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Psychology 101: Introduction to Critical Thinking and Roadmap to Success

Setting: desk space.

Cindy Owings

on 17 August 2015

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Transcript of Psychology 101: Introduction to Critical Thinking and Roadmap to Success


All written work excluding the Final Analysis will need to be submitted in APA Style Formatting.

In-Text Citations:
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Reference page is called "References" and is in a hanging indent.

Evaluating Media Reports of Research
How do you envision Psychological knowledge being useful in your future career?
Arthur Coombs
Emotion and Learning Connection

On a piece of Paper:

Your Name
A good phone number where you can be reached

1. What grade do you want to earn in this class?

2. Points you intend to earn in the class:
Attendance 120 - 150
Research Summary #1 75
Research Summary Presentation #2 125
Research Response Paper 100
Participate in 2 Discussions 150 - 300
10 of 15 Quizzes 200 - 300
Final Analysis 30
Create a Game 120

3. What obstacles will you need to overcome?

4. How will you overcome those obstacles?

5.When and where do you plan to study?

6. How will you reward yourself?

Psychology 101:
Introduction to
Critical Thinking and Roadmap to Success

Cindy Owings

Canvas Assist
Short Title page #
Running Head: Short Title

Paper Name
Your Name
Truckee Meadows Community College
Why do Psychology?
Perspectives in Psychology
What can you do with a degree in psychology? Lots!

As a psychology major, you will graduate with a scientific mind-set and an awareness of basic principles of human behavior (biological mechanisms, development, cognition, psychological disorders, social interaction). This background will prepare you for success in many areas, including business, the helping professions, health services, marketing, law, sales, and teaching. You may even go on to graduate school for specialized training to become a psychology professional. This appendix describes psychology’s specialized subfields.1 I also provide updated information about CAREERS IN PSYCHOLOGY at www.yourpsychportal.com, where you can learn more about the many interesting options available to those with bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in psychology.

If you are like most psychology students, you may be unaware of the wide variety of specialties and work settings available in psychology (Terre & Stoddart, 2000). To date, the American Psychological Association (APA) has formed 56 divisions (Table C.1). The following paragraphs (arranged alphabetically) describe some careers in the main specialty areas of psychology, most of which require a graduate degree in psychology.
Psychology Subfields include:

Neurobiological Field
Developmental Field
Social Psychology Field
Clinical Psychology Field
Counseling Psychology Field
Cognitive Psychology Field
Educational Psychology Field
Experimental Psychology Field

Discovering Psychology

Psychology studies how a person thinks, feels and acts.

How might this be useful?
What steps in the
Scientific Method
did you see?
Refer to pg. 16 in Myers text
Types of Studies:
Case Study
Naturalistic Observation
The Survey
How would you establish the Validity of these statements:

1.God is Dead
2. The best things in life are free.
3. Shakespeare's Richard III is a better play than Romeo and Juliet
4. Abortion is Wrong
5. There is a genetic predisposition to Schitzophrenia
6. The Mind is just like a computer
7. Attitudes effect Cancer
8. Pornography is Harmful
9. 2+2=4

Any Courses? Which Faculty might be interested? Is there more than one approach to "Truth"? Can various disciplines be viewed as complementary and not competing?
Stanley Milgram Studies
Now compare a media report with an abstract of the research on which it was based.
Specifically, compare and contrast the title of the media report with the research evidence.
What alternative explanations might you be able to offer for the correlation between television exposure and attentional problems in children? What factors might have contributed to the journalist’s making the causal claim.

Interestingly,here is a quote from the authors’ own discussion of their research findings: “[W]e cannot draw causal inferences from these associations. It could be that attentional problems lead to television viewing rather than vice versa. . . . It is also possible that there are characteristics associated with parents who allow their children to watch excessive amounts of television that account for the relationship between television viewing and attentional problems. For example, parents who were distracted, neglectful, or otherwise preoccupied might have allowed their children to watch excessive amounts of television in addition to having created a household environment that promoted the development of attentional problems” (Christakis, et.al. , 2004, p. 712).

