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Atomic Theory Timeline
Transcript of Atomic Theory Timeline
-John Dalton was born in 1766 and died in 1844.
-The year of his discovery was in 1808.
-He proposed an explanation for the law of conservation of mass, law of definite proportions, and the law of multiple proportions.
-His theory was summed up by these 5 statements:
1. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties.
3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.
4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.
-Robert Millikan was born in 1868 and died in 1953.
-His discovery was made in 1908.
-He measured the charge of a single electron. This is known as the elementary charge, one of the fundamental physical constants.
-Ernest Rutherford was born in 1871 and died in 1937.
-His discovery was made in 1909.
-Ernest Rutherford known as the father of nuclear physics, developed the theory for the structure of the atom. He used a gold foil experiment, observing the scattering of alpha particles, and demonstrated for the first time the existence of the atomic nucleus.
-Niels Bohr was born in 1885 and died in 1962.
-His discovery was made in 1913.
- Bohr's greatest contribution to Atomic Theory was the atomic model. The Bohr model shows the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons. Bohr was the first to discover that electrons travel in separate orbits around the nucleus and that the number of electrons in the outer orbit determines the properties of an element.
-Dmitri Mendeleev was born in 1834 and died in 1907.
-His discovery was made in 1869.
-He constructed the first periodic table.
-Sir William Crookes was born in 1832 and died in 1919.
-His discovery was made in 1870.
-Sir William Crookes constructed a primitive cathode ray tube, which later helped J.J. Thompson conclude that all cathode rays are composed of identical negatively charged particles later named electrons.
-Willhelm C. Roentgen was born in 1845 and died in 1923.
-His discovery was made in 1875.
- Willhelm Roentgen discovered that certain chemicals glowed when exposed to cathode rays. These rays weren't deflected by a magnetic field produced in the cathode ray tube. He named these X-rays.
-Henri Becquerel was born in 1852 and died in 1908
-His discovery was made in 1896.
While studying the effect of x-rays on photographic film, he discovered some chemicals spontaneously decompose and give off very penetrating rays.
-Marie Curie was born in 1867 and died in 1934.
-Her discovery was in 1898.
-She was Famous for her research in radioactivity and the discovery of the elements Polonium and Radium in 1902. If she wouldn’t have discovered theses new elements then Ernest Ruthford wouldn’t have studied the radiation emitted by Thorium and Uranium, much less discover about the alpha and beta rays and natural transmutation on elements and perform his famous gold-foil experiment.
- J.J. Thompson was born in 1856 and died in 1940.
- His discovery was in 1898.
- J.J. Thomson discovered the electron, using properties of cathode rays.
-Erwin Schrodinger was born on 1887 and died on 1961.
-His discovery was in 1926.
-Erwin Schrodinger described how electrons move in wave form, and developed the Schrodinger equation which describes how the quantum state of a system changes with time.
-Werner Heisenburg was born in 1901 and died in in 1976.
-His discovery was in 1927.
- Werner's contribution to the atomic theory was that he calculated the behavior of electrons, and subatomic particles that also make up an atom. Instead of focusing mainly on scientific terms, this idea brought mathematics more into understanding the patterns of an atom's electrons. Werner's discovery helped clarify the modern view of the atom because scientists can compare the actually few numbers of atoms there are, by their movements of electrons, and how many electrons an atom contains.
-James Chadwick was born in 1891 and died in 1974.
-His discovery was in 1931.
- James was most famous for his discovery of the neutron in an atom,
which took place in 1931. He also established that atomic number is determined by the numbers of protons in an atom.
-Democritus was born in 460 B.C and died in 370 B.C.
-His discovery was in 442 B.C.
- Democritus claimed that everything is made up of atoms. These atoms are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible; between atoms lies empty space; atoms are indestructible; have always been, and always will be, in motion; there are an infinite number of atoms and kinds of atoms, which differ in shape, and size.
