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Swarm Project TSES 3001T

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Maggie Williams

on 20 November 2015

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Transcript of Swarm Project TSES 3001T

White Collar
Pink Collar

Red Collar
Resources &
Reliablity &

Swarm Project
TSES 3001 T

Reliablity &

Blue Collar
o Began with Wikipedia and Youtube search to gain basic knowledge on what the technology was and common usages.
o Googled “3D printing future jobs predictions”
 Barrier: Google produces their own 3D printing software technology called Google SketchUp. This could have affected the algorithms for search results being mainly positive for job predictions. I switched my search result to include “3D printing decreasing jobs in manufacturing” in order to get different bias of news articles produced. Here I found a link to several reports that were then accessed through Carleton database for free.
o Accessed peer reviewed journal article from Carleton online journal database. Considered to be reliable due to the lengthy process that each publish journal that is peer reviewed must go through.
o Statistical information in regards to job growth and loss varied between many articles. Instead of relying on a single report or news article I decided to use Stats Canada data on employment by industry to produce my own chart of job loss. Again, this is to be used as only a guideline and rough estimate as surveys and statistics are often missing many participants.

Columbus, Louis. "Gartner's Hype Cycle For 3-D Printing, 2015: Medical Products Driving Market Growth." Forbes 28 Aug. 2015. Web. http://www.forbes.com/sites/louiscolumbus/2015/08/28/gartners-hype-cycle-for-3-d- printing-2015-medical-products-driving-market-growth/

Gartner, Rob, and Janessa Gartner. "Gartner Says Medical Applications Are Leading Advancement in 3D Printing." Gartner Says Medical Applications Are Leading Advancement in 3D Printing. Gartner, 25 Aug. 2015. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.

Grynol, Benjamin. "Disruptive Manufacturing : The Effects of 3D Printing - Scholars Portal Books." Disruptive Manufacturing : The Effects of 3D Printing - Scholars Portal Books. Deloitte, 2013. Web. 12 Nov. 2015. <http://books2.scholarsportal.info/viewdoc.html?id=644024>.

Grace, Robert. "Wohlers Report Says 3-D Printing Exploding." Plastics News 25.15 (2013): 0001. Business Source Complete. Web. 15 Nov. 2015

Government of Canada. Employment, Payroll Employment, by Industry (Retail Trade)." Statistics Canada. Government of Canada, 31 Mar. 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/labr71g-eng.htm>.

Government of Canad. "Employment, Payroll Employment, by Industry (Retail Trade)." Statistics Canada. Government of Canada, 31 Mar. 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/labr71g-eng.htm>

Moran, Michael. "Analysis: After Decades of Outsourcing, Manufacturing Jobs Coming Home to US." The GroundTruth Project. N.p., 06 May 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. http://thegroundtruthproject.org/analysis-after-decades-of-outsourcing- manufacturing-jobs-coming-home-to-us

Martindale, Nick. "The Impact of 3D Printing on Manufacturing – Raconteur.net." Raconteur. N.p., 11 Dec. 2014. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://raconteur.net/business/3d- printers-producing-factory-goods.

Palermo, By Elizabeth. "How Robots Are Building a 3D-Printed Metal Bridge in Amsterdam." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 11 Nov. 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <http://www.livescience.com/52750-robots-build-3d-printed- bridge.html>.

Peters, Adele. "Is 3-D Printing Better For The Environment?" Co.Exist. N.p., 29 Jan. 2014. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. http://www.fastcoexist.com/3024867/world- changing-ideas/is-3d- printing-better-for-the-environment

F. Van Der Zee, D. Rehfeld, C. Hamza. "Open Innovation in Industry, Including 3D Printing. “Open Innovation in Industry, including 3D Printing (n.d.): n. pag. European Committee on Industry Research and Energy, Sept. 2015. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/563445/IPOL_STU(2015)5 63445_EN.pdf

"What Is 3D Printing? How Does 3D Printing Work?" 3D Printing. 3D Printing, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. http://3dprinting.com/what-is-3d-printing

Seligson, David. “What will 3D printing mean to the world?”. ILO . March 2014. Switzerland http://iloblog.org/2014/03/14/what-will-3d-printing-mean-for-the-world-of-work/

Unknown. "The Printed World." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 12 Feb. 2011. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/node/18114221

1) Econolyst, Of Labours, Unions and 3D printing. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://www.econolyst.co.uk/resources/documents/files/Article - May 2013 - Arbitrage magazine - The impact of 3D printing on employment.pdf

This information is provided by a 3D printing consulting agency. While this information can be reliable to some degree due to the company aiming at providing expert guides to 3D printing, it is a secondary source and does not come from corporations producing these products and therefore some of this information could be prone to misinformation.

2) Megan Kreiger and Joshua M. Pearce , Environmental Life Cycle Analysis of Distributed Three-Dimensional Printing and Conventional Manufacturing of Polymer Products, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2013 1 (12), 1511-1519, DOI: 10.1021/sc400093k
The source of this information is provided by a study done by the University of Michigan which can is considered to be a reputable university in public research. Therefore the information from this source can be considered as reliable as it is obtained by researchers conducting a study following the scientific methods and guidelines. The results of the study have not been replicated and therefore the results could be different in a different replication of this study. Also like every study, it may contain different limitations that could affect the reliability of the results.

3) Columbus, L. (n.d.). Demand for 3D Printing is Accelerating Globally. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/louiscolumbus/2014/09/15/demand-for-3d-printing-skills-is-accelerating-globally/

4) TechChrunch, The Influence Of Education On The 3D Printing Industry. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://techcrunch.com/2015/11/14/the-influence-of-education-on-the-3d-printing-industry/

Both these sources are from magazine articles.. While the individual who has written the article may have conducted research regarding the information he has not sourced the information he has utilized. This is common in media or magazine articles and therefore this information could contain error and bias from the author making it less reliable than a research study.

5) 3D Printing, What is 3D printing? How does 3D printing work? (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://3dprinting.com/what-is-3d-printing/#history

The source for this information is a website that advertises 3D printers, parts and jobs. The website aims to provide correct information and appeals to corporations that would be interested in purchasing such a product. However this information can be erroneous as the website acts as a secondary source that advertises products that other corporations sell.

6) 3D Printing Industry, 3D Printing History: The Free Beginner's Guide - 3D Printing Industry. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://3dprintingindustry.com/3d-printing-basics-free-beginners-guide/history/

This source has information on 3D printing in order to inform readers on how they work, their history and provide different reports in relation to the technology. The information is provided by a team of writers who have experience searching the topic and therefore could be erroneous.

• There were few scholarly resources on this topic. This is because as Krassenstein explains “it is too early to say what the technology's lasting impact will be” (Wile 2014).
• As a result majority of my sources were news articles from the Business Insider, How Stuff Works, and Tech Republic. I also gathered some research from the official 3D Printing website, and from Youtube videos, including one entitled “2013 State of the Union President Obama, 3D Printing is the Future”.
• As a result it is difficult to say whether all of these resources are reliable or not because majority of them are just projections and theories of the future of 3DP. However I would argue that these resources are reliable as they each call upon the expertise of the companies CEO’s, the president of the USA, and many other reliable sources.

Works Cited
3D printing (2015). How does 3D printing work? Retrieved November 13, 2015, from http://3dprinting.com/what-is-3d-printing/

Crawford, S. (2011, February 28). How 3-D Printing Works. Retrieved November 14, 2015, from http://computer.howstuffworks.com/3-d-printing1.htm

Gilpin, L. (2014, February 12). 10 industries 3D printing will disrupt or decimate - TechRepublic. Retrieved November 15, 2015, from http://www.techrepublic.com/article/10-industries-3d-printing-will-disrupt-or-decimate/

Krassenstein, B. (2014, May 18). 3D Printing: Employment Boom or Employment Swoon? Retrieved November 15, 2015, from http://3dprint.com/3980/3d-printing-jobs-economy/

Obama, B. 3DPrinterPricesNet. (2013, April 14). 2013 State of the Union President Obama, 3D Printing is the Future. Retrieved from

Wile, R. (2014, September 4). This Technology Could Have The Biggest Impact On American Jobs Since Offshoring. Retrieved November 15, 2015, from http://www.businessinsider.com/how-3d-printing-will-affect-manufacturing-jobs-2014-8
All Types of
Collar Jobs
Reliablity &

The sources of information used have been from multiple sources of critics, news outlets, independent auditors, and private companies who have conducted testings and research and development. Many have been obtained from websites, others from publicly available documents that provide information on the design of the technology, statistics and simulations, in addition to personal reviews. The legitimacy of the sources used is very critical as the internet is filled with useful and useless information, where some may be biased, or geared towards resisting change. Therefore, it is necessary to have a consistent set of inputs to verify and validate all pieces of information and whether they are consistent from multiple sources or not.

"Definition of Artificial Intelligence in English:." Artificial Intelligence. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/artificial-intelligence?q=artificial intelligence.

"Definition of Robot in English." Robot - Oxford Dictionaries. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/robot.

Economist, The. "The Future Of Jobs: The Onrushing Wave." Business Insider. January 17, 2014. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.businessinsider.com/the-future-of-jobstheonrushing-wave-2014-1.

"Google Self-Driving Car Project Monthly Report." Google Self-Driving Car Project Monthly Report. Accessed November 15, 2015. https://static.googleusercontent.com/media/ www.google.com/en//selfdrivingcar/files/reports/report-0915.pdf.

Harjani, Ansuya. "At This Restaurant, Waiters Walk and Fly." CNBC. February 9, 2015. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.cnbc.com/2015/02/09/flying-robots-debut-aswaitersat-singapore-restaurant.html. Harris, Tom.

"How Robots Work." HowStuffWorks. Accessed November 15, 2015. http:// science.howstuffworks.com/robot6.htm.

Metz, Cade. "Robots Will Steal Our Jobs, But They’ll Give Us New Ones." Wired.com. August 24, 2015. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.wired.com/2015/08/robots-will-stealjobstheyll-give-us-new-ones/.

"Need Your Luggage Carrying, Sir? Just Call for the Hotel Bell-bot." Mail Online. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2007354/The-Yotelrobottakes-care-hotel-guests-luggage.html.

"Robots Can Soon Replace Waiters – But Not In Another Forty Years." Robots Can Soon Replace Waiters – But Not In Another Forty Years. Accessed November 15, 2015. http:// www.kng.com/blog/food-and-beverage-news/robots-can-soon-replace-waiters-but-notinanother-forty-years/.

Victor, Anucyia. "Restaurant Employs £6,000 ROBOTS to Replace Waiters and save Money on Staff Costs... but Don't Expect Service with a Smile." Mail Online. November 26, 2014. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/food/article-2850186/ Restaurant-employs-6-000-ROBOTS-replace-waiters-save-money-staff-costs.html.

