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Copy of Chapter 4 - Integration into the Spanish Empire
Transcript of Copy of Chapter 4 - Integration into the Spanish Empire
UNIFICATION UNDER SPANISH RULE
Spain gave the country its identity. The country came to be known as Philippines due to Spain's three centuries of colonial administration.
Reduccion plan of Fr. Juan de Plasencia was implemented
live in the area near the church
Bandits or Tulisanes - Those who refused to obey.
Transformed Filipino into law-abiding citizens
Spanish encomenderos found it easy to collect taxes.
Filipinos were transformed into little brown Spaniards.
Before the 19th century - Philippines was governed indirectly by the Spanish Crown through the Consejo de las Indias or Council of the Indies
19th century - King of Spain governed the country directly through Ministerio de Ultramar or Ministry of Colonies
Imperial Manila - seat of the central government
The National Government.
*Head of the Spanish colonial government.
*Vice Royal Patron - nominate priests for ecclesiastical administration
*Commander-in-chief of the colonial army.
*Chief executive - ex-officio president of the Audiencia Real or Royal Audiencia.
*Laws - "actos acordados"
*Cumplase - power to decide which law or royal decree should be implemented or disregarded
*Spanish Cortes - based in Madrid.
-adjudicate appeals for civil and criminal cases.
-forum for settling important issues
-Two territorial audiencias:
1. Courts of First Instance
2. Justice of the peace courts
The country was governed by special laws.
*Las Leyes de Indias - extended various parts of Spanish peninsular law into the Philippines
*Las Leyes de Toro
*La Novisema Recopilacion
- alcalde mayor or provincial governor
*provincial government -most corrupt unit of local government then owing to the privilege to engage in and monopolize trade called "indulto de commercio"
-Corregidores or military governors
-Gobernadorcillo or town mayor - elected by married males
-Required to mortgage his properties to the government at the beginning of his term.
Barrios or barangays
-Cabeza de barangay
-maintenance of peace and order
-collection of taxes and tributes
-City government during the spanish era
-Cabildo or city council
-City mayor or alcalde en ordinario
-Counselors or regidores
-Chief constable or aguacil mayor
-Secretary or escribano
Supremacy of the Friars
- key figure in the local administrative set-up
-supervising representative of the Spanish government
-ruler of the town (school inspector, health inspector, prison inspector, inspector of the accounts.
-approval - census lists, tax lists, lists of army conscripts, and register of birthds, deaths and marriages.
-Spanish tightened their control through the friars.
-This situation happened when the friars became so powerful and even civil authorities feared them.
Weaknesses of Spanish Colonial Administration
*Governor-general - reward positions to his favorites who were unqualified and unfit for the government service
Residencia -trial of an outgoing governor-general to account for his acts.
Visitador - investigating officer to probe on the complaints against the governor general.
*Selling of lower positions to highest bidders - ability to buy position.
Results: misadministration, bribery, graft and corruption.
Economic Institutions Imposed by Spain
*Legazpi - subdivided the country into encomiendas
*Encomienda - parcel of land, assigned to loyal Spaniards.
*Encomendero - Recipient of parcel land.
1. Royal encomienda
-cities, speaports, regions rich in natural wealth and owned by the Spanish Crown.
2. Private encomienda
-stewardship of private persons, charitable institutions or the Catholic Church.
As a steward of the encomienda, the encomendero was required to teach them the Catholic faith and protect their person and property from harm.
*Filipinos started paying tribute during the days of Legazpi
*8 reales -> 10 reales in 1602.
*12 reales in 1851.
*One tribute = one family (father, wife, minor children)
*Unmarried man over 20 years and unmarried woman over 25 years paid half of trubite
*Encomenderos reaped huge profits
*Cedula served as an income tax and personal identification for the Indios
*Bandala - compulsary sale by native farmers of their farm products.
Forced Labor or Polo y Servicio
*Filipino males from 16-60 years old to render services for 40 days each year.
*Polistas - forced labor
*Source of abuse
*Exempted from forced labor provided they paid falla or exemption fee
*Resulted to abandonment of farmlands, separation from families, illness and death.
*Indios were never paid. They were deprived of their rice rations.
The Galleon Trade
*Trade between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico in 1565.
*Trade between Chinese and the Spaniards in Manila.
*Galleons -trade vessels.
-used for shipping products
*Silver coins or silver bullion
*Brought economic prosperity
*Manila Acapulco resulted in cultural exhanges
*Agriculture was neglected
Spanish soldiers had to fight off Chinese who came to Manila.
Muslims raided Luzon and Visayas. They sold their captives as slaves.
Japanese, under the leadership of Hideyoshi, claimed control of the country.
Spain paid tribute to secure their trading routes and protect Jesuit missionaries in Japan.
Seven Years War -> Invasion of British people in the Philippines (Great Britain vs. France)
September 22, 1762
-Britain invaded Manila
-Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo was the Gov. General.
Admiral Samuel Cornish & General William Draper - British demand for the surrender on Manila.
General Draper - ordered the attack of Manila.
