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Transcript of Biology 30IB-Reproduction
Research Assignment Sarah Kamal and Mimi Kachope What is Menopause? Menopause is when a woman has stopped menstruating, and is no longer fertile.
It isn't a disease or condition, it's a part of natural development.
Time of a woman's last period
Peri-menopause 3-5 year long drop of estrogen levels Folic Acid Folic acid is water soluble vitamin B9. Enough of this prior to pregnancy can help protect the fetus against neural tube defects. This defect can increase risk of preterm delivery. The recommended dosage for females of reproductive age is 400 micrograms or 0.4mg. Females that take folic acid supplements for about 12 before becoming pregnant are able to decrease their risk of having a premature baby. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) FASD is a disorder that occurs when
a mother consumes alcohol while pregnant. It can have severe effects on the fetus' development. For instance, brain development, learning, and memory are compromised. Also there is a chance of decreased weight, height, head size, malformations of the face and head. In Edmonton there are support groups for pregnant woman struggling with substance abuse. The Bissell Centre provideds one on one support for families struggling with a member with FASD or trying to overcome their addiction.
Each year in Canada 1 in 100 babies born are affected by FASD (2006)
FASD’s surpass the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders with 1 in 165 babies born (Stats Canada, 2003) and Down’s syndrome with 1 in 700 babies born (PHAC, 2002) The End Contraception Two kinds of contraceptions: Physical barriers and chemical barriers
1. Female and male condoms: male condoms are placed over penis and prevent semen from entering woman's vagina. Female condoms are inserted into the vagina and stop semen from getting to oviducts. (85% effective)
2. A diaphragm: fits over cervix (effectiveness is 90%)
3. contraceptive sponge: inserted in vagina over cervix and releases spermicides that kill sperm (effectiveness ranges from 70% to 90% depending on the woman's pregnancy history)
4. Spermicides: substance that is inserted vaginally to kill sperm upon entrance (effectiveness 75%)
5. Rhythm Method: Using a woman's menstrual cycle to indicate when to have intercourse. (effectiveness 70%) Biology 30 IB
Irregular periods: 1st symptom. Some experience a period 1-2 weeks, others don't have one at all
Low fertility: Estrogen levels drop = decrease possibility of conceiving
Vaginal dryness:Itchiness and discomfort, pain during sex, inflammation of the vagina (vagina tissue shrinks and thins), & decreased lubrication.
Hot Flashes: heated upper body, patchy red skin, sweating, and increased heart rate. Night sweat are hot flashes at night.
Urinary Problems: More likely to get urinary tract infections. Urinating more often
Loss of breast size
More fat build up in abdomen Symptoms of Menopause Hormone Replacement Therapy Treatment for symptoms of menopause.(vaginal dryness, itching, discomfort, urinary problems, and bone density loss, hot flashes, & night sweats).
Helps prevent osteoporosis and reduces risk of getting breast cancer
Risks: Breast, ovary, or uterine cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and increased brain tissue loss Teratogens An agent, which causes birth defects. Environmental factors increase the risk of a baby being born with physical defects. Examples of teratogens:
1. Alcohol: consumption can increase chances of baby developing FASD. This causes developmental issues, social issues, and physical characteristics that are associated with FASD.
2.Tobacco: Constricts the fetus's blood vessels, preventing the fetus from getting enough oxygen
3.Illegal drugs (ie.cocaine): developmental issues, personality issues, learning disabilities, and addiction
4.enviromental toxins (ie.pesticides): Lowered birth weight, developmental delays, difficulty fighting infections and disease.
5.Maternal infections (ie. STIs): Baby has potential of contracting the STI because of vaginal birth. Also complication of breathing and eyesight may occur if the newborn's mother is infected with certain STIs. Reproduction Technologies 1. In Vitro Fertilization The process involves the extraction of eggs from a developing follicle, and then having it fertilized with a male sperm in laboratory dish. After fertilization the developing embryo is placed in the female's uterus. A couple/individual may resort to this procedure incases or sterility/fertility where a woman may have blocked oviducts. An ethical issue that may arise is the destruction of human embryos that are not used for implantation. 2. Artifical Insemination The process involves collecting of the male sperm where they are concentrated and then placed in the woman's vagina. It can help concieve if a female has sperm allergy (have sperm anitbodies) or if the male has low sperm count. An ethical issue may be the questioning of whether a couple can select the sex of their babies. 3. Surrogate mothers 4. Superovulation It is the production of multiple eggs as a result of hormone treatment, which stimulates follicle development and ovulation). This treatment is for women who rarely ovulate or do not at all. This process is often used with other reproductive technologies, such as IVF. An ethical issue is, again, the question of disposing the unused embryos when not used for implantation 5. Tubal Ligation Is the process of cutting the fallopian tubes and tying the cut off ends in the female. This gurantees that the ovum never encounters sperm and never reaches the uterus, causing the egg to disintergrate in the fallopian tubes. Formation of the spine and brain are also compromised because of the lack of folic acid in a mother's diet 6. Vasectomy This is an equivalent procedure to Tubal Ligation, but in men. The ductus deferens is cut and tied. This allows for the prevention of sperm to not surpass. However, the man is still able to have an erection and ejaculate (semen does not contain sperm). Both procedures are nearly a 100% sure way of preventing pregnancy). An ethical issue may arise in the same way as the procedure of tubal ligation, which is the giving an adequate reason as to why one may perform this procedure. The Catholic church teachings have suggested that the use of tecnology to facilitate or support marital conception is prohibited. Specifically the processes of Artifical insemination, embryo transfer, IVF, and surrogate motherhood. It also opposes the use of embyros for experimentation, because they believe that human life begins at the moment of conception. With this being in mind, a fetus or an embryo must be respected and treated just as an individual. Embryos should not be used for scientific experimentation and should not be reduced to "objects". They believe that it should be joining of the male and female that cause the procreation of human life, and not the ideas brough to couples through the domination of biological technology. An alternative recommendation would be the use of NaProTechnology. It helps for the treatment of couples going through pregnancy by assisting them through the natural acts of procreation. If medically unsucessful, the program will help family building by being supportive of adoption. This is called surgical sterilization where women have the capability to be infertile or sterile. An ethical issue, may be that there must be an adequate reason as to why she wants the procedure performed. What does the Catholic Church believe? This method is when a couple refrains from having sexual intercourse during a woman's mentrual cycle when she is most fertile. It involves checking the cervical mucous and body temperature each day for the women. The cervical mucous is clear and slippery when she is most fertile. The body temperature will rise from 0.4 to 0.8 degrees on the first day of ovulation. This method is among the least reliable forms of contraception (70%).
The Catholic Church allows this method of contraception' because it does not involve the breaking of marital connection, it is simply abstaining from having sexual intercouse during the woman's fertile days. An infertile couple allows another woman to carry a baby for them. It also involves using artifical insemination or IVF to contract either one or both gametes by the couple. An ethical issue may arise whether a surrogate mother is able to break her contract and keep the baby from another couple. Hormone Levels Menstrual Cycle Days
Inquiry into Biology Textbook
According to the The Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society women under 35 years old, live birth rate was 32%
There is 5 to 20 percent chance of becoming pregnant with each cycle through artificial insemination A tubal ligation is approximately 99% effective According to Genesis Fertility Centre 20% to 25% of healthy, fertile couples become pregnant each month they try According to the The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 1 in 2000 vasectomies fail No statistics found on specifically surrogate mothers, but in vitro is considered a surrogacy option which is 25% effective according to British Columbia Women's Centre for Reproductive Health Bibliography