"The DeepQA Research Team." The DeepQA Research Team. Accessed November 15, 2015. http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view_group.php?id=2099.

“Humans Need Not Apply,” Youtube video, 15:00, posted by “CGP Grey,” August 13, 2014. Accessed November 15, 2015.
Grey Collar
& Accuracy

Most of my sources came from the manufacturers’ websites. These manufacturers, Siemens and Sysmex, have presented information in the form of brochures. The information provides an overview of the system, the features and benefits, and the technical specifications. This information is fairly reliable because it comes directly from the manufacturers themselves.
It is wise, however, to consider alternative sources, including clinical tests and trials of the system that were carried out by individuals who are not affiliated with the manufacturers. Dimech and Roney (2002), for example, evaluated the automated urinalysis system in order to determine its efficiency in testing urine chemistry, microscopy and culture. Mayo and colleagues (2008) compared automated microscopy with manual microscopy in order to determine if one method was more effective. Similarly, Jian and colleagues (2011) have evaluated the performance of the Sysmex UF-1000i in comparison to visual (manual) microscopic examination, and found that results were quite similar between automated and manual testing. Sharda and colleagues (2014) however, found that results yielded from manual microscopy were significantly different from those produced by automated microscopy. Sharda and colleagues (2014) conclude that although automation is more efficient, it is still important to perform manual microscopy for quality control.
When assessing the reliability of sources it is always best to seek information from a wide variety of individuals and journals. Testing records, such as those recorded by Mayo and colleagues (2008) and Jian and colleagues (2011), for example, allow us to determine reliability over time, and outside of the manufacturer’s control. In this case I have considered evaluation results from a variety of Medical Journals, including Pathology, Laboratory Medicine, Clinical and Laboratory Medicine, the Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigations, and the Journal for Clinical Laboratory Analysis.

Dimech, W., Roney, K. (2002). Evaluation of an automated urinalysis system for testing urine chemistry, microscopy and culture. Pathology 34(2): 170-177.

Government of Canada. (2014). Medical Laboratory Technologists and Pathologists’ Assistants. Available at: http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/qc/job_futures/statistics/3211.shtml

Jian, T., Chen, P., Ouyang, J., Zhang, S., Cai, D. (2011). Urine particles analysis: performance evaluation of Sysmex UF-1000i and comparison among flow cytometer, dipstick, and visual microscopic examination. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigations 71(1): 30-37.

Mayo, S., Acevedo, D., Quinones-Torrelo, C., Canos, I., Sancho, M. (2008). Clinical laboratory automated urinalysis: comparison among automated microscopy, flow cytometry, two test strips analyzers, and manual microscopic examination of urine sediments. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 22(4): 262-270.

Sharda, N., Bakhtar, O., Thajudeen, B., Meister, E., Szerlip, H. (2014). Manual urine microscopy versus automated urine analyzer microscopy in patients with acute kidney injury. Laboratory Medicine 45(4): 152-155.
Siemens. (2015). Clinitek AUWi System. Available at: http://www.healthcare.siemens.com/urinalysis/systems/clinitek-auwi-system

Zaman, Z. (2015). Automated urine screening devices make urine sediment microscopy in diagnostic laboratories economically viable. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 53(11).
The sources seem to be accurate and qualified to know what they are talking about. But since these sources are trying to predict the future, we will never know just how accurate they are. All you can do is look at the authors qualifications and decide from there. The best way to assess accuracy is to look at the authors qualifications and previous work
If the source is a company, look to see if that company has previous work with this product, or if the company is in a similar field.


Future Ride80 Ways the Self-Driving, Autonomous Car Will Change Everything from Buying Groceries to Teen Romance to Surving a Hurricane to Turning ... Home to Simply Getting From Here to There http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/self-driving-cars-endanger-millions-american-jobs-thats-okay/

Somewhat Trustworth:
[1]B. Howard, 'It’s 2015, self-driving cars are more than a promise | ExtremeTech', ExtremeTech, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/197262-its- 2015-self-driving-cars-are-more-than-a-promise. [Accessed: 04- Nov- 2015].

Trustworthy (scholarly):
Guizzo, Erico. "How google’s self-driving car works." IEEE Spectrum Online, October 18th (2011). -


Somewhat Trustworthy :
J. Lee, 'Self Driving Cars Endanger Millions of American Jobs (And That’s Okay)', MakeUseOf, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/self-driving- carsendanger-millions-american-jobs-thats-okay/. [Accessed: 12- Nov- 2015]. -

I regularly checked to ensure that the sources I was reading were credible and that the information they are giving is both accurate and reliable. I ensured that any information I used on the Google self-driving car was obtained through the Google regulated, Self-Driving Car Project website. Any additional info found on the Google car from a secondary site was cross referenced with this Google project site in order to ensure its accuracy. Similarly, the statistics that I used from the article “Self Driving Cars Endanger Millions of American Jobs (And That's Okay)” by Joel Lee, had to be checked in order to ensure their accuracy and reliability. Thankfully Joel Lee linked his various sources in the article itself, which were proven to be very accurate as they came directly from the United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics website. Usually I would check that there was a credible author and a date written on any article before I even begin reading it. I would also check for sources or references at the end of the article if it was heavy in information, and if no sources were given then I would either abandon the article or search for more reliable sources.

"Elon Musk in Talks with Google to Bring Driverless Tech to Tesla Cars (update)." The Verge. 7 May 2013. Web. 9 Nov. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.theverge.com/2013/5/7/4308288/elon-musk-talks-google-driverless-tech-tesla

"Google Self-Driving Car Project." Google Self-Driving Car Project. Google. 2015. Web. 9 Nov. 2015. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/selfdrivingcar/

Greenough, John. "THE SELF-DRIVING CAR REPORT: Forecasts, Tech Timelines, and the Benefits and Barriers That Will Impact Adoption." Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 29 July 2015. Web. 9 Nov. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/report-10-million-self-driving-cars-will-be-on-the-road-by-2020-2015-5

Lee, Joel. "Self Driving Cars Endanger Millions of American Jobs (And That's Okay)." MakeUseOf. 19 June 2015. Web. 9 Nov. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/self-driving-cars-endanger-millions-american-jobs-thats-okay/

Murphy. "ELON MUSK IN TALKS WITH GOOGLE TO BRING DRIVERLESS TECH TO TESLA CARS." Tesla. Tesla, 2013. Web. 9 Nov. 2015. Retrieved from http://my.teslamotors.com/it_IT/forum/forums/elon-musk-talks-google-bring-driverless-tech-tesla-cars

Payne, Elizabeth. "Driverless Shuttle Buses Being Considered for Zibi." Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa Citizen, 19 Sept. 2015. Web. 9 Nov. 2015. Retrieved from http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/driverless-shuttle-buses-being-considered-for-zibi

Rayej, Shima. "How Do Self-driving Cars Work?" Robohub. Robohub, 3 June 2014. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. Retrieved from http://robohub.org/how-do-self-driving-cars-work/

In matters of technology upgrades, the situation is changing so quickly that in fact, the search for reliable sources of information becomes extremely difficult. Nevertheless, the main principles of doing a reliable research, which include relevance, verifiability, and neutrality (Hudspeth par. 6) are valid in this case as well. Most of the sources used in this paper with minor exceptions are the Web sources. While the information on the Web stays the most accessible, frequently updated, relevant and diverse data resource, its credibility is often questionable. Some ways exist to determine the credibility of a source, which are applicable to the evaluation of information found online. First of all, according to a Purdue Writing Lab guide, it is important to determine the author of the work, his or her purpose, the source type and its relevance, especially when dealing with such advanced and pivotal topics as the aforementioned modern technologies; in case the Web source needs evaluation, one should “never use Web sites where an author cannot be determined, unless the site is associated with a reputable institution such as a respected university, a credible media outlet, government program or department, or well-known non-governmental organizations” (Weida and Stolley par. 10). Still, it may be argued that the constant checks for the accuracy of information used can turn to a useful, but fruitless process due to the continuously incoming news that are able to render the sources irrelevant in a very short time. The situation in the field of applied sciences, computer sciences, and high-tech changes quickly, the predictions and analytics that seemed true some time ago, very soon become outdated. It means that in a research area that deals with innovation the relevance and neutrality of the information sources will in some ways prevail upon their verifiability.

Bertoncello, Michelle and D. Wee 2015, Ten ways autonomous driving could redefine the automotive world. Web. 16 Nov. 2015 <http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/automotive_and_assembly/ten_ways_autonomous_driving_could_redefine_the_automotive_world>

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor 2014, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2014-15 Edition, Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. <http://www.bls.gov/ooh/transportation-and-material-moving/taxi-drivers-and-chauffeurs.htm>

Costello, Bob and R. Suarez 2015, Truck Driver Shortage Analysis 2015. PDF file. 16
Nov. 2015 <http://www.trucking.org/ATA%20Docs/News%20and%20Information/Reports%20Trends%20and%20Statistics/10%206%2015%20ATAs%20Driver%20Shortage%20Report%202015.pdf>

Hudspeth, Jackie n.d. Reliable Research: How to Determine If a Source is Credible &
Accurate. n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015 <http://study.com/academy/lesson/reliable-research-how-to-determine-if-a-source-is-credible-accurate.html>

Newton, Casey 2014, Uber will eventually replace all its drivers with self-driving cars.
Web. 16 Nov. 2015 <http://www.theverge.com/2014/5/28/5758734/uber-will-eventually-replace-all-its-drivers-with-self-driving-cars>

Weida, Stacey and K. Stolley 2013. Using Research and Evidence. Web. 16 Nov. 2015 <https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/02/>

“Why autonomous and self-driving cars are not the same.” The Economist explains. The Economist Group, 1 July 2015. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/07/economist-explains>
The resources used for this summary are located on the last page. These are credible sources that have been cross-referenced with other sites, and all share the same statistics and projections.

7. How accurate the sources were thought to be and how the accuracy was assessed
I believe all sources used were from credible sites. I found that a lot of the information found on these credible sites was reiterated in the other online resources I found as well; proving that the information was well-known and more likely to be accurate.


"A Ride in the Google Self Driving Car." YouTube. YouTube, 27 May 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.

Ackerman, Evan. "Google's Autonomous Car Takes to The Streets." IEEE Spectrum. 13 Oct. 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

Ackerman, Evan. "Google Shows Us Why We All Need Robot Cars." IEEE Spectrum. 4 Mar. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2015.

"Advantages and Disadvantages - Autonomous Systems." Advantages and Disadvantages Autonomous Systems. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.

Hirsch, Jesse. "This Tractor Drives Itself - Modern Farmer." Modern Farmer. 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 11 Nov. 2015.

"How & Why Do Farmers Use GPS in Farming?" Opposing Views. Web. 11 Nov. 2015.

