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Chapter 1 The Science of Living Things Chun

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James Chun

on 4 September 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 1 The Science of Living Things Chun

Chapter 1
The Science of Living Things
What types of things in this picture do you think a biologist would want to study?
Warm-Up
Biology
is the science that studies life and living things, including the laws that govern the events of life.
Biology is a natural science. It studies the individual life forms within the world of life known as nature.
A biologist may study plants, animals, or other living things.
The prefix
Bio-
is from the Greek word Bios which refers to “life or living”
The suffix
–ology
describes science or "the study of" a particular subject.
Biology: The Study of Living Things
Living things come in all sizes
Smallest - Mycoplasma bacteria
Discovering Life
Scientist try to understand the world around them by asking questions.
What kind of questions have you asked about the world around you?
Asking Questions
An
experiment
is a test to get information.
Some scientific ideas are based on information from experiments and observations. However they have not yet been proven.
A
theory
is a statement of an idea or principle that has been tested by many scientist over a period of time.
Example: The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection.
Some theories have been tested many times and are not proven false. Then they may become a scientific law. A
law
is usually accepted by many scientist.
Example: The Law of Universal Gravitation.
Theories and laws may change if new information is found
Experimenting to Find Answers
This gardener is trying to find answers to his questions about different kinds of soil.
DO NOT COPY
Besides soil type, what other parts of a garden could you experiment with?
Scientist today often follow a set of steps to find answers to their questions. These steps are called the scientific method.
The Scientific Method
Step 2: Gather Information
Step 5: Draw Conclusions
Step 3: Form a hypothesis
Step 4: Test your hypothesis
(Make Observations)
Step 1: Ask a Question
Suppose you have an aquarium. You notice the fish in the aquarium have been swimming very slowly. You wonder what could be causing this strange behavior. You can use the scientific method to find answers to your question.
DO NOT COPY
"What is causing my fish to swim so slowly?"
Step 1: Ask a question
Talk to an expert.
Pet store owner
Read an article in book or magazines about fish
Internet to research additional information
Step 2: Gather Information
Suggest a good answer, or hypothesis, for your question.
You notice the thermometer in the tank reads 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
You wonder if the temperature of the water could be the cause of the problem.
Hypothesis = The water temperature affects the way the fish behave.
Step 3: Form a hypothesis
Now you need to do an experiment.
Set up 2 fish tanks the same size.
Put half of the fish in new tank and the rest in the original tank.
Write down the temperature of both tanks and raise the temperature of the water in one of the tanks three degrees each day.
Step 4: Test your hypothesis
Think about your results.
Decide if your results support your hypothesis.
Step 5: Draw Conclusions

Scientists use an experiment to search for cause and effect relationships in nature. In other words, they design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable way.

These changing quantities are called variables.
A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can exist in differing amounts or types. An experiment usually has three kinds of variables: independent, dependent, and controlled.

The independent variable is the one that is changed by the scientist.
To insure a fair test,
a good experiment has only one independent variable
. As the scientist changes the independent variable, he or she observes what happens.

The scientist focuses his or her observations on the dependent variable to see how it responds to the change made to the independent variable.
The new value of the dependent variable is caused by and depends on the value of the independent variable.

Experiments also have controlled variables.
Controlled variables are quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant
, and he must observe them as carefully as the dependent variables.
Most experiments have more than one controlled variable.
Some people refer to controlled variables as "constant variables.
Living things is a huge topic. Most biologists choose one field in which to specialize.
Botany
- The study of plants
Zoology
- The study of animals
Genetics
- The study of how characteristics are passed from one generation to the next.
Microbiology
- The study of living things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye.
Ecology
- The study of how living things interact with one another and with the nonliving world.
Different Fields of Biology
Botany
Zoology
Genetics
Microbiology
Ecology
Some botanists may work for local or national parks.
Others may work for a nursery or a greenhouse.
Many zoologists work in zoos or aquariums.
Others become veterinarians.
Some geneticists work in a lab.
Others may work with doctors in a hospital
Microbiologists usually work in a lab.
They can work for hospitals or a private company.
Ecologists may work for government agencies or businesses.
Ecologists do a lot of their work outside.
The Study of living things is called biology.
All science starts with questions. Answers to these questions are tested with experiments.
Some scientific ideas have not yet been proven. These ideas are called theories. Scientists test theories to find out how well they explain things. Theories are different from facts.
Scientists today use the scientific method to study problems and answer questions. A hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question.
Most biologists specialize in a specific field. Some of the fields of biology are botany, zoology, genetics, microbiology, an ecology.

Summary
Biology: Introduction
Homer Evolution
The study of life is as old as humankind. Credit is given beginning with the ancient Greeks. They began a systematic study of living things, including human beings.
From A.D. 200 - 1200 science regressed. (Dark Ages)
Religious authority became the irrefutable source of all knowledge. Individual observation and dissent were discouraged and often punished.
The 14th century reinvigorated the thirst for knowledge.
Invention of the printing press, explorers, crusades, rise of universities played a significant role in the return to the study of nature.
The Study of Life Throughout History
(DO NOT COPY)
William Harvey (1578-1667) - demonstrated the path of the blood in the human body.
Robert Hooke (1635-1703) - Discovered and named "cells" in cork.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) - Was the first person to see living cells.
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) - Devised the system of binomial nomenclature, that is, the genus/species naming of plants and animals.
Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) - Described the metamorphosis of the silkworm
The Scientific Method - Monty Python Style
Define biology.
Contrast theory and fact.
Explain the purpose of an experiment.
Describe the steps in the scientific method.
Identify the fields of biology.
Name some fields and jobs in biology.
Learning Objectives
Kevin Andrewin, Research Assistant
Modern Leaders in Biology
Kevin Andrewin is a research assistant from Belize (buh-LEEZ). He has been interested in manatees his whole life. Kevin observes the behavior of the manatees. He studies their migration. Migration is the movement of an animal to a new location. many animals migrate during certain seasons in order to find food.

Kevin attaches special radio equipment to the manatees. This allows his team to follow the movements of the manatees. Manatees are sometimes hurt or killed accidentally by boats. The information Kevin finds out about the movement of the manatees could help to protect them from harm.

CRITICAL THINKING
: What types of questions about the manatees do you think Kevin wants to answer?
About Zoologists
A Day in the Life: Microbiologist
The Lesson is, Never Try
"I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work." - Thomas Alva Edison
Epidemiologists
Marine Biologist
Science as a Way of Knowing
Science is an organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world.
Several features make science different from other human endeavors.
Science deals with only the natural world.
Scientist collect and organize information in an orderly way, looking for patterns and connections among events.
Scientists propose explanations that are based on evidence, not belief.
Warm Up:

What is the difference between an observation and an inference? List three examples of each.

* Warm up activities must be on a
separate
sheet of paper from other notes. You will turn in your warm ups.
*Write the
question and answer.
* Put your
name
,
date
, and
period
at the top of your paper.
Full transcript