-Isaac Newton was born in in 1643 and died in 1727.
- His discovery was in in 1704.
- Isaac Newton theorized a mechanical universe with small, solid masses in motion.
-Glenn Seaburg was born in 1912 and died in 1999.
-His discovery was in 1951.
-Glenn Seaborg, had many discoveries of the transuranium elements, as well as many advances in nuclear medicine, including the development of I-131 for thyroid disease.
-Murray Gell-Mann was born in 1929 and is still alive.
-His discovery was in 1964.
-Mann proposes the quark model (independently George Zweig does as well), which describes elementary particles that have no substructure (and therefore can't be split).
3 Major world events
1. 2560 B.C. the building of the Great Pyramid started.
2. 1200 B.C. the Fall of Troy end of Trojan War.
3. 492- 449 B.C. the Persian War.
3 Major World events
1. 1716 the first group of black slaves was brought to the Louisiana purchase.
2. 1784 the Revolutionary war officially ends.
3. 1790 Benjamin Franklin dies in Philadelphia at age 84. His funeral four days later draws over 20,000 mourners.
3 Major World events
1. 1820 Antarctica was founded.
2. 1861-1865 American Civil War.
3. 1867 Alaska was purchased from Russia.
3 Major World events
1. 1889 Aspirin was discovered.
2. 1894 first commercial film was released.
3. 1896 Olympic Games arrived in Greece.
3 Major World events
1. 1902 Wilbur and Orville Wright
2. 1904 the first speed law
3. 1915 Prohibition
3 Major World events
1. 1929 The Great Depression
2. 1939 The Beginning on WW2
3. 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor
3 Major World Events
1. 1950 first modern Credit Card was intoduced.
2. 1960 the FDA approves the Birth Control Pill
3. 1980 the Pac Man Games was intouduced
Dalton's model of the atom
John Dalton proposed that all matter is composed of very small things which he called atoms. This was not a completely new concept as the ancient Greeks (notably Democritus) had proposed that all matter is composed of small, indivisible (cannot be divided) objects. When Dalton proposed his model electrons and the nucleus were unknown. The model was developed in 1803.
Thomson's Plum Pudding Model
In this model, the atom is made up of negative electrons that float in a “soup” of positive charge, much like plums in a pudding or raisins in a fruit cake. The model was developed in 1904.
Rutherford carried out some experiments which led to a change in ideas around the atom. His new model described the atom as a tiny, dense, positively charged core called a nucleus surrounded by lighter, negatively charged electrons.The model was discovered in 1911.
Bohr proposing that the electrons could only orbit the nucleus in certain special orbits at different energy levels around the nucleus. The model was developed in 1913.
Modern electron cloud
The electron cloud model is an atom model wherein electrons are no longer depicted as particles moving around the nucleus in a fixed orbit. Instead, as a quantum mechanically-influenced model, we shouldn’t know exactly where they are, and hence describe their probable location around the nucleus only as an arbitrary ‘cloud.
-Lecippus was born in 460 B.C. and died in 370 B.C.
-He was the founder of atomism in ancient Greek Philosophy
-His discovery was in 400 B.C.
-Aristotle was born in 360 B.C. and died in 322 B.C.
- He thought that there were only five elements
- His discovery was in 340 B.C.
-Antoine Lavoisier was born in 1743 and died in 1794.
-His discovery was in 1789.
-He wrote the first extensive list of elements and had identified 23 elements before he died.
-Joseph Priestly was born in 1773 and died in 1804.
-His discovery was in 1794.
-Discovered oxygen isolated several gases and showed how they could be produced from other substances. All of these early chemists began to scientifically discuss the substances they were isolating. Discussions lead to new experiments, which guided the way to further discoveries.
Erwin Muller was born in 1911 and died in 1977.
-His discovery was in 1956.
-he discovered the first Field Emission Electron microscope.
By: Austin Christian and Ben Bray