Huntington, Scott. "How Driverless Cars Will Impact the Environment." Triple Pundit. 26 Feb. 2015. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.

Lee, Joel. "Self Driving Cars Endanger Millions of American Jobs." MakeUseOf. 19 June 2015. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.

Phillips, Ari. "Google Just Unveiled The First Fully Functional Driverless Car." Think Progress. Center For American Progress Action Fund , 27 Dec. 2014. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

I primarily looked at Google’s own self driving car, as it is currently the leader in this area of technological development. I have also looked at others brands’ websites and publications such as Tesla and Uber, as well as news articles on the subject, such as from The Globe and Mail, The Wall Street Journal, Forbes, The New York Times, Reuters and Scientific American (among others). By starting with primary sources of the organizations that are pioneers in the creation of this new technology (notably Google), I was able to use the information they were publishing on their own technologies as a basis to assess the information given by news sources. The news sources I looked at were ones that are largely considered to be reputable. When using any information for research, biases must be taken into account. Their publication dates must also be considered as technology is a subject that is constantly and rapidly developing. In the case of self-driving cars, and the nature of this assignment, certain points of view published in 2013 are just as valid as those published in 2015, since the technology is still in a very similar (if not the same) stage of development. Old(er) and somewhat biased articles can still serve a very useful purpose as they provide various points of view on one subject, thereby making for a more diverse portfolio of information once compiled. It is up to the researcher and the nature of the project to determine if a source is suitable to use.

Davies, Alex. “Obviously Drivers Are Already Abusing Tesla’s Autopilot.” Wired. October 22, 2015. http://www.wired.com/2015/10/obviously-drivers-are-already- abusing-teslas-autopilot/.
“Google Self-Driving Car Project: How.” Google Self-Driving Car Project. Accessed 17 September 2015. http://www.google.com/selfdrivingcar/how/.
“Google Self-Driving Car Project: Where.” Google Self-Driving Car Project. Accessed 17 September 2015. http://www.google.com/selfdrivingcar/where/.
“Google Self-Driving Car Project: FAQ.” Google Self-Driving Car Project. Accessed 17 September 2015. http://www.google.com/selfdrivingcar/faq/.
Google Self-Driving Car Project. “A First Drive.” YouTube. YouTube, May 27, 2014.
Google Self-Driving Car Project. “Navigating City Streets.” YouTube. YouTube, May 27, 2014.
Google Self-Driving Car Project. “Ready for the Road.” YouTube. YouTube, May 15, 2015.
Hedli, Laura. “Why Self-Driving Cars Will Change Retirement.” The Wall Street Journal. October 12, 2014. http://www.wsj.com/articles/why-self-driving-cars-will- change-retirement-1413147945.
Kiss, Jemima. “Uber: “We”ll Ease the Transition to Self-Driving Cars’”. The Guardian. September 17, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/sep/17/ uber-well-ease-the-transition-to-self-driving-cars.
Martell, Allison. “Ontario to Allow Tests of Self-Driving Cars on Public Roads | Canada.” Reuters, November 7, 2015. http://ca.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/ idCAKCN0S72JG20151013.
Mui, Chunka. “Will Driverless Cars Force A Choice between Lives and Jobs?” Forbes. December 19, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/chunkamui/2013/12/19/will- the-google-car-force-a-choice-between-lives-and-jobs/.
“Para Transpo.” OC Transpo, 2015. http://www.octranspo1.com/accessibility/
Payne, Elizabeth. “Driverless Shuttle Buses Being Considered for Zibi.” Ottawa Citizen, September 19, 2015.
Pyper, Julia. “Self-Driving Cars Could Cut Greenhouse Gas Pollution.” Scientific American, November 6, 2015. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/self- driving-cars-could-cut-greenhouse-gas-pollution/.
The Tesla Motors Team. “Your Autopilot Has Arrived.” Tesla Motors: Blog, October 14, 2015. http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/your-autopilot-has-arrived.
Thompson, Clive. “Uber Would like to Buy Your Robotics Department.” The New York Times Magazine. November 6, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/ magazine/uber-would-like-to-buy-your-robotics-department.html?_r=0.
Tossell, Ivor. “So Long Cars, Hello Self-Driving Taxis.” The Globe and Mail. February 26, 2015. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/rob-magazine/so-
The way in which I obtained my information sources is the Carleton’s Online Library. To help ensure my resources are reliable I only use peer-reviewed articles. Peer-reviewed sources provide a much more accurate research process by theoretically removing personal biases, stopping poor science from reaching publication, reject plagiarized work, and is reviewed by a number of experts within the field to ensure the information current and correct. Although peer-reviewed resources are not always 100% accurate, it substantially reduces the potential for false and unwarranted information. I believe the sources I used were substantially accurate in describing what the autonomous car is, how it works, its positives and negatives, and how it could effect future jobs.

Anonymous. (2015). Autonomous vehicles will shake up government revenue. Professional Safety, 60(8), 20.

Chappell, L. (2012). Nissan unveils driverless car technologies. Automotive News, 87(6537), 14.

Errick, D. (2011). Where will driverless cars take us? American Scientist, 99(6), 436-436.

Frey, T. (2015). 101 endangered jobs by 2030. Journal of Environmental Health, 77(9), 40

Glancy, D. J. (2012). Privacy in autonomous vehicles. Santa Clara Law Review, 52(4), 1171

Kirkpatrick, K. (2015). The moral challenges of driverless cars. NEW YORK: ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY.

Leggett, D. (2014). Google's driverless car vision. Just-Auto.Com,

Look, no hands; driverless cars. (2013). The Economist,407(8832), 13

Ravid, O. (2014). Don't sue me, I was just lawfully texting & drunk when my autonomous car crashed into you.Southwestern Law Review, 44(1), 175.

Waldrop, M. (2015). No drivers required. Nature, 518(7537), 20-20.
- Google website is reliable for information on the vehicles themselves and how they are meant to work, although it may shed more of a positive light on the industry than it should. Includes brief summary on how it works, why we should look towards self-driving cars in the future and shows the vehicles in use. Everything should be “taken with a grain of salt” as the sales of these vehicles directly affect the company.
- Wikipedia was used to find out how and when the process began, and would be as accurate as possible for any recorded data; some of the 96 references used in the article were checked to make sure the timeline given was accurate.

- U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics gives the best results for how many jobs each industry creates based on a census from 2012
- "Google Self-Driving Car Project." Google Self-Driving Car Project. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <https://www.google.com/selfdrivingcar/>.
- "History of Autonomous Car." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_autonomous_car>.
- "U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <http://www.bls.gov/home.htm>.
To test information accuracy we can read from multiple sources, and validate the information by observing that numerous reliable sources are presenting the same ideas or facts. And this self-driving car is a new technology some info may prove inaccurate over time. Safety is said by Google to be near perfect, new and complex road trials may find problems that need a fix. At this stage it is not essential that all info be correct, as this driverless car is still in the trial stage and not yet got legal approval for mass public use. Every day each company which has developed self driving programs comes out with a new patent or an update to their program. The update usually share about to prototype of a possible commercial release add on to all the cars. I check the accuracy of the information based on possible motives on who collected and presented info about the topic. Any forecast of what is going to happen is subjective based on stats and because if something isn’t fully developed people are going to have different opinions. Taking a non-partisan opinion is best because different sources and different statistics are based on motives of who gathered it.

Gibbs, S. (2014, May 29th). Google's self-driving car: How does it work and when
can we drive one? Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/may/28/google-self-driving-car-how-does-it-work
Google Self- Driving Project. (2015). Ready For the road. Retrieved November 2nd,
2015, from
Rajej, S. (2014, June 3rd). How do self- driving cars work. Retrieved from,
Tracy, S. (2015, November 6th). Autonomous vehicles will replace taxi drivers,
but that just the beginning. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sam-tracy/autonomous-vehicles-will-_b_7556660.html
Kanter, Z. (2015, January 23rd). How Uber’s Autonomous Cars Will Destroy 10
Million Jobs and Reshape the Economy by 2025. Retrieved from, http://zackkanter.com/2015/01/23/how-ubers-autonomous-cars-will-destroy-10-million-jobs-by-2025/
Stanley, M. (2015, January 23rd). Autonomous cars the future is now. Retrieved
From, http://www.morganstanley.com/articles/autonomous-cars-the-future-is-now/
Open Roboethics initiative. (2014). Will autonomous cars create more jobs?
Retrieved November 9th, 2015, From http://www.openroboethics.org/results-will-autonomous-cars-create-more-jobs/
KPMG. (2015). Self driving cars: Are we ready? Retrieved November 11th, 2015, from
Most of my information comes from news channels such as CBC, ABC, BBC and other forms of news articles. To be certain the information I was reading was accurate, I would often look for additional articles that were suggesting the same ideas. If I found more than two articles promoting similar concepts, I would know that sufficient research had been done on the topic. Often news reports can skew information in their favour but in this case it was simply relaying information of what the future of technology will likely bring us. I also used a university article to further discuss the future of drones. Even though it was published at a university, I still doubled checked their findings against other articles. The information I found regarding the capabilities and future of drones seems accurate and significant. Each article was unbiased and provided both the positive and negative aspects to the development and use of drones. This is one way I knew that what I was reading was a respected and trustworthy article.
It is important that we double-check our findings before we include them in our own research as we would not want to relay information that is incorrect. Some of the jobs that the drones are not yet capable of doing are simply speculation and we should not conclude that drones will one day not be able to do such things.

