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Transcript of Social Institutions
It is a relatively permanent structure of social patterns, roles and relation that people enact in certain sanctioned and unified ways for the purpose of satisfying basic social needs.
Omas, Roberta; et. Al. 2003. General Sociology: Society, Culture, Population, Dynamics and Gender
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Enterprises: Mandaluyong City, Philippines
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Mandaluyong City, Philippines
MARY KATHLEEN D. CASTILLO, RN
HEALTH & MEDICINE
Social institutions that specialize in monitoring public health, providing health maintenance, and treating illness and injury.
Health Care Institutions
5 BASIC SOCIAL INSTUTIONS
1. Institution Satisfy the Basic Needs of Society.
2. Institution Define Dominant Social Values.
3. Institutions Establish Permanent Patterns of Social Behavior.
4. Institutions Support Other Institutions.
5. Institutions Provide Roles for Individuals .
TRAITS OF MAJOR SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS
CHARACTERISTIC OF AN INSTITUTION
Relatively Permanent in Content
Obstruct social progress
Serve to frustrate social personality of individuals
Diffusion of social responsibility
Nucleus of civilization
Oldest and basic of all social institutions
Primary social group and the first agency for socialization
The family institution serves the purpose of nurturing and socializing children, passing on generational traditions and providing a sense of belonging and identity.
It is a socially defined set of relationships between at least two people related by birth, marriage, adoption, or, in some definitions, long-standing ties of intimacy.
1. The control and regulation of sexual behavior.
2. To provide for new members of society (children).
3. To provide for the economic and emotional maintenace of individuals.
4. To provide for primary socialization of children.
CLASSIFICATION OF FAMILIES
ACCDG. TO ORGANIZATION, STRUCTURE, MEMBERSHIP
primary/ elementary family. Husband + Wife + Children
2/ more nuclear families. It has 2 types:
a) Conjugal Family:
spouses & children are considered of prime importance
b) Consanguinal Family:
nucleus of blood relatives as more important than the spouses.
ACCDG. TO PLACE OF RESIDENCE
house of bridegroom or near the residence of the bridegroom's parents
house of bride or near the residence of the bride's parents
freedom to select residency near the groom's or bride's parents
couple reside independently of their parents, they decide on their own
with or near the maternal uncle of the groom
ACCDG. TO AUTHORITY
oldest male member, often father or grandfather
elder of the mother's kin/ mother
equal power between husband and wife
absence of the father who may be working gives mother dominant position. Shared decision-making
ACCDG. TO DESCENT
a person affiliates with father's kin
a person affiliates with mother's kin
a person affiliates with mother & father's kin
ACCDG. TO TERMS OF MARRIAGE
only 1 spouse at any time
one man married to 2/ more woman at a time
one woman married to 2/ more man at a time
c) Group Marriage:
marriage of several men and women at a time
MODERNIZATION OF THE FAMILY
More favorable attitude towards working wives and mothers
Changing role structure of the family.
Decline in the authority of husband and father.
Decline in the family's influence on the individual.
More permissive norms and behaviors.
Breakdown of consanguineal family as a functional unit.
CHILD-REARING IN THE PHILIPPINES
Goal of Socialization: To teach the child be respectful, obedient to parents, identify strongly with his family, be a good neighbor & kinsman, recognize & reciprocate favors, improved economic state if possible.
Child Care Practices: Children are considered as economic investments esp in rural areas. They are also considered as gifts or blessings from God.
Child-rearing Techniques: Stricter on older children. Punishment is more often used than rewards. Good behavior is reinforced through affectionate gestures.
THE FILIPINO FAMILY LIFE
Close family ties.
Father = provider, Mother = nurturer
Importance on obedience & respect
FILIPINO FAMILY IN TRANSITION
Philippine Society Before: traditional, feudal, peasant, rural economy, kinship dominated type of society.
Philippine Society today: fast shaping into modern type.
Patriarchal to Egalitarian
Rural-agricultural economy to urban-industrialized = change in role status of children, parents more focus on work less time for children
Old beautiful values such as obedience, respect, family solidarity, politeness, "delicadeza" are slowly dissipating
A formal process in which knowledge, skills, and values are systematically transmitted from one individual or group to another.
a) FORMAL EDUCATION
Primary to university/ college/ specialized prgrams. Heirachical/ chronological. Systematized. Curriculum-based
b) INFORMAL EDUCATION
Lifelong process. Experience-based.
FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION
Selection and allocation to adult occupational roles
Political and social integration
EFFECTS OF SCHOOLING ON INDIVIDUALS
Knowledge and Attitude
Getting a job
Education and Income
Education and Mobility
EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES
Spanish Period: Focus on moral & religious subjects and literature, drama & painting. It was only opened for those who belonged in the upper social & economic class.
American Period: Introduction of public school system. Every child was given the opportunity to finish at least elementary education.
CHARACTERISTIC OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION
CHILD = Center of educative process
Theory of Self-Activity. Children learn best by actually doing, experiencing and experimenting.
Development of personality = Main objective
Idea of Relevance. Activities are correlated with the actual life of the learner.
A unified system of beliefs and practices pertaining to the supernatural and to norms about the right way to live that is shared by a group of believers.
FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION
1. Offering solutions for unexplained natural, phenomena.
2. Supplying a means for controlling the natural world.
3. Furnishing a psychological diversion from unwanted life situations.
4. Sustaining the existing class structure.
5. Religion serves as an instrument of socialization.
6. Religion may both promote and retard social change.
7. Religion may both reduce and encourage conflict in groups.
WORLD'S MAJOR RELIGION
The economy is the system responsible for managing how a society produces and distributes its good, services and resources.
There are two dominant economic systems in the world:
FUNCTIONS OF ECONOMY
1. Provide methods for the production of goods and services.
2. Provide methods for the distribution of goods and services.
3. Enable societies members to consume goods and services which are produced.
-is an economic system where capital is controlled by private citizens who owns the means of production of goods and services
-is an economic system with collective ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods.
Develops and implements rules and decides how to manage relations with other societies.
FUNCTIONS OF POLITICS
1. The Institutionalization of norms (Laws).
2. The enforcement of laws.
3. The adjudication of conflict (Court).
4. Provide for the welfare of members of society.
5. Protection of Society from external threat.
FILIPINO WAY OF LIFE
4 MAJOR TYPES OF GOVERNMENT
There is a rule by the people either directly or through representatives.
Characterized by absolute or blind obedience to [formal] authority, as against individual freedom and related to the expectation of unquestioning obedience
Sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in a single individual (the monarch).
The state holds total authority over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
Basis of Power in Philippine Politics
General consensus of the people. "Majority"
"Information middlemen" were consulted regarding political, legal and other technical matters by voters.
Straight buying and selling of votes. Voters demand political favors.
Molding of Public Opinions:
Release of "statistical reports" by professional agencies. Reports from mass-media agencies. Political analysts expertise. Public relations officer.
Healthcare in the Philippines
DOH (DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH)
It is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to basic public health services by all Filipinos through the provision of quality health care and the regulation of all health services and products.
It is the government's over-all technical authority on health
Philippine Health Care System
has rapidly evolved with many challenges through time. Health service delivery was devolved to the Local Government Units (LGUs) in 1991, and for many reasons, it has not completely surmounted the fragmentation issue. Health human resource struggles with the problems of underemployment, scarcity and skewed distribution. There is a strong involvement of the private sector comprising 50% of the health system but regulatory functions of the government have yet to be fully maximized.
Health facilities in the Philippines include government hospitals, private hospitals and primary health care facilities.
Ownership: Public vs Private
Public = 40% (721 Hospitals,
70 of which managed by DOH
The health human resources are the main drivers of the health care system and are essential for the efficient management and operation of the public health system. They are the health educators and providers of health services. The Philippines has a huge human reservoir for health. However, they are unevenly distributed in the country. Most are concentrated in urban areas such as Metro Manila and other cities.
Utilization of Health Facilities
50% = Public
42% = Private
7% = Alternative or traditional health care
The hospital sector in the Philippines is highly segmented in nature. Utilization of hospitals may be driven by PhilHealth insurance coverage and socio-economic determinant.
The net satisfaction with services given by government hospitals has slightly improved from
+30 in 2005
+37 in 2006
are the main reasons for being satisfied whereas
is the main reason for being dissatisfied with the services given by government hospitals (Social Weather Stations, 2006).
Satisfaction with Health Facilities
Health reforms in the Philippines build upon the lessons and experiences from the past major health reform initiatives undertaken in the last 30 years. The adoption of primary health care (PHC) approach in 1979 promoted participatory management of the local health care system. The goal was to achieve health for all Filipinos by the year 2000.
However, despite the important progress made, successive reforms have not succeeded in adequately addressing the persistent problem of inequity.
Health Reform Initiatives in the Philippines
PHILIPPINE HEALTH STATTISTICS