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The impact of American Sign Language on Receptive and Expres

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Ally Pollock

on 28 April 2014

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Transcript of The impact of American Sign Language on Receptive and Expres

The impact of American Sign Language on Receptive and Expressive Language Development in Deaf Children
Hearing Aids
Hearing Aid Simulation
Cochlear Implants
Cochlear Implant Simulation
Language Development for Hearing
2 - 3 years old
Defense Argument
Auditory-Verbal Therapy
American Sign Language/English Bilingualism
Speech Banana
Hearing Loss
Demonstration with earplugs
-mild, conductive hearing loss; average of a 32 dB hearing loss
Only 3 to 8 percent of deaf children have parents who are deaf (Rawlings & Jensema, 1977).
Problems with Exposure to ASL
American Sign Language (ASL)
enhances
receptive and expressive English language development in deaf children.
Why??
ASL is a natural language for deaf children.
Exposing a deaf child to ASL as their first language gives them a language basis to build upon for later English language development.
0 - 8 months old
Importance of a Language Basis
Mayberry (1993)
How age of language acquisition affects language development.
Effectiveness of AVT
Fairgray, Purdy & Smart (2010)
Study conducted to see if children with profound, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss would benefit from AVT.
ASL & Receptive Language Skills
Strong & Prinz (1997)
Studied relationship between ASL and English Literacy
Sign Language & Receptive Language Skills
Hermans, Knoors, Ormel & Verhoeven (2008)
Dutch study researching the relationship between proficiency in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) and reading.
Sign Language & Expressive Language Skills
Van Beijsterveldt & Van Hell (2009)
Dutch study evaluating the relationship between SLN proficiency and children's written narratives
Language therapies do not have to follow a fixed set of guidelines.
Therapy can be adjusted based on the child's language needs, personality, and hearing loss.
'One-size fits all' approach is not recommended (Fairgray, Purdy & Smart, 2010).
Does not support the use of sign language, gestures, and speech reading (lip reading). Sign language is thought to impede language development because of grammatical differences between ASL and English.
Is a
fixed
therapy plan to develop spoken language through listening.
Ultimate goal is to assimilate child into a mainstream school.
Natural play
Singing
Daily routines
structured therapy activities
AVT Activities
Language is first developed through fluency of ASL.
English as a second language is introduced and taught through....
ASL
Fingerspelling
English-based sign systems
Printed English
Opposes auditory-verbal therapy perspective of sign language hindering language development.
North Carolina School For the Deaf
Therapy Observations & Reflections

Details
Morganton, NC
Day School & Residential School
Elementary, Middle & High School
Therapies Observed
Instrumental Enrichment (I.E.) group therapy
Individual speech and language therapy sessions
Therapy Examples
Dot Activity (I.E.)
Running Story

Research Study Proposal
In the Future...
4 groups of participants based on age of language acquisition. 3 groups had ASL as L1, 1 group had ASL as L2
0-3 years
5-8 years
9-13 years
postinlingually deaf (ASL as L2)
Measures
Sentence recall task - language processing
Digit recall task - short-term memory
Results
Native signers outperformed all groups
Late L2 learners outperformed late L1 learners

Conclusions
Sign language is an important language basis for language development in deaf children.
Methods:
Weekly speech therapy for 20 weeks.
Assessed with standardized language assessments pre-therapy and post-therapy
Results showed that some children benefited from AVT, but other children did not demonstrate significant growth between their pre-therapy and post-therapy sessions.
South Africa Inspiration: De La Bat School for the Deaf
Tumutumu School for the Deaf
in Kenya
Participants: 160 deaf children; 8-15 years old
Assessments for ASL proficiency and English proficiency
Narrative assessment in both ASL and written English
Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Test Battery (WJ-R) for English literacy
Test of Written Language (TOWL) for English literacy
Results:
-Participants in the higher two levels of ASL proficiency outperformed the participants in the lowest ASL proficiency in English Literacy.
-Native signers outperformed non-native signers
Participants
-Approximately 80; 40 per group
-Kindergarten school-aged, 4-5 years old
-significant or profound hearing loss
Setting
-Generally in the child's school. Some assessments may take place at Gallaudet University's Hearing and Speech Center if needed.
Assessments
-Case-History Form
-Pure-tone testing
-Pre-School Language Scales 5th Ed. (PLS-5)
-Spontaneous language sample
Timeline
-Longitudinal design
-Participants will be assessed 3 times over the span of a year (every 4 months).
Purpose:
-Evaluate the impact of sign language on receptive and expressive English language skills in deaf children.
-Evaluate language skills at a young age.
-Pilot study
Design:
-Compare receptive and expressive language skills of deaf children who are proficient in ASL to children who have had no exposure to ASL (e.g. ASL/English Bilingualism vs. AVT).


-Deaf children proficient in American Sign Language will demonstrate stronger receptive and expressive language skills than deaf children who have had no exposure to ASL.
Hypothesis
Participants:
-From 5 different bilingual schools
-87 children between 8 and 12 years old
Assessments:
-Taaltest Alle Kinderen (TAK-R)
-Written story comprehension test
-SLN proficiency assessment
Results:
-Greater SLN vocabularies correlated with greater written Dutch vocabularies and greater story comprehension in both SLN and written Dutch.

Participants:
-26 deaf children between 11 and 12 years old
-Bilingual perspective
Methods:
-Groups compared: low SLN proficiency, high SLN proficiency, and hearing
Assessments:
-Sign Language fluency test
-Narrative assessment
Results:
-High SLN proficiency group had most grammatical errors, but had the most evaluative devices
-Meaning that sign language is typically absent from a deaf child's environment.
Dot Actvitiy
Running Story
I was
running late
for a meeting with my
running team
when I
ran into
Sally. She told me that if I did not stop
running my mouth
that she would
run away
with my husband. I did not have time for this
run-in
so I
ran off
to go
run some copies
, but my nose started

running
.
Running
to the car, I tripped and caused a
run in my stocking
.
ASL Language Development
0 - 3 years old
Late exposure to language creates a continuation of language issues.
-Majority of deaf students only read at a 4th grade reading level upon graduating high school (Allen, 1994).
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