Wigmore, I. (2015, August 1). What is drone? - Definition from WhatIs.com. Retrieved from: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/drone

BBC (2012, January 31). Drones: What are they and how do they work? Retrieved from:

Chung, E. (2015, March 31). Amazon tests delivery drones at a secret site in Canada - here's why. Technology & Science, CBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/amazon-tests-delivery-drones-at-a-secret-site-in-canada-here-s-why-1.3015425

Richards, C. (2014). Will Internet Access Via Drones Ever Fly? Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/insights/2014/11/internet-access-drones/

Estes, A. (2013, December 3). Some Good Things Drones Can (Actually) Do. Retrieved from: http://gizmodo.com/some-good-things-drones-can-actually-do-1475717696

Murray, R. (2014, August 8). How drones will replace humans in the workplace. ABC News. Retrieved from:http://abcnews.go.com/Lifestyle/drones-replace-humans-workplace/story?id=24890351

**Radel, D., & Park, A. (2015, June 25). Drones may help lifeguards with beach rescues. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2015/06/25/drones-may-help-lifeguards-beach-rescues/29295849/

Koebler, J. (2014, May 16.). Drones Are About to Take Over One of the World's Most Dangerous Jobs. Retrieved from: http://motherboard.vice.com/read/drones-are-about-to-kill-a-profession

Mcgivering, J. (2012, June 20). Drones to protect Nepal's endangered species from poachers. BBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-18527119

Unmanned Vehicle University. (2015, October 23). Drones and Pro Photography. Retrieved from: http://www.uxvuniversity.com/drones-take-professional-photography-to-new-heights/

• The sources which I have listed and referenced in this summary are selection of what has made it into my paper.
• Most of the sources are article from peer-reviewed journals. I believe that these articles are the most credible because professionals other than their authors have vetted them. Although some of them come from journals which do not relate to technology (Critical Criminology) the majority of them do.
• The source which provides the bulk of the economic information in my essay/summary is the Economic Impact of UAS Integration in the United States. While the information in this article seems to be consistent with my other sources of information, it is published by the Association for Unmanned Vehicles International. This is presents a clear bias. One reason why no negative information is present in this document is because the publisher stands to benefits from only presenting the ‘good side’ of drone technology. I tried to use information from less biased sources to balance out the economic information I present.
• I have also referenced websites and news sources in some situations. Typically I do not trust these sources because there is little digital infrastructure in place to guarantee their accuracy. However in these cases I was able to track their sources to other articles and ultimately to press releases or technology convention announcements to verify what the articles had said. One example of this is the Popularmechanics.com article which discussed FAA loosening drone line of sight laws.
• I believe that most of the information in each source is reasonably accurate. With this said each source does have their own biases based on how they perceive the ‘valence’ of drone technology.

Borenstein, Jason. “Robots and the Changing Workforce.” AI & Society 26 (2011): 87-93

Dunn, David H. “Drones: Disembodied Aerial Warfare and the Unarticulated Threat”, International Affairs, 89 (2013): 1237-1246

Jenkins, Darryl & Vasigh, Bijan. “The Economic Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the United States.” Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International. 2013.

Moseman, Andrew. “FAA Allows Some Drones to Roam Beyond the Pilot’s Line of Sight.” Popular Mechanics May 7th 2015, accessed November 10th, 2015 at http://www.popularmechanics.com/flight/drones/a15382/faa-drones-line-of-sight/

Salter, Michael. “Toys for the Boys? Drones, Pleasure and Popular Culture in the Militarization of Policing” Critical Criminology, 22 (2015): 163-177
McLean, W. (2014). Drones are cheap, soldiers are not: a cost-benefit analysis of war. The Conversation. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/drones-are-cheap-soldiers-are-not-a-cost-benefit-analysis-of-war-27924.
-Very accurate information
-Information was supported with links to empirical evidence

(2014). Army prepares to replace thousands of troops with military robots. RT: Question more. Retrieved from https://www.rt.com/usa/gen-cone-drone-army-050/.
-Moderately accurate information
-Some information was supported with links to evidence but much evidence about claims is missing

Antherton, K. (2014). Robots may replace one-fourth of the U.S. combat soldiers by 2030, says general. Popular science. Retrieved from http://www.popsci.com/article/technology/robots-may-replace-one-fourth-us-combat-soldiers-2030-says-general.
-Very accurate information
-Most claims were supported with empirical evidence.

McLeary, P. (2014). Army studying replacing thousands of grunts with robots. MilitaryTimes. Retrieved from http://www.militarytimes.com/article/20140120/NEWS04/301200034/Army-studying-replacing-thousands-grunts-robots.
-Low accuracy information
-Information was not supported with references to empirical evidence.

Cole, A. (2009) Makers of military drones take off. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB125107420171052683.
-Low accuracy information
-Information was not supported with references to empirical evidence.

The sources I have used for this essay are youtube videos, TedTalks, secondary academic articles, books and newspaper articles. The youtube videos and TedTalk videos are for the most part reliable sources but at the same time they are the opinion of one person who could give a skewed perception of the robotic industry. The secondary academic sources I have included in this research provide a diligent and thorough overview of the impact of automation in the food industry. Although they are focused on other sectors of the work-force, the food industry is quite dominant. The newspaper articles sometimes speculate and assume predictions. However, the material found in them are based on what is occurring in the current world of technology.

Autor, David. “Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of Workplace Automation.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 29:3 (2015) 3-30.
Elliot, Larry. “Robots Threaten 15m UK jobs, says Bank of England’s chief economist.” The Guardian. November 12, 2015. Accessed November 13, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/nov/12/robots-threaten-low-paid-jobs-says-bank-of-england-chief-economist
Ford, Martin. Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. New York, New York: Basic Books, 2015.
Frey, Carl Benedict and Osborne, Michael. “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation?” (2013): 1-72.
Henderson, Peter. “McDonald’s Canada Introducing New Self-Serve Options.” CTV News. September 30, 2015. Accessed November 10, 2015.
Roush, Wade. “Hamburgers, Coffee, Guitars, and Cars: A Report from Lemnos Labs.” Xconomy. June 12, 2012. Accessed November 10, 2015.
Tedx Talks. “Race Against the Machine: Andrew McAfee at TedxBoston.” Youtube Video. Uploaded on July 17, 2012.
Stewart, Heather. "Robot Revolution: Rise of 'thinking' Machines Could Exacerbate Inequality." The Guardian. November 5, 2015. Accessed November 10, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/nov/05/robot-revolution-rise-machines-could-displace-third-of-uk-jobs.
Strauss, Marina. “McDonald’s rolls out upscale options.” The Global and Mail. September 30, 2015. Accessed November 10, 2015. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/mcdonalds-rolls-out-table-service-customized-burgers-in-upscale-shift/article26601464/
The sources I used were mainly Ted Talks, CNN, Bloomberg, Huffington Post, Economic Times, Business Insider. The sources used within my essay were in my opinion very accurate since they are believed to be from an accurate source. This is due to the fact that these links are widely acknowledged and have a direct source of information. The accuracy was assessed by checking different websites to see if they are in line with the facts presented on other articles. My main sources included direct link from legitimate websites

William Kremer, and Claudia Hammond. "Abraham Maslow and the Pyramid That Beguiled Business - BBC News." BBC News. N.p., 1 Sept. 2013. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

Print Edition. "Coming to an Office near You." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 18 Jan. 2014. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

Derek Thompson. "What Jobs Will the Robots Take?" The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 23 Jan. 2014. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

Ford, William Clay. "Bill Ford's Vision of the Car 25 Years from Now." CNBC. CNBC, 18 Aug. 2014. Web. 01 Nov. 2015.

The Huffington Post,. 'Autonomous Vehicles Will Replace Taxi Drivers, But That's Just The Beginning'. Web. 1 Nov. 2015.


Despite the fact that all the resources were found on the Internet, the materials are considered to be accurate due to several reasons. First of all, the dates of the sources are no older than five years, meaning that the information obtained during the research is applicable and valid.
In order to conduct an accurate and valid research, the information used to it should be tested and checked every time and I set up Google alert with keywords to keep me updated daily. Google search engine update time does not determine and updated time is decided by the frequency of updates of the website. If any networking has a new content every day that means the updates on this site in the major search engines will speed up the pace.

Fisher, A. (September 18, 2013). Inside Google’s Quest To Popularize Self-Driving Cars. Popular Science. Retrieved, November 14, 2015, from

Markoff, J. (October 9, 2010). Google CarsDrive Themselves, in traffic. The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html

Silberg, G. (2012). Self-driving cars: The Next Revolution.Center of Automotive. Retrieved November 14, 2015, from

Frey, T. (February 3, 2012). 2 Billion Jobs to Disappear. Futurist Speaker. Retrieved November 14, 2015, from http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2012/02/2-billion-jobs-to-disappear-by-2030/

Frey,C & Osborne, M. (2013). The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerization? Oxford, United Kingdom: University of Oxford. Retrieved November 14, 2015, from

Kanter, Z. (2015). How Uber's Autonomous Cars Will Destroy 10 Million Jobs And Reshape The Economy by 2025. CBS SF Bay Area. Retrieved November 15, 2015, from http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2015/01/27/how-ubers-autonomous-cars-will-destroy-10-million-jobs-and-reshape-the-economy-by-2025-lyft-google-zack-kanter/
-Honda, and Boston Dynamics are defined by reliable source that has competence in the field of interest, without any biases or conflicts of interest related to the topic. They provide primary sources for the robots they created along with the dynamics and stats of each individual robot.
-Credibility Depends on: Author, Date, Domain, Site Design, and Writing style

ASIMO (Owned by Honda with creditable authors, dates, domain, and site design)
Asimo.honda.com,. (2015). ASIMO by Honda | The World's Most Advanced Humanoid Robot. Retrieved 3 November 2015, from http://asimo.honda.com/default.aspx

Boston Dynamics (owned by Google prides itself as a search engine)
Bostondynamics.com,. (2015). Boston Dynamics: Dedicated to the Science and Art of How Things Move.. Retrieved 3 November 2015, from http://www.bostondynamics.com/robot_Atlas.html

Static Business Insider (for Stats photo)
Static6.businessinsider.com,. (2015). Retrieved 3 November 2015, from http://static6.businessinsider.com/image/52e196c569bedde8131b31ef/these-are-the-jobs-that-will-be-safe-from-the-imminent-invasion-of-robots.jpg’
Reliablity & Accuracy
Casual stretching of the truth. On one side, the information from researchers was vague and inspiring but had a "donate" request on the same page. Conversely, information that I got on Canadian Beef indicated that almost half a million people owed their jobs to the industry which was only half true: The figure included the supporting retail that existed in those towns which would need to exist regardless of what specific jobs the people living there had. Also, there were lots of claims that "in 20 years it will cost less than normal meat!" with disclaimers further down "only IF we develop a new technology" which is saying something with certainty given an uncertain condition. Overall, the information never approached lying, but was certainly polishing the truth.
Using information from government and UN sources on employment in agriculture, and published scholarly articles that were peer-reviewed and included testimony from many experts who, in some cases, openly voiced concerns about the plausibility of the technology's success as claimed by groups looking for funding.

(1)New Harvest. “New Harvest in 2015,” accessed 13th November 2015. Infographic. http://www.new-harvest.org/new-harvest-2014/
(2) Daily Mail. “Would you eat LAB chops? Expert says cultured meat created by scientists will replace farm-grown meat within decade,”Australian Associated Press. Accessed 13th November 2015.
(3) H.P. Haagsman, K.J. Hellingwerf, B.A.J. Roelen. “Production of Animal Proteins By Cell Ststems. Dest Study on Cultured Meat,” Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht. Page 45.
(4) Ibid, page 46.
(5) Futurefood. “CULTURED MEAT; MANUFACTURING OF MEAT PRODUCTS THROUGH "TISSUE-ENGINEERING" TECHNOLOGY,” accessed 13thNovember 2015. http://www.futurefood.org/in-vitro-meat/index_en.php
(6)H.P. Haagsman, K.J. Hellingwerf, B.A.J. Roelen. “Production of Animal Proteins By Cell Ststems. Dest Study on Cultured Meat,” Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht. Page 46.