Frequent TV Watching Shortens Kids’ Attention Spans
By Marilyn Elias
USA Today
Psychologists and media experts are concerned, but not surprised, by a landmark study suggesting that frequent TV watching by infants and toddlers may shorten their attention span by age 7.
The research, in today’s Pediatrics, finds that the more television very young kids watch, the more likely they are to have trouble concentrating and to become impulsive and restless.
Human brains change rapidly in early life, says UCLA neuropsychologist Elizabeth Sowell, and animal research shows that stimulation can “rewire” the brain.
Things happen fast on the TV screen, so kids’ brains may come to expect this pace, “making it harder to concentrate if there’s less stimulation,” says study leader Dimitri Christakis, a pediatrician at Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center in Seattle.
Also, TV may replace activities, such as reading, that could help children learn to concentrate, Sowell says.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is genetic, but past studies suggest the environment also plays a key role, Christakis says. How different environments might promote ADHD “has barely been touched by systematic research,” writes Vail, Co., educational psychologist Jane Healy in a commentary accompanying the Pediatrics report. But TV exposure in young kids is growing, she says.
Although most studies haven’t considered TV watching by very young children, a Kaiser Family Foundation survey last year found that about 2 out of 5 children under age 2 watch television every day, and a quarter of them have TVs in their own rooms, says Vicky Rideout of the foundation.
Also, a soaring number of young kids watch DVDs or videos, some thought to be educational, but others as fast-paced as TV, Rideout says. And more TV shows, such as Teletubbies and Boobah, are geared for children under 3.
Meanwhile, even veteran teachers with superb child-managing skills are reporting “more kids that are off-the-wall. . . . It started about 10 years ago,” says Susan Ratterree, a 25-year school psychologist supervisor in suburban New Orleans. Awareness of ADHD is increasing teacher reports of attention problems, “but the kids are changing, too,” she says.
Educators may need to change their methods to keep the attention of stimulation-saturated children, says Los Angeles media psychologist Stuart Fischoff. “Rather than seeing these kids as pathological, maybe we should see them as adaptive, pointing the way to how our society is evolving. Brains may be changing, and we don’t know if it’s going to be bad or not.”
Source: From USA TODAY’s online Health and Behavior. Posted 4/5/2004 12:26 AM at www.usatoday.com/news/ health/2004-04-05-tv-kids-attention-usat_x.htm. Frequent TV watching shortens kids’ attention spans. (2004, August 30). USA Today. Copyright 2004, USA Today. Reprinted with permission.
Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Problems in Children
Dimitri A. Christakis, MD, MPH, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Child Health Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington
Frederick J. Zimmerman, Ph.D., Child Health Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Health Services, Seattle, Washington; Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, Washington
David L. DiGiuseppe, MSc, Child Health Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
Carolyn A. McCarty, Ph.D., Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Child Health Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Objective. Cross-sectional research has suggested that television viewing may be associated with decreased attention spans in children. However, longitudinal data of early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems have been lacking. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that early television exposure (at ages 1 and 3) is associated with attentional problems at age 7.

Methods. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative longitudinal data set. Our main outcome was the hyperactivity subscale of the Behavioral Problems Index determined on all participants at age 7. Children who were ≥1.2 standard deviations above the mean were classified as having attentional problems. Our main predictor was hours of television watched daily at ages 1 and 3 years.

Results. Data were available for 1278 children at age 1 and 1345 children at age 3. Ten percent of children had attentional problems at age 7. In a logistic regression model, hours of television viewed per day at both ages 1 and 3 was associated with attentional problems at age 7 (1.09 [1.03–1.15] and 1.09 [1.02–1.16]), respectively.

Conclusions. Early television exposure is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Efforts to limit television viewing in early childhood may be warranted, and additional research is needed.
Source: Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGiuseppe, D. L., & McCarty, C. A. (2004, April). Pediatrics, 113(4), 708.
Moving Images- The Scientific Attitude
The Mind- Placebo Effect Mind/Body
Professor King is a psychobiologist working on the frontiers of a new and exciting research area of neuroscience, brain grafting. Research has shown that neural tissue can be removed from the brains of monkey fetuses and implanted into the brains of monkeys that have suffered brain damage. The neurons seem to make the proper connections and are sometimes effective in improving performance in brain-damaged animals. These experiments offer important animal models for human degenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Dr. King wants to transplant tissue from fetal monkey brains into the entorhinal cortex of adult monkeys; this is the area of the human brain that is involved with Alzheimer’s disease.
The experiment will use 20 adult rhesus monkeys. First, the monkeys will be subjected to ablation surgery in the entorhinal cortex. This procedure will involve anesthetizing the animals, opening their skulls, and making lesions using a surgical instrument. After they recover, the monkeys will be tested on a learning task to make sure their memory is impaired. Three months later, half of the animals will be given transplant surgery. Tissue taken from the cortex of monkey fetuses will be implanted into the area of the brain damage. Control animals will be subjected to sham surgery, and all animals will be allowed to recover for 2 months. They will then learn a task to test the hypothesis that the animals having brain grafts will show better memory than the control group.
Dr. King argues that this research is in the exploratory stages and can only be done using animals. She further states that by the year 2004 about 3 million Americans will have Alzheimer’s disease and that her research could lead to a treatment for the devastating memory loss that Alzheimer’s victims suffer.
The Psychology Department is requesting permission from your committee to use 10 rats per semester for demonstration experiments in a physiological psychology course. The students will work in groups of three; each group will be given a rat. The students will first perform surgery on the rats. Each animal will be anesthetized. Following standard surgical procedures, an incision will be made in the scalp and two holes drilled in the animal’s skull. Electrodes will be lowered into the brain to create lesions on each side. The animals will then be allowed to recover. Several weeks later, the effects of destroying this part of the animal’s brain will be tested in a shuttle avoidance task in which the animals will learn when to cross over an electrified grid.
The instructor acknowledges that the procedure is a common demonstration and that no new scientific information will be gained from the experiment. He argues, however, that students taking a course in physiological psychology must have the opportunity to engage in small animal surgery and to see firsthand the effects of brain lesions.
If the Candid Camera Clip were set up as a study, what would occur at each stage in the Scientific Method?
Analyze Data
Determine Results
Replicate or change
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