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Spanish I MidTerm Review
Transcript of Spanish I MidTerm Review
to swim, to read, to write
Infinitives in Spanish, though, don't have a separate word like "to" in front of them. Spanish infinitives are only one word, and always end in -ar, -er, or -ir:
nadar, leer, escribir Cognates Words that look alike and have similar meanings in English and Spanish are called cognates.
usar to use
computadora computer Negative Sentences To make a sentence negative in Spanish, you usually put "no" in front of the verb or expression. In English, you usually put the word "not."
No me gusta cantar.
I do not like to sing.
To answer a question negatively in Spanish, you often use no twice. The first "no" answers the question. The second "no" says, "I do not... (don't)." This is similar to the way you answer a question in English.
No, no me gusta.
No, I don't.
Expressing Agreement or Disagreement To agree with what a person likes, you use "a mi tambien."
It's like saying "me too" in English.
If someone tells you that he or she dislikes something, you can agree by saying "a mi tampoco." It's like saying "me neither" or "neither do I" in English. Adjectives Masculine Feminine
deportista deportista Definite and Indefinite Articles "El" and "la" are called definite articles and are the equivalent of "the" in English.
"Un" and "una" are called indefinite articles and are the equivalent of "a" or "an" in English. Word Order: Placement of Adjectives In Spanish, adjectives usually come after the noun they describe.
Subject -> Verb -> Indefinite article + noun -> Adjective Subject Pronouns The subject of a sentence tells who is doing the action.
You often use people's names as the subject:
Greg escucha musica. Greg listens to music.
Ana canta y baila. Ana sings and dances.
You also use Subject Pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, ya'll, they) to tell who is doing the action. Subject pronouns replace the person's name.
El escucha musica. He listens to music.
Ella canta y baila. She sings and dances. Yo = I
tu = you (use with family, friends, people your age or younger, and anyone you call by his/her first name.
usted / Ud. = you (use with adults you address with a title, such as profesor, maestra, senor, etc.
El = he
Ella = she
Nosotros = we (tu y yo; Alberto y yo; mi mama y yo)
Ustedes = ya'll (Roberto y tu; tu y tus amigos)
Ellos = they (Robert y Alberto; Roberto y Elena; Roberto y el)
Ellas = they (Elena y Marta; Lola y ella) Present Tense of -AR Verbs To create the forms of most -AR verbs, you first drop the -ar from the infinitive, leaving the stem:
hablar -> habla-
Then you add the verb endings -o, -as, -a, -amos, or -an to the stem.
(yo) hablo nosotros/as hablamos
(El) habla (ellos) hablan
(Ella) (ellas) The Verb ESTAR Estar means "to be." It is an irregular verb; it does not follow the regular -AR verb pattern. Estar in the yo-form doesn't follow the pattern, and the other forms require accent marks.
(yo) estoy nosotros/as estamos
(El) esta (ellos) estan
(Ella) (ellas) The Plurals of Nouns and Articles To make nouns plural, you usually add -s to words ending in a vowel, and -es to words ending in a consonant.
Singular nouns that end in z change the z to c in the plural.
The plural definite articles are "los" and "las". Like "el" and "la", they both mean "the."
The plural indefinite articles are "unos" y "unas." The both mean "some" or "a few." Present Tense of -ER & -IR Verbs To create the present-tense forms of -ER and -IR verbs, drop the endings from the infinitives, then add the verb endings -o, -es, -e, -emos/-imos, or -en to the stem. comer -> com
(yo) como nosotros/as comemos
(El) come (ellos) comen
(Ella) (ellas) compartir -> compart
(yo) comparto nosotros/as compartimos
(El) comparte (ellos) comparten
(Ella) (ellas) Me gustan, me encantan Use "me gusta" and "me encanta" to talk about a singular noun.
Use "me gustan" and "me encantan" to talk about plural nouns.
When you use "me gusta(n)" and "me encanta(n)" to talk about a noun, include "el," "la," "los," or "las." The Plurals of Adjectives Just as adjectives agree with a noun depending on whether it's masculine or feminine, they also agree according to whether the noun is singular or plural.
To make adjectives plural, just add an -s after the vowel at the end of the adjective. If the adjective ends in a consonant, add -es.
La hamburguesa es sabrosa.
Las hamburguesas son sabrosas.
El pastel es muy popular.
Los pasteles son muy populares.
Don't forget that the singular form of "mucho" means "much" or "a lot," but that the plural form, "muchos," means "many. The Verb SER Ser, which means "to be," is an irregular verb.
(yo) soy nosotros/as somos
(El) es (ellos) son
(Ella) (ellas) How Do I Know When to Use
SER or ESTAR? SER
Progressive Tense STUDY!
Wed. Dec. 15th
Thurs. Dec. 16th