I extracted the majority of the information in this report from respected newspapers such as LA Times and New York Times, as well as from government based websites. I also researched the robot from technology websites: gizmag.com and zerohedge.com. To ensure internet information is accurate, it must be extracted from reliable and respected sources.

Durden, Tyler. Meet "Smart Restaurant": The Minimum-Wage-Crushing, Burger-Flipping Robot. 1 December 2014. 11 November 2015. <http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2014-01-12/meet-smart-restaurant-minimum-wage-crushing-burger-flipping-robot>.
Love, Dylan. Here's The Burger-Flipping Robot That Could Put Fast-Food Workers Out Of a Job. 11 August 2011. 11 November 2015. <http://www.businessinsider.com/momentum-machines-burger-robot-2014-8>.
McDonalds. About Us. n.d. 11 November 2015. <http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd.html>.
Roush, Wade. Hamburgers, Coffee, Guitars, and Cars: A Report from Lemnos Lab. 6 December 2012. 11 November 2015. <http://www.gizmag.com/hamburger-machine/25159/>.
Semuels, Alana. National fast-food wage protests kick off in New York. 29 August 2013. 11 November 2015. <http://articles.latimes.com/2013/aug/29/business/la-fi-mo-fast-food-protests-20130829>.
Statista. Number of employees in the United States fast food restaurant industry from 2004 to 2018*. n.d. 11 November 2015. <http://www.statista.com/statistics/196630/number-of-employees-in-us-fast-food-restaurants-since-2002/)>.
Szondy, David. Hamburger-making machine churns out custom burgers at industrial speeds. 25 November 2012. 11 November 2015. <http://www.gizmag.com/hamburger-machine/25159/>.
Tabuchi, Hiroko. For Sushi Chain, Conveyor Belts Carry Profits. 30 December 2010. 11 November 2015. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/31/business/global/31sushi.html?_r=0>.
The Next News Network. Fast Food Company Develops Robots. 7 September 2014. 11 November 2015. <
US Department of Labor. Employment Projections - 2012-2022. 19 December 2013. 11 November 2015. <http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/ecopro.pdf>.
The sources that I mostly used for my essay are news articles online. I would say the reliability of them is questionable as they are not scholarly published works and are published by news reporters whose sources may not be the best.

CNN. (2014, September 04). Robots will replace fast-food workers. Retrieved from CNN Money:http://money.cnn.com/2014/05/22/technology/innovation/fast-food-robot/

Colt, S. (2014, June 24). Tablets Are Making Waiters Obsolete — And Chili's Is Leading The Way. Retrieved from Business Insider :http://www.businessinsider.com/tablets-are-making-waiters-obsolete-2014-6

De Groote, M. (2014, March 12). Why the rise of smart machines could terminate jobs . Retrieved from Deseret News International:http://national.deseretnews.com/article/1126/why-the-rise-of-smart-machines-could-terminate-jobs.html

McLellan, C. (2014). The History of Tablet Computers: A timeline.

PCmagazine. (2015). PCmagazine. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from PCmag Encyclopedia :http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/52520/tablet-computer

PewResearchCenter. (2014, October ). Mobile Technology Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from PewResearchCenter: http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheets/mobile-technology-fact-sheet/
Gold Collar
Reliablity &

The accuracy of this information matters tremendously. As technology based information is largely fact based, it is important to ensure that these facts are true. Checking the sources of which the information comes from is crucial to determining its accuracy. Reliable news sources are those that are reputable and have a history of publishing accurate, unbiased information. Since not many journal articles have been published on this technology, relying on media sources was difficult to avoid. As such, facts were cross-referenced between different reliable sources of information to ensure that none were being too modest or exaggeratory in their claims. This was done by searching the Internet for the facts in question, and checking a minimum of 2 other sources that had information on the same topic. In doing so, the facts in question were reassured and were thus given a place in the paper. Basic knowledge claims were, as per all claims made in this paper and others, tested under my previous knowledge of academic subjects and issues. Afterwards, they too were cross-referenced with sources speaking on similar topics, mainly relating to operations on the ISS to test the risks of life in space and how robotic substitutes can eliminate this.
In a paper based in technological facts, the validity of them is crucial for the paper to hold any logical grounds and be considered an accurate source of information for the reader. With that in mind, any hard facts and information in this paper is extracted carefully from several reliable sources, including news papers, magazines, journal articles, and space agency websites themselves.

Anthony, Sebastian. "NASA’s new astronaut-replacing robots, powered by Google Tango
smartphones, launch into space this week." Extreme Tech.July 9, 2014. http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/185991-nasas-new-astronaut-replacing-robots-powered-by-google-tango-smartphones-launch-into-space-this-week (accessed Nov 6, 2015).

Chung, Emily. Space robot's 'self-repair' means fewer spacewalks . May 26, 2014.
http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/space-robot-s-self-repair-means-fewer-spacewalks-1.2654405 (accessed Nov 6, 2015).

Colwell, Joshua, and Daniel Britt. "The Future of Space Exploration: Robots or Astronauts?"
Pegasus - The Magazine of the University of Central Florida. https://www.ucf.edu/pegasus/opinion/ (accessed Nov 6, 2015).

Diftler, M.A et al. "Robonaut 2 - The first humanoid robot in space." IEEE Internatioanl
Conference on Robotics and Automation. Shanghai: IEEE, 2011.

Fichter, Mary. "Google and NASA: Will Robots Replace Astronauts in Space?" 2 Paragraphs .
April 23, 2014. http://2paragraphs.com/2014/04/google-and-nasa-will-robots-
replace-astronauts-in-space/ (accessed Nov 6, 2015).

Kuznetsova, Elizaveta. "Revolutionary space technologies may ease the life of astronauts ."
The Positive. 2012. http://thepositive.com/revolutionary-space-technologies-might-ease-the-life-of-astronauts/ (accessed Nov 6, 2015 ).

Miller, Claire Cain. As Robots Grow Smarter, American Workers Struggle to Keep Up . Dec 15,
2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/16/upshot/as-robots-grow-smarter-american-workers-struggle-to-keep-up.html (accessed Nov 6, 2015).

Turnbull, Doug. "Why Robots May Be the Future of Interplanetary Research (Op-Ed) ."
Space. Jan 3, 2014. http://www.space.com/24150-robots-future-of-interplanetary-research.html (accessed Nov 6, 2015).
Since the beginning of the term I have been researching Industrial robots. Articles found were somewhat similar and interrelated. Most of the studies or researches were based on similar conditions and analyzed under the same principles. Resources creditability must be checked through reviews and thorough background check on the company, the newspaper or the organization at hand.
The accuracy, the consistency in the procedures and results are essential foundatio for precise analysis, and reasonable interpretation.

CBC news
OECD Statistics
Toronto star
Jamaica Observer
Sputnik International
Victoria news
Canadian Manufacturing
The New Hire: How a new generation of robots is transforming manufacturing?



Hunt, D.V. (1983). Industrial robotics handbook. Technology & Engineering. Industrial Press Inc., pg 329

International Federation of Robotics and United Nations: Economic Commission for Europe. World Robotics: Statistics, Market Analysis, Case Studies and Profitability. New York: United Nations: International Federation of Robotics; 2005.
I searched for peer-reviewed data in an academic journal database, which provided a scientifically objective perspective on the objective reality of unemployment due to automated technology in the retail sector, I also tried doing searches for relevant articles by job market specialists writing for major magazines and newspaper.
I check sources through a variety of different methods. One of them is a peer-reviewed method of evaluating the impact on unemployment in the labor markets.

Brand, H. (2009). U.S. Workers Confront Growing Insecurity. Dissent, 56(4), 48-53.

Myers, M. (2015). The Touch Kiosk from Four Winds Interactive. Four Winds Interactive. Retrieved 11 November 2015, from http://www.fourwindsinteractive.com/library/touchscreens/touch-kiosk/

Information on the robot burger maker has been extracted from several tech websites such as Gizmag and Gizmodo. I questioned the reliability and accuracy of these sources and found further more reliable sources such as CNN and Business Insider which also has issued articles about the burger making machine. I considered these resources to be more credible and accurate than the tech websites I initially found. For each original source and information, I tried to crosscheck with at least one other credible source to determine its accuracy.

Depillis, Lydia. “Minimum-wage Offensive Could Speed Arrival of Robot-Powered Restaurants, The Washington Post, August 16, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/capitalbusiness/minimum-wage-offensive-could-speed-arrival-of-robot-powered-restaurants/2015/08/16/35f284ea-3f6f-11e5-8d45-d815146f81fa_story.html (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
Frank, Aaron. “Could Automation Lead to Chronic Unemployment? Andrew Mcafee Sounds the Alarm,” Forbes, July 19, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/singularity/2012/07/19/could-automation-lead-to-chronic-unemployment-andrew-mcafee-sounds-the-alarm/ (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
Frey, Carl B. and Michael A. Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation?,” University of Oxford, (2013):1-72. Available at: http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf (accessed Nov. 15, 2015)
Hiebert, Paul. “More than Teenagers Toasting Buns: The Change in Demographics of Fast Food Workers,” Psmag, http://www.psmag.com/business-economics/teenagers-toasting-buns-changing-demographics-fast-food-workers-71496 (accessed Nov. 15, 2015)
Love, Dylan. “Here’s the Burger Flipping Robot That Could Put Fast Food Workers Out of a Job,” Business Insider, August 11, 2014, http://www.businessinsider.com/momentum-machines-burger-robot-2014-8 (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
Martin Ford, “Robots are Coming for Your Job,” Salon, May 10, 2015, http://www.salon.com/2015/05/10/robots_are_coming_for_your_job_amazon_mcdonalds_and_the_next_wave_of_dangerous_capitalist_disruption/ (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
McDonalds, http://www.mcdonalds.ca/ca/en/our_story/our_history.html (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
“Minimum Wage Backfire,” The Wall Street Journal, October 22, 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/minimum-wage-backfire-1413934569 (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
O’Toole, James. “Robots will Replace Fast Food Workers,” CNN Money, September 4, 2013, http://money.cnn.com/2014/05/22/technology/innovation/fast-food-robot/ (accessed Nov. 13, 2015)
Omega, Jan. “Mcdonald’s Counters the Minimum Wage Hike to $15 by Flirting with Automation, Inquisitr, November 8, 2014, http://www.inquisitr.com/1594675/mcdonalds-counters-minimum-wage-hike-15-automation (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
Ray, Linda. “Employee Turnover Statistics in Restaurants,” Chron. Hearst Newspapers, http://smallbusiness.chron.com/employee-turnover-statistics-restaurants-16744.html (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
Tarantola, Andrew.“This Robo-Griller Can Flip 360 Burgers an Hour,” Gizmodo, November 26, 2012, http://gizmodo.com/5962656/this-robo-griller-can-flip-360-burgers-an-hour (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
White, Martha C. “Fast Food Workers are Costing the U.S. $7 Billion a Year in Public Aid,” Time, October 15, 2013, http://business.time.com/2013/10/15/fast-food-workers-are-costing-the-u-s-7-billion-a-year-in-public-aid/ (accessed Nov. 15, 2015)
Wong, Venessa and Cora Lewis, “What Fast Food’s Tech Experiment Means for Restaurant Workers, Buzzfeed, July 22, 2015, http://www.buzzfeed.com/venessawong/robots-are-coming-for-some-fast-food-worker-jobs#.utJ9R690Yd (accessed Nov. 14, 2015)
Worrall, Simon. “Will the Rise of the Robots Implode the World Economy,” National Geographic, June 3, 2015, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/06/150603-science-technology-robots-economics-unemployment-automation-ngbooktalk/ (accessed Nov. 16, 2015)
- The accuracy of the sources and research provided are highly accurate. For one, the articles retrieved are published in well known global media companies like MIT Technology, The Wall Street Journal, CBS Interactive.

