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The Changes in Sensation and Perception throughout Aging

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Sara Oelke

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of The Changes in Sensation and Perception throughout Aging

The Changes in Sensation and Perception throughout Aging

Terms Defined
Concepts
How it Relates to "Sensation"
What is '
sensation'
:
"The elementary processes that occur due to stimulation of the senses" (Goldstein, 2014).
Similar to bottom-up processing.
Many little sensations enable one to create complex perceptions.
Examples:
When looking at a face:
Many little dots create sensations that form a bigger picture perception of a face.
Atoms in chemistry
How it Relates to "Sensation"
Each of the 5 senses experiences sensations that alter as one ages.
Vision:
Used to visually detect the stimuli that create sensations.
Presbyopia
:
Usually occurs after 45 years of age.
The near point of vision increases.
Nearpoint: "The distance at which your lens can no longer accommodate to bring close objects into focus" (Goldstein, 2014).
Causes:
1. Lens hardens as one ages.
2. Ciliary muscles harden.
Results in lens not being able to change shape.
How it Relates to "Sensation"
As one ages and experiences presbyopia:
Their vision will no longer be able to detect stimuli up-close
Either get further from the item or lose ability to accurately receive sensations.
Hearing:
One receives auditory sensations.
Presbycusis:
"A form of sensorineural hearing loss that occurs as a function of age and is usually associated with a decrease in ability to hear high frequences" (Goldstein, 2014).
Caused by:
damage to hair cells.
Age-related degeneration
Affects males more severely than females.
Affects ability to form sensations:
Inability to hear high frequencies = inability to accurately form sensations.
Darsey Geren, Sara Oelke, Christy Harris, Denise Nicely
How it Relates to "Perception"
How it Relates to "Sensation"
How it Relates to "Sensation"
How it Relates to "Sensation"
The other senses...
Taste
: Responsible for orally forming sensations.
5 basic qualities experienced through use of 10,000 tastebuds
These qualities indicate substance's effect.
As one ages:
Food sensitivity declines (Santrock, 2012).
Decrease in ability to recognize basic flavor qualities.
Touch: Responsible for forming sensations physically.
Mechanoreceptors
are responsible for skin stimulation.
Cutaneous receptors
located within the skin that are distributed all over body.
As one ages:
Detection of stimulus in lower extremities is more difficult.
Become less sensitive to pain.
How it Relates to "Perception"
References

The Perceptual Process
How it Relates to "Perception"
Visual impairments associated with aging, include issues with spatial vision, motion, distance, visual attention, surface detection, and shape detection
Smell:
Responsible for forming sensations through scents.
Used to signal dangerous environments and circumstances.
The
detection threshold
:
The lowest concentration at which odor can be detected.
As one ages:
Decline in sensitivity to scents.
Decline in activity within the olfactory system.
Goldstein, E. B. (2014). Sensation and
perception. (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Age-related hearing loss is the third most prevalent chronic medical condition among older adults, and yet is the most underrated as a serious problem (Tun, McCoy & Wingfield, 2009).
Hearing loss posses an extra burden on the processing of information and mental processes (Tun, McCoy & Wingfield, 2009).
Communication/Social
Physical
Psychological
How it Relates to "Perception"
Olfactory system
Perceptual losses in smell during aging are due in part to anatomic &physiological changes in the olfactory epithelium (Tun, McCoy & Wingfield, 2009).
Lack of enjoyment of food
Weight-loss/weight-gain
Blood pressure
Depression


How it Relates to "Perception"
Labratory studies of taste and smell have found that elderly individuals show significant chemosensory losses due to aging (Schiffman & Graham, 2000).
Nutrutional
Underlying health problems
Alzheimer's
Parkinsons
Cancer
Development
Sensation
Perception
Presbyopia
Presbycusis

Older Adults’ Health and Age-Related Changes. (2013). American
Psychological Association. Retrieved November 11, 2013, from http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/resources/guides/older.aspx?item=3
Pollock, A. S., Durward, B. R., Rowe, P. J., & Paul, J. P. (2000). What is balance?
Clinical rehabilitation, 14(4), 402–406.
Santrock, J. W. (2010). A topical approach to life-span development (5th
ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Santrock, J. W. (2012). A topical approach to lifespan development (6th
ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shaffer, S. W., & Harrison, A. L. (2007). Aging of the Somatosensory System: A Translational Perspective. Physical Therapy, 87(2), 193–207. doi:10.2522/ptj.20060083
Strawbridge, W., Cohen, R., & Kaplan, G. (1996). Successful Aging: Predictors and Associated Activities. American Journal of Epidemiology, 144(2), 135–141.
Swanson, J. (1999). Physical and mental issues in aging sourcebook: Basic consumer health information on physical and mental disorders associated with the aging process. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics.

Tun, P. A., McCoy, S., & Wingfield, A. (200). 9Aging, hearing acuity, and
the attentional costs of effortful listening. Psychology and Aging, 24(3), 761–766. doi:10.1037/a0014802

Vision: Disorders
Cataracts
Glaucoma
Retinal Disorders
Age Related MAcular Degeneration
Diabetic Retinopathy
Retinal Detachment
Conjunctivitis

What is perception?
A conscious sensory experience (Goldstein, 2014).


The perceptual process is a sequence of steps leading from the environment to the perception of a stimulus, and action with regard to the stimulus (Goldstein, 2014).
Problems and Disorders Concerning the Senses
Vision
Hearing
Taste
Touch
Smell
Disorders Concerning Hearing: Communicating
The sensations that alter in the 5 senses as one ages
Perception changes as one ages
Problems & disorders affecting the senses
Disorders Concerning Smell & Taste
Problems Concerning Touch

Disorder Concerning Touch
Problems and Disorders Concerning Perception
Vision
Hearing
Smell
Taste
Touch
Problems and Disorders Concerning Vision
Problems and Disorders Concerning Hearing
Problems and Disorders Concerning Smell & Taste
Problems and Disorders
Concerning Touch
Video
Dysarthria
Aphasia
Hyposmia
Hypogeusia
Temperature Sensitivity
Pain
Light Touch
Sensory Processing Disorder
Visual Perceptual Disorders
What Are Visual Perceptual Disorder?
What does it implicate?
Auditory Processing Disorders
Anosmia
Central Touch Disorders
Primary Tactile Disorders
Higher Order Touch Disorders

Olfaction is a crucial component of the convergence of taste and this occurs when we eat-an experience we refer to as flavor (Goldstein, 2014).


How It Relates to "Perception"
Balance in the elderly poplulation is a major concern given the catastrophic effects and disabling consequences of fall-related injuries (Shaffer & Harrison, 2007)

Increased morbidity/mortality
Increased healthcare costs
Physical therapy
Home health care
Touch
Ageusia
(Swanson, 1999)
(Swanson, 1999)
(Swanson, 1999)
(Santrock, 2012)
(santrock, 2012)
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