authority
States didn't have to obey congress
States could tax but congress could not
Congress couldn't raise an army
Compromises of the Constitution
Many conflicts arose during the writing of the constitution
Virginia Plan (Big States Plan)
Separation of powers
Bicameral legislature (Make laws)
House of representatives
Number of members based on population
Voted on directly by the people
Senate
Voted on by members of the house
Again, based on population
Executive Branch (execute and veto laws)
National executive voted on by Legislature
Judicial Branch (Veto laws and settle disputes)
Judicial would be appointed by executive and legislative for life
New Jersey Plan (Small States Plan)
Wanted to amend articles, not get rid of
One state is equal to one vote
Did not give more votes to bigger states
Congress could tax
Each state gets one representative in legislative
Legislative picks a committee to serve as executive board for 1-4 years
Judiciary chosen by executive while in good behavior
Great Compromise
Bicameral legislature
Senate
Each state has two representatives
House of Representatives
Number of representatives based on population
Executive
President chosen by Electoral College
Judicial
One Supreme court appointed by the president
Full transcript