Hughes, M. (2014, August). How Technology May Be Influencing Human Evolution. In Make Use Of. Retrieved from http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/technology-may-influencing-human- evolution/

Forrest, C. (2015, July 30). Chinese factory replaces 90% of humans with robots, production soars. In Tech Republic. Retrieved from http://www.techrepublic.com/article/chinese-factory- replaces-90-of-humans-with-robots-production-soars/

Wiseman, P. (2015, February 10). Robots Replacing Human Factory Workers At Faster Pace. In Phys Org. Retrieved from http://phys.org/news/2015-02-robots-human-factory- workers-faster.html

Knight, W. (2014, September 16). Human-Robot Collaboration Will Alter Manufacturing. In MIT Technology Review. Retrieved from http://www.technologyreview.com/news/530696/how-human-robot-teamwork-will- upend-manufacturing/

-All resources in the reference list were dated back to the original source

Apple, Michael W. "The New Technology." Computers in the Schools 8.1-3 (1991): 59-82.

Bresnahan, Timothy F., Erik Brynjolfsson, and Lorin M. Hitt. Information technology, workplace organization and the demand for skilled labor: Firm-level evidence. No. w7136. National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999.

Cetron, Marvin J., and Owen Davies. "Trends Now Shaping the Future." The Futurist 39.3 (2005): 37.


Gross, Norma. "McDonald's Hires Robot Cashiers in Europe--Because of High Minimum Wage?"Citizen Action. 22 Apr. 2015. Web. 9 Nov. 2015.

Harmon, Amy. "More consumers reach out to touch the screen." The New York Times, Nov 17 (2003).

Hershbein, Brad. "Self-checkout checking in?." Regional Review 4.Q1 (2003): 4.

Jefferson, Jon. "Dying for work." ABAJ 79 (1993): 46.

Jokisuu, Elina, et al. "Improving Touchscreen Accessibility in Self-Service Technology." Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Access to Interaction. Springer International Publishing, 2015. 103-113.

Nangalama, Martha L., and Andrew Clement. "Introducing Point of Sale Technology in a Retail Chain
Store: Voices from the Checkout Counter."Grundy et al.(eds.) Women, Work and Computerisation: Spinning a Web from Past To Future, Proceedings of the 6th International IFIP Conference, Springer-Verlag. 1997.

Pfeffer, Jeffrey. "Producing sustainable competitive advantage through the effective management of people." The Academy of Management Executive 9.1 (1995): 55-69.

Phuong, Amanda. "McDonalds Is Testing Self-Order Stations in Canada." StyleDemocracy. 29 Apr. 2015. Web. 9 Nov. 2015.

Rifkin, Jeremy. "New technology and the end of jobs." The case against the global economy (1996): 108-121.

Rifkin, Jeremy. The end of work. Social Planning Council of Winnipeg, 1996.

Thompson, Derek. "What Jobs Will the Robots Take?" The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 23 Jan. 2014. Web. 9 Nov. 2015.

Wallace, Michael. "Brave New Workplace Technology and Work in the New Economy." Work and Occupations 16.4 (1989): 363-392.

Warren, Elizabeth. "The growing threat to middle class families." Brooklyn Law Review, April (2003).
• The sources are online sources and this technology was found on the YouTube. It is not official video but it is descriptive. Lots of people watching it. It is accurate I think. The second source is also an online source. Although it is not a popular website but the figure of the percentage of the people will lose jobs are from BBC, which is accurate. The accuracy was assessed depends on the correct description and the specific numbers.

YouTube link: "MUST SEE - Amazon.com's Flying Robots Deliver Packages Straight to Your Doorstep! REALLY". 10 Reasons Why Show


To go about finding out if these information sources are accurate, you would need to look further into the references used by each of the sources to check their validity, further analyze their findings and better understand the implications for the promotion of drone usage. Whether this information is accurate does matter because the integration of drones could have far reaching implications and economic impacts. Further, it could impact employment over the next two decades which would be affected by inaccurate information and recommendations for integration by the AUVSI. Often, I check to see if the information I use if accurate however in writing this brief paper, I found it difficult to find any sources that speak directly to the job losses as a result of UAV technology. Most of the information found related to the advantages of drone usage in terms of economic benefits, information on privacy concerns and issues but little related to what impacts the technology would have on employment even though it is widely understood UAV technology will undoubtedly change the types of jobs and role of workers in the future. Focus is placed on the emergent advantages of UAV technology but no emphasis is put on the resulting job loss from the replacement of workers by unmanned aerial vehicles.

Drugan, J. (2015). Drones a Source of Debate—and Economic Impact. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. Retrieved November 7, 2015, from http://www.uschamberfoundation.org/blog/post/drones-source-debate-and-economic-impact/42600
Federal Aviation Administration (2012). FAA Makes Progress with UAS Integration. Retrieved November 15, 2015, fromhttp://www.faa.gov/news/updates/?newsId=68004
Floreano, D., & Wood, R. J. (2015). Science, technology and the future of small autonomous drones. Nature, 521(7553), 460-466. doi:10.1038/nature14542
Henriques, J. (2014). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV): Drones for Military and Civilian Use. Retrieved November 15, 2015, fromhttp://www.globalresearch.ca/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-uav-drones-for-military-and-civilian-use/5374666
Howell, E. (2015). What Is A Drone? Retrieved November 3, 2015, from http://www.space.com/29544-what-is-a-drone.html
Jenkins, D. & Vasigh, B. (2013). The Economic Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in The United States. Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International. Retrieved November 5, 2015, from http://www.auvsi.org/auvsiresources/economicreport
Joel, M. (2013) The Booming Business of Drones. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from https://hbr.org/2013/01/the-booming-business-of-drones
Panos, R. (2010). Employment Impact Study Supports Unmanned Aircraft Integration. Retrieved November 13, 2015, fromhttp://lexingtoninstitute.org/employment-impact-study-supports-unmanned-aircraft-integration/
Pravas, V. (n.d.). Aerial Assassins: Drones. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from http://readanddigest.com/what-is-a-drone/
Privacy Commissioner of Canada. (2013) Drones in Canada. Retrieved November 15, 2015, from https://www.priv.gc.ca/information/research-recherche/2013/drones_201303_e.asp
Samad, T., & Balas, G. (2005). Trends and technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles. (pp. 9-26). Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/047172288X.ch2
Toro, R. (Infographics Artist). (n.d.). A Short History of Drones [digital image]. Retrieved November 13, 2015, from http://www.livescience.com/52701-future-of-drones-uncertain-but-promising.html
Unmanned aerial vehicle. (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2015, from the Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_combat_aerial_vehicle
Reliability of sources: The vast majority of my resources were found through Carleton University's library and the databases they offer to students. These would be the most accurate and reliably of all my sources as they are from academic institutions and in most cases Carleton would only support accurate work. As far as my sources that were found off websites and were articles they can be less accurate as they do not have any institutions behind them supporting the work. It's also important when looking on websites to make sure the information is not biased. With highly biased sources they can tend to be inaccurate as they only want to present one side to the readers.

Crain, Keith. "What comes after driverless cars?" Automotive News 18 June 2012: 0012. Academic OneFile. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Davie, Alex. "Self-Driving Cars Will Make Us Want Fewer Cars." Wired. Conde Nast Digital, 9 Mar. 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <http://www.wired.com/2015/03/the-economic-impact-of-autonomous-vehicles/>.
"Driverless cars coming." Pakistan Engineering Review 31 Jan. 2014. Academic OneFile. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Ferenstein, Gregory. "The Many Impacts of Autonomous Vehicles." Pacific Standard. 27 Apr. 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <http://www.psmag.com/business-economics/rise-of-the-taxibot>.
Frey, Thomas. "Hi, I'm a robot and I'm here to take your job." Journal of Environmental Health 76.2 (2013): 46+. Academic OneFile. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Gattis, Tory. "Preparing for the Impact of Driverless Cars." Preparing for the Impact of Driverless Cars. 19 Aug. 2015. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. <http://www.newgeography.com/content/005024-preparing-impact-driverless-cars>.
Knight, Will. (11/01/2013). Driverless Cars. Technology review (1998). (116)6. p.44. ** FIX THIS ONE
McLaughlin, Dan. "17 Ways Driverless Cars Could Change America." The Federalist. 16 July 2014. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <http://thefederalist.com/2014/07/16/17-ways-driverless-cars-could-change-america/>.
Murray, Richard. "Driverless Cars." Control&Automation 18.3 (2007): 14-7. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.

The majority of my resources were taken from google scholar and no bias journal articles. The articles are based on scientific research towards the topic and have been peer reviewed. Based on where the information was gathered the content of each article is very accurate. I deemed these articles accurate due to the number of times they have been cited in other papers as well I looked at the author to determine if they have background knowledge in this field.

Narla s (2013) The Evolution of Connected Vehicle Technology: From Smart Drivers to Smart Cars to Self-Driving Cars. ITE Journal 22-26.

Thierer, A and Hagemann, R (2015) Removing Roadblocks to Intelligent Vehicles and Driverless Cars Wake Forest Journal of Law & Policy.

Newcomb D (2012) You won`t need a driver`s license by 2040. CNN Tech.

Deaton, Jamie Page, and Kristen Hall-Geisler. "How Driverless Cars Will Work" 01 July 2008. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://auto.howstuffworks.com/under-the-hood/trends-innovations/driverless-car.htm> 17 November 2015.

Lee J (2015) Self Driving Cars Endanger Millions of American Jobs. Makuseof. June 19, 2015.

