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Transcript of Voltaire
Who is Voltaire?
Ways of expression
Due to the power of the absolute monarchy in France, Voltaire often projected his ideals through fictional characters in written satire.
Corrupt government officials
Say "believe as I do, or I shall assassinate you"
Voltaire was born on November 21, 1694 and he died on May 30, 1778 was a French philosopher and writer of the Age of Enlightenment. His intellignece , wit , and style made him one of France's greatest writers and philosophers.
Voltaire's ideas of freedom of expression and separation of church and state are still used in effect today within our constitution.
He believed that the world could be less of a horrible place than it already is if we replace ignorance and superstition with knowledge and rational thought.
"The duke cannot deny the course of law,
For the commodity that strangers have
With us in Venice, if it be denied,
Will much impeach the justice of his state,
Since that the trade and profit of the city
Consisteth of all nations. Therefore go."
-Merchant of Venice excerpt (3.3.29-34)
"Two things provided more: that for this favor
He presently become a Christian;
The other, that he do record a gift,
Here in the court, of all he dies possessed
Unto his son Lorenzo and his daughter."
-Merchant of Venice excerpt (4.1.402-406)
Voltaire wrote more than 50 plays, dozens of treatises on science, politics and philosophy, and several books of history on everything from the Russian Empire to the French Parliament.
Just a "few" examples:
History of Charles XII, King of Sweden (2 volumes 1731 age:37)
The Age of Louis XIV (3 volumes 1752 age 58) written at Cirey
The Age of Louis XV (3 Volumes 1746 age 52 to 1752 age 58) written at Cirey
Annals of the Empire - Charlemagne, A.D. 742 - Henry VII 1313, Vol. I (1754 age: 60)
Annals of the Empire - Louis of Bavaria, 1315 to Ferdinand II 1631 Vol.II (1754 age: 60)
History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great ( Vol I, 1759 age: 65; Vol. II 1763 - age 69)
By: Alexander Ugarde and Christian Rodriguez
Because non-Venetian traders contribute to the city's economic well-being, Venice has laws in place to protect their rights. Therefore, reasons Antonio, Shylock will have his bond and there's nothing anybody can do about it.
Things just keep getting worse for Shylock. Even though Antonio has (mercifully?) offered to reduce his penalty, Shylock must convert to Christianity as a condition of the new deal. Shylock "stumbles from the court , stripped of almost everything, including his religion" (286).