Ermita & Bagumbayan
-invaded by British troops
-very close to Intramuros, seat of Spanish colonial government
October 4, 1762 -British cannons destroyed Intramuros
October 5 - Fierce fighting began in the Walled City.
Archbishop surrendered Fort Santiago to prevent the ruthless sacrifice of lives.
Treaty of Paris ended the war
-restored Manila to Spain
Challenges to Spanish Imposition of Sovereignity
1. Dawsonne Drake
First British governor appointed by the British East India Company
2. Archbishop Antonio Manuel Rojo
acting governor general who considered himself the real leader of the country
3. Simon de Anda
renegade governor general who headed the Spanish and Filipino army.
Economic Development Programs
Jose Basco Y Vargas -gov. general who gave priority towards improving the economy.
Development of Agriculture
cotton and silk textiles for export to Europe and America
Planting mulberry trees needed for feeding silkworms in Camarines.
Farmers were taught scientific methods of farming
Organization of the Economic Society of Friends of the Country
Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais or Economic Society
-to assist Gov. Basco in the implementation of his economic program
-people knowledgeable in agriculture, manufacturing, rural development, education and
domestic foreign trade.
-increased production by giving incentives to outstanding producers.
-Free training was given
-Financial capital was provided
The Tobacco Monopoly
The farmers could only sell the tobacco to the government
Tobacco -> government factories -> cigar and cigarettes -> public at government-dictated prices
Spanish abused their authority. As a results, farmers were forced to cheat the government and produce more than the required quota.
Gov. General Primo de Rivera abolished it in 1882.
The Royal Company of the Philippines
Real Compania de Filipinas or Royal Company of the Philippines
-established by Royal Decree
-to develop and promote direct trade
-required to set aside four percent of its profit for agriculture
-Philippines -> Spain (tax-free)
-incompetent officers and poor management -> big monetary losses.
The Opening of Manila to Foreign Trade
Gov. General Felix Berenguer de Marquina
-encouraged foreign merchants to come and invest in the Philippines.
Philippine ports were established and opened to foreign trade
International telegraph communication system
-To support the growing tade and improvements in transportation and communication.
Filipinos,who were educated abroad, were able to absorb the intellectual developments in Europe.
Social, Cultural, and Educational Transformations.
Conversion of Filipinos to Catholicism
-Greatest legacy of Spain: Catholicism
-Missionaries: Augustinians, Franciscans, Jesuits, Dominicans, Recollects.
Beginnings of a Feudalistic Society
-Imposition of the encomienda system
-Filipinos were treated as slaves
-Limpieza de Sangre or purity of blood -> Pyramidal social structure came to be implemented.
-Spaniards born in Spain
-Spaniards born in the Philippines
-Spanish and Chinese
-ruling class of native elite
(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
(cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr
Hispanization of Filipino Surnames
-Gov. General Narciso Claveria ordered all Filipino families to adopt Spanish surnames.
-ensured exact tax collection and regular performance of forced labor
-Filipinos were prevented from unauthorized movement from one province to another.
Metamorphosis of Bahay Kubo into Bahay na Bato
Indigenization of Spanish and Chinese Cuisine
-adobo, menudo, mechado, and puchero.
-Chinese noodles -> Pansit malabon and Pansit luglog.
Change in the Filipino Mode of Dressing
-Jacket and bahag -> Western coat and trousers or Americana
-Putong -> hats
-Barefoot -> Slippers and shoes
-Sarong -> Saya and camisa
-Manton de Manila or shawls and handkerchiefs
Introduction of the Spanish Language
-Only wealthy Filipinos learned the language.
Celebration of Religious Feasts Honoring Patron Saints
-The Filipinos adopted the celebration of the fiesta or religious feast in honor of the patron saint of a town.
Introduction of the Latin Alphabet
-Natives forgot baybayin or their pre-colonial syllabic writing.
Introduction of the Art of Printing
-Facilitate the conversion of Indios to Catholicism.
-First book published by Dominicans: Doctrina Christiana en la Lengua Espanola y Tagala.
-Arte y Reglas de La Lengua Tagala - first grammar book in Tagalog
Appearance of Theocratic Literature
-Reading materials: novenas, prayer books, and biographies of Catholic saints
-Passion: popular during lenten season
-Awit (heroic poem) and corridos (legendary poems)
Persistence of Folk and Colonial Art
-Evident during the celebration of fiesta.
-Making of images and jewelry prospered.
-Bamboo arch decorations, moriones, palaspas, pastillas wrappers etc.
Introduction of Hispanic Music and Western Musical Instruments
-Purpose of converting natives to Catholicism.
*UST offered courses in medicine, pharmacy, theology, philosophy, as well as canon and civil law.
*Secondary school for boys:
-Colegio de Santo Tomas
-Colegio de San Juan de Letran
*Secondary school for girls:
*Public education for Indios
*Educational Decree of 1863:
-one elementary school for boys and one elementary school for girls in each town in the country.
-normal school for the training of teachers with a mastery of the Spanish language.
-over-emphasis on religion
-limited and irrelevant curriculum
-obsolete classroom facilities
-inadequate instructional materials
-absence of academic freedom
-racial prejudice against Filipinos