I would like to think that the resources were fairly reliable as they all seem to come from strong sources affiliated to the manufacturer or insights from a professional in a relevant field. There were also instances were I would be researching things like 'how many jobs will be lost due to 3d printers' and it would refer to a article I just finished reading. I think it's because it's a growing force within the economy and relatively new so there does not seem to many sources offering clear and concise information, but the ones that do seem to be on the same page. It was assessed similarly by taking notice of the dates the pieces of information were published, which I think correlates to the relevancy and preciseness of the information considering how new this advancement is in terms of impact to varying markets. I also took the time to see who the people were who were writing these pieces as well as checking what their academic backgrounds were for assurance ( in terms of the academic significance it carried)

1. 3Dprint. "N/A." Photograph. 3Dprint, 18 May 2014. Web. 5 Nov. 2015.
2. Gayomali, Chris. THE WEEK. The week publications, 26 June. 2013. Web. 4 Nov. 2015.
3. Krassenstein, Brian. 3DPrint.com. n.p., 2014. Web. 5 Nov. 2015.

The resources that support my opinions are all academic, they are all relatively new resources.

Santoso, S.M., Horne, B.D., & Wicker, S.B. (2014). Destroying by Creating: Exploring the Creative Destruction of 3D Printing Through Intellectual Property. Team for Research in Ubiquitous Secure Technology, Retrieved from www.truststc.org/education/reu/13/Papers/HorneB_Paper.pdf

Birtchnell, T., & Hoyle, W. (2014). 3D Printing for Development in the Global South: The 3D4D Challenge. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com.proxy.library.carleton.ca/lib/oculcarleton/reader.action?docID=10959167

Siu, H., & Jaimovich, N. (2015). Will Advances in Technology Create a Jobless Future? MIT Technology Review. Retrieved from http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/538401/who-will-own-the-robots/

Ishengoma, Fredrick R., & Mtaho, Adam B. (2014). “3D Printing: Developing Countries Perspectives”. International Journal of Computer Applications. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.5349

Automated urinalysis anlayzer

Technology # of times Jobs effected
Medical laborator
Technology # of times Jobs effected
3D Printer
Manufactures, Construction/architecture, auto industry, food, armament, aerospace, medical, Sculptors/theatrical set creators, Retail
Self-Driving cars
Taxi services, Bus drives, Truck driver, Delivery drivers, Street Meter Maids, Parking Lot Attendants, Rental Car Attendants, Insurance companies, Limo drivers, Car manufacturers, Auto-repair attendants, tow truck drivers, medical staff in ER’s, hospitals and physical rehabilitation centres.
Military, delivery services
Assembly line Robots
Factory workers
Food waiters
Food Machine Makers
Fast food workers
Technology # of times Jobs effected
Humanoid Robot
Artifical Intelligence
Military jobs, Administrative positions, Bank Tellers, Accountant and auditors, Telemarketers, Retail salespersons, Astronauts
All jobs
Technology # of times Jobs effected
In-Vitro Meat
industries where animals are grown (farming)
Technology # of times Jobs effected
Reliability &
Technology # of times Jobs effected
Open education
Technology # of times Jobs effected
Astronaut Robot
I believe the resources I have relied on thus far to be quite accurate. The paper that initially piqued my interest may be the least accurate (http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2012/02/2-billion-jobs-to-disappear-by-2030/) My suspicion of the inaccuracy of this article rises out of the fact that this is largely speculative and holds little consequence if false. The rest of my resources are largely academic institutions and government institutions.

I strongly believe in the articles put forth by academic institutions and government websites, and this is the basis of my calculation of accuracy. I have particularly high faith in the figures from StatsCan. At the same time, I like to keep a healthy skepticism of all information I digest, including that published in the world of academia and government.

http://freeclassdirectory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Home-Page-2.png (lebron throwing image)
https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/lWgdcnKVTsVe-UriSbOb01ZhKwpz0q09FhJyyEa3dUG2zGa1IeTUKZM1_PJmjOC5Wy_aGKcOdKhu7CZVLjt3Aeevx26o1nq7NfzPRBT8a7eAAOh-sxNIo-Iiw8yI11kYhg (Khan academy page image)
http://www.american.edu/uploads/hero/jumbo/lynda1.jpg (lynda.com image)
All resources are reputable news agencies, all quoted individuals in articles were background checked using google for academic qualifications as well as preceding and future work

Russon, M. (2014, July 17). Child Sex Robots Could Be Used to Treat Paedophiles. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/child-sex-robots-could-be-used-treat-paedophiles-1457087

Lubin, G. (2012, January 17). There Are 42 Million Prostitutes In The World, And Here's Where They Live. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.businessinsider.com/there-are-42-million-prostitutes-in-the-world-and-heres-where-they-live-2012-1

Anthony, S. (2012, May 11). Do humans dream of android prostitutes? | ExtremeTech. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/129226-do-humans-dream-of-android-prostitutes

Smith, A. (2014, August 6). Digital Life in 2025. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.pewinternet.org/files/2014/08/Future-of-AI-Robotics-and-Jobs.pdf

Anthony, S. (2014, August 14). By 2025, ‘sexbots will be commonplace’ – which is just fine, as we’ll all be unemployed and bored thanks to robots stealing our jobs | ExtremeTech. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/188047-by-2025-sexbots-will-be-commonplace-which-is-just-fine-as-well-all-be-unemployed-and-bored-thanks-to-robots-stealing-our-jobs

Salton, J. (2010, February 3). Roxxxy the US$7,000 companion/sex robot (NSFW). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.gizmag.com/roxxxy-us7000-sex-robot/14063/

Gurley, G. (2015, April 30). Is This the Dawn of the Sexbots? (NSFW). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2015/04/sexbots-realdoll-sex-toys

Halverson, N. (2012, April 23). Robot Prostitutes, the Future of Sex Tourism : DNews. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://news.discovery.com/tech/robotics/robot-prostitutes-120423.htm

Ellyatt, H. (2015, September 15). Campaign launched against 'harmful' sex robots. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.cnbc.com/2015/09/15/sex-robots-campaign.html

Danaher, J. (2014, April 18). Will sex workers be replaced by robots? (A Precis). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/danaher20140418

Johnston, L. (2014, May 7). Would you have sex with a robot? Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/would-you-have-sex-with-a-robot-9327888.html

Greggory, M. (2015, September 15). Intelligent machines: Call for a ban on robots designed as sex toys - BBC News. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-34118482

Price, L. (2015, September 18). We’ll be having sex with robots in next 10 years. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/features/6668924/Well-be-having-sex-with-robots-in-next-10-years.html

Moosa, T. (2014, April 7). Robots and sex: Creepy or cool? Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com/science/brain-flapping/2014/apr/07/robots-and-sex-creepy-or-cool

O'Neil, L. (2015, September 17). Sex robots will be 'detrimental' to society, ethicists say. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.cbc.ca/news/trending/sex-robots-ethicists-debate-1.3231089

Bates, D. (2012, April 17). Sex machines: How robotic prostitutes could turn a crime-ridden industry into a respectable 'guilt free' business. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2131041/Sex-machines-How-robotic-prostitutes-turn-crime-ridden-industry-respectable-business.html

Fitzpatrick, M. (2014, November 20). The hyper-real robots that will replace receptionists, pop stars... and even sex dolls: Unnervingly human androids coming to a future very near you. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2841273/The-hyper-real-robots-replace-receptionists-pop-stars-sex-dolls-Unnervingly-human-androids-coming-future-near-you.html

Beck, J. (2015, September 30). Who's Sweating the Sexbots? Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/09/the-sex-robots-arent-coming-for-our-relationships/407509/
• I used MIT’s website and youtube channel
• A bunch of different scholarly articles
• TED talks
• I feel like these are all reliable sources.
• A few sources that aren’t scholarly, I used a few people’s blogs, vlogs about their experiences taking opencourseware, and some google websites.

Abelson, H. (2008). The Creation Of OpenCourseWare At MIT. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(2), 164-174.
Bird, T. (2011, October 31). Case Study of iTunes U Deployment: Open University. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/beyond-distance-research-alliance/projects/spider/media/Case Study of iTunes U Deploy-Open-final.pdf
Caudill, J. (2009, October 20). Open Courseware as Educational Aid: This Really Does Compute. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.library.carleton.ca/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=21d7191d-2469-4951-ba05-9b77ad89d9cd@sessionmgr111&vid=1&hid=107
Frey, T. (2012, February 2). 2 Billion Jobs To Disappear By 2030 | Future Jobs | Futurist Predictions - Futurist Speaker. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2012/02/2-billion-jobs-to-disappear-by-2030/
Markillie, P. (2014, June 28). The digital degree. Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21605899-staid-higher-education-business-about-experience-welcome-earthquake-digital
McCluskey, F., & Winter, M. (2012). The idea of the digital university: Ancient traditions, disruptive technologies and the battle for the soul of higher education. Washington, D.C.: Westphalia Press.
MIT. Get Started with OCW. (2015, November 10). Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://ocw.mit.edu/help/get-started-with-ocw/
Vladoiu, M. (2011). Open courseware initiatives - after 10 years. 2011 RoEduNet International Conference 10th Edition: Networking in Education and Research, 10(2), 271-294.
Wheeler, D. (2014, February 3). Opinion: Will online classes make professors extinct? - CNN.com. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/25/opinion/wheeler-tenured-professors/
Young, S. (2012, February 13). Can A Free Online Education Land You A Job? The Era Of Online Education Dawns - Singularity HUB. Retrieved November 19, 2015, from http://singularityhub.com/2012/02/13/can-a-free-online-education-land-you-a-job-the-era-of-online-education-dawns/
Borangiu, T. (2013). Service orientation in holonic and multi agent manufacturing and robotics. Berlin: Springer.

Crawford, A. (2011). Industrial Robots. New Delhi: World Technologies. o   Ford, M. (2015). Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. New York: The Perseus Books Group.

Merlet, J. (2006). Parallel Robots (2nd ed.). Dordrecht: Springer.

Tichkiewitch, S. (2007). Advances in integrated design and manufacturing in mechanical engineering II. Dordrecht: Springer.

Zhang, D. (2013). Recent developments in manufacturing robotic systems and automation. Sharjah: Bentham Science.
Machine translator
The academic sources generally go through a peer-review process and so are inherently more reliable. The translator sources must be used as anecdotal evidence, not as objective sources. The news articles come from The Economist which is a relatively well-regarded publication. The information from this last source should be trusted unless it represents a personal opinion of the author (which it does not).

The Economist. (2013). Conquering Babel. The Economist. Accessed
November 11, 2015. http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21569014-simultaneous-translation-computer-getting-closer-conquering-babel

The Economist. (2015). Say What? The Economist. Accessed November 11, 2015. http://www.economist.com/news/business/21642187-technology-may-not-replace-human-translators-it-will-help-them-work-better-say-what

Smart Pill
Medical Technologists
Information regarding smart pills approved by the Food and Drug Administration, a federal agency regulating drugs, was assessed as credible
Blogs, videos, and major news publications describing the technology were compared to peer– reviewed and scholarly articles to evaluate veracity and most were deemed reliable
In cases where research supporting information could not be located, reliability was accessed via the name of the publication, its history of reliability, and links to scientific evidence. Caution should be taken while interpreting market research and potential benefits for this reason.

Aslam, M. S. (2012). ingestible electronically controlled drug - capsule in the gut. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2(3)
Hostetter, M., Klein, S., McCarthy, D. (2014). Promoting technologies that empower consumers and drive health system transformation. Common Wealth Fund. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/fund-report/2014/oct/1777_hostetter_taking_digital_hlt_next_level_v2.pdf?la=en
Aspler, S. (2014). How ingestible sensors and smart pills will revolutionize healthcare. MaRS. Retrieved from https://www.marsdd.com/news-and-insights/ingestibles-smart-pills-revolutionize-healthcare
Basar, M. R., Malek, F., Juni, K. M., Idris, M. S., & M. Iskandar M. Saleh. (2012). Ingestible wireless capsule technology: A review of development and future indication. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, 2012 doi:10.1155/2012/807165
Belknap, R., Weis, S., Brookens, A., Au-Yeung, K. Y., Moon, G., DiCarlo, L., & Reves, R. (2013). Feasibility of an ingestible sensor-based system for monitoring adherence to tuberculosis therapy. PloS One, 8(1), e53373.
Corey, K., Kimball, A., Kvedar J. (2015). Engaging patients to decrease costs and improve outcomes. Medical Economics. Retrieved From http://medicaleconomics.modernmedicine.com/medical-economics/news/engaging-patients-decrease-costs-and-improve-outcomes
Dijksman, J. F., Schaar, v. d., P.J, Broekhuizen-de Gast, H., Wanke, C., Siersema, P. D., Shimizu, J.. . Lelyveld, v., N. (2013). A novel ingestible electronic drug delivery and monitoring device. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 78(3), 520-528. doi:10.1016/j.gie.2013.03.170
Drevitch, G.(2013). The newest, high - tech pill that will text when swallowed. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/nextavenue/2013/04/16/the-newest-high-tech-pill-will-text-when-swallowed/
Fenske, S. (2015). Diagnostic device brings the lab to the bedside. Medical Design Technology. Retrieved from http://www.mdtmag.com/blog/2015/10/diagnostic-device-brings-lab-bedside?cmpid=horizontalcontent
Fenske,S. (2015). Seeing your doctor from the couch. Medical Design Technology. Retrieved from http://www.mdtmag.com/blog/2015/10/seeing-your-doctor-your-couch
Hafezi, H., Robertson, T. L., Moon, G. D., Au-Yeung, K., Zdeblick, M. J., & Savage, G. M. (2015). An ingestible sensor for measuring medication adherence. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 62(1), 99-109. doi:10.1109/TBME.2014.2341272
Kiourti, A., Psathas, K. A., & Nikita, K. S. (2014). Implantable and ingestible medical devices with wireless telemetry functionalities: A review of current status and challenges. Bioelectromagnetics, 35(1), 1-15. doi:10.1002/bem.21813
Proteus Digital Health. (2015). How it works [Video file]. Retrieved from
Proteus. (2015). Oracle and proteus integrate proteus digital health feedback system with oracle health sciences inform to help increase clinical trial accuracy - proteus digital health. Proteus Digital Health. Retrieved from http://www.mdtmag.com/blog/2015/10/seeing-your-doctor-your-couch?cmpid=horizontalcontent
Research and Markets. (2015). Smart pills market by application, target area & geography. Retrieved from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/3170724/smart-pills-market-by-application-target-area
Schwartz, A. (2014). The future of medicine is in the devices you swallow. Fast Company. Retrieved from http://www.fastcoexist.com/3024773/worldchanging-ideas/you-will-swallow-a-sensor
The Economist. (2014). Health and appiness. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/news/business/21595461-those-pouring-money-health-related-mobile-gadgets-and-apps-believe-they-can-work
Thomson, I. (2012). FDA clears edible medical sensor for human consumption'. The Register. Retrieved from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/08/01/fda_clears_edible_computer/
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Winter, M. (2013). Sensing a healthcare revolution. Medical Design Technology. Retrieved from http://www.mdtmag.com/blog/2013/09/sensing-healthcare-revolution

The Bureau of Labor has compiled the statistics that form the analysis of the loss of transport vehicle operators included in this report. While some pundits cry that the federal statistics are not always accurate (Ferrara, 2015), the organization works diligently to ensure that the data is accurate. In the case of the operators of transport vehicles, the data that the Bureau of Labor Statistics uses was collected based on existing payment records, so if anything, the numbers of drivers that the organization reflects may in fact be too low, and there is a likelihood that even greater numbers of workers will be displaced with the addition of autonomous transport vehicles facilitated by technology.

Bedinger, M., Walker, G. H., Piecyk, M., & Greening, P. (2015). 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight. Applied ergonomics.

Anderson, J. M., Nidhi, K., Stanley, K. D., Sorensen, P., Samaras, C., & Oluwatola, O. A. (2014). Autonomous vehicle technology: A guide for policymakers. Rand Corporation.
- resources were found on websites that manufacture, create, and use 3D printers every day
- this suggests the sources are reliable since they are on the front lines with 3D printers

Sources are relatively accurate. Many are well-known business news generators (business insider, globe and mail, CNBC) or peer reviewed journal articles, written by experts in the field. Accuracy was assessed by taking the publisher’s dependability on accuracy into account, which they need to maintain reader trust and popularity.











Robo Advisors
Sex robots
sex workers
Interactive kiosk/
Self-serve checkout
reliable source, news report on machines replacing cashiers in McDonalds after minimum wage hike). 1st hand information.http://www.inquisitr.com/1594675/mcdonalds-counters-minimum-wage-hike-15-automation/

-Reliable source, used surveys on certain McDonalds restaurants and interviewed stakeholders on how the technology will be implemented in the future. 1st hand information.
-reliable, same methods used as Business Insider). 1st hand information
These sources were taken from the end of October and rechecked a few weeks after to check for accuracy and new information. Since the technology of drone delivery is new and developing at an average rate, checking the accuracy of my sources is not as important to check every day because the information is unlikely to change rapidly. Overall I would say that my sources are somewhat accurate because journalists receive their information from other sources and use their own opinions. Also because the sources were not checked for accuracy every day, it is safe to say that that are not 100% reliable or accurate. I feel confident with the information given because there are other sources saying the same thing and some of the sources were strongly reliable

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. "43-5021 Couriers and Messengers." U.S. Bureau of Labor Occupational Employment Statistics. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
"Your Drone Arrived! Russian Pizzeria Launches Unmanned Delivery." RT English. 23 June 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
"World's First" Drone Delivery Service Launches in Australia." Dezeen Worlds First Drone Delivery Service Launches in Australia Comments. 16 Oct. 2013. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
Blake, Morwenna. “Police begin drone trial.” The Cornishman. 3 Nov. 2015. Web. 18 Nov. 2015.
Edwards, Peter. "Drone Pizza Delivery Has Mumbai Buzzing.” Toronto Star. 26 May 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
Estes, Adam. “Some Good Things Drones Can (Actually) Do.” Gizmodo. 3 Dec. 2013. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
Howell, Elizabeth. "What Is A Drone? .” Space.com. 2 June 2015. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
Lowry, Willy, & Tremblay, Sophie. “This startup wants to launch a major anit-poaching initiative using drones.”
Linik, Joyce Riha. “Drones for social good”. Physc.org. 18 Nov. 2015. Web 18. Nov. 2015.
Muoio, Danielle. “The future of drone delivery may be determined next week”. Tech Insider. 13 Nov. 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Palermo, By. "Delivery Drones Become a Reality in Germany." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 26 Sept. 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
Reuters, Thomson. "Wal-Mart Applies to Test Delivery Drones - Technology & Science - CBC News." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 27 Oct. 2015. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
Rose, Charlie. “Amazon's Jeff Bezos Looks to the Future.” CBSNews. CBS Interactive, 1 Dec. 2013. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
Smith, Noah. “Will weaponized drones eventually replace soldiers?” Defense One. 11 Mar. 2014. Web. 18 Nov. 2015
Smith, Cooper. “Shoppers are most likely to trust delivery drones with low-cost purchases.” 2 Mar. 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Smith, Cooper. “Amazon’s delivery drones could make 30-minute deliveries a reality (and for a $1 fee). Business Insider. 15 Apr. 2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.
Stamp, Jimmy. :Unmanned drones have been around since World War I.” Smithsoniam.com. 12 Feb. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2015.
Truong, Alice. "Google Is Working On Drone Deliveries Too." Fast Company. 28 Aug. 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
WhatIs.com. “What Is Drone? - Definition from Whatis.Com.” N.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2015.
Yates, Darren. “How Drones Work.” Techradar. 24 Jul. 2015. Web. 18. Nov. 2015

Robot Warrior
Military Soldiers
The information available on this topic is very sparse. Most of the information available is from newspapers such as CBS News and BBC News as well as organization sites related to military advancement or robotics innovation. Due to the lack of solid information, most of the articles published stem from the same quote given by General Robert Cone, which is the commander of the Army Training and Doctrine command. Based off of military websites such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), robotics is of definite interest to the US military and over the past decade alone the number of robots used for various purposes has increased greatly. Information available on the date at which robots are expected to be used in the army as well as the progress on any research varied greatly and so when reading the various sources I felt the information coming straight from the US army sites and other organizations was more valid than that of news articles and forums. Assessing the validity of these sources was very difficult. Given the confidentiality of some military projects, limited information blatantly available and information had to be gathered from a variety of sources all providing different information.

Boston Dynamics (2013). Atlas- The Agile Anthropomorphic Robot. Retrieved from http://www.bostondynamics.com/robot_Atlas.html

Scholl, C. (2013, March 3). US Army to Replace Human Soldiers with “Humanoid Robots”. Global Research. Centre for Research on Globalization. Retrieved from http://www.globalresearch.ca/

Rus, D. (2015, July). The Robots are Coming. Foreign Affairs, 94(4), 2-6.

Brynjolfsson, E., and McAfee, A. (2015 July). Will Humans Go the Way of Horses? Foreign Affairs, 94(4), 8- 14.

Krotkov, E., & Blitch, J. (1999). The defense advanced research projects agency (DARPA) tactical mobile robotics program. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 18(7), 769-776. doi:10.1177/02783649922066457

U.S. Army General Says Robots Could Replace One-Fourth of Combat Soldiers by 2013. (2014, January 23).CBS News. Ret
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