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Classical Age Top 10
Transcript of Classical Age Top 10
By: Michael Lee
1. Aristotelian Philosophy
2.Creation of Christianity
3. Hellenistic Math
7. Invention of the Compass
6. Greek Architecture
8. Homer's Writings
10. Mathematical Contributions of the Gupta Dynasty
9. The invention of Paper
Aristotle's Philosophy is ranked first because no other individual's ideas during the Classical age has ever come close to matching his prestige and influence in shaping our modern world
Aristotle's philosophy has been a catalyst for almost every major human achievement of the past 1,000 years. Without his ideas, the development of modern science, the Industrial Revolution as well as the creation of the United States could not have occurred.
His ideas on politics such the conception of society as an organism, and the idea of a just distribution of political power were among the first of his time and has shaped the way modern governments are structured.
The Creation of Christianity is ranked second because it's teachings on human life and the arts have had many lasting impacts on our culture that can still be seen today, however because Christian teachings are not applicable to all, like Aristotle's they are ranked lower
The teachings of Christ through the Bible were the first to offer the concept of universal human rights and equality, they also changed the role of women, children, and slaves in society for the better, though they were still considered to be inferior by many.
Christianity of also brought upon many changes to the arts, such as art, music, and architecture. Christianity brought upon the Baroque movement which featured music from many composers such as Handel, Vivaldi, and Bach as well as having art which exemplified many aspects of Christianity. Christianity also has had many visible influences on architechture today, most notably the cathedrals of Europe
The creation and discovery of Hellenistic math is ranked at three because of the sheer number of applications to almost all fields of mathematics, however they are not as applicable to everyday life as the teachings of Aristotle and Christianity.
The Hellenistic period was considered to be one of both transition and expansion of the arts however the most important discoveries in this period were ones in the field of mathematics.
The two most notable mathematicians of this period were Pythagoras and Euclid who founded Euclidean geometry and the Pythagorean thereom respectively. Their contributions to geometry is used in almost all aspects of architecture and design today, from designing a bridge to creating video game environments
The invention of paper is ranked in ninth because the creation of a cheap, widely available, and easily made substance that could be used to record information revolutionized the way information could be transferred and would eventually aid in the spread of many intellectual revolutions.
The invention of paper was credited to a chinese monk named Tsai Lun, who saw the need for reform from the cumbersome bamboo notebooks that were used by the chinese at the time. Little did he know, his invention would change history for centuries to come
Paper has given us the ability to access many of the most important texts in history, such as the Bible. In combination with the printing press it also helped to rapidly spread the controversial ideas of people throughout history such as Martin Luther and his 95 theses. Today, paper is one of the most commonly found commodities that is used in virtually every aspect of human life.
Greek Architecture is ranked in sixth because of its visual influences on prominent buildings in the modern day world. The Greeks are ranked lower than the Romans because while post and lintel architecture was important, it was not necessarily as groundbreaking as the Roman's creation of arches and aqueducts
The Greeks made many contributions to the field of architecture such as their model of a temple and their use of post and lintel architecture. However their most notable contribution was their use of columns
The Greeks had three types of columns, plain topped, Doric, curled tops, Ionic, and flowered tops, Corinthian. These columns can be seen in almost all important buildings today, such as the capitol building in DC and many of the memorials in the area.
The Greek amphitheater also influenced the way in which modern stadiums are designed, with efficient seating and sound amplification
The invention of the dry compass in China is ranked seventh because it enabled easier maritime navigation through the oceans and led to exploration and discoveries of the world. It is ranked higher than paper because it enabled the exploration and the exchange of food and animals between newly discovered lands, directly benefiting the lives of citizens
It improved trade with other countries by allowing for the discovery of quicker and more efficient trade routes. It also made the discovery of new places possible and it made travel more reliable by helping ships stay on course without depending on astrological signs like stars or the sun, before the compass, sailors would have to use devices such as astrolabes which were frequently inaccurate.
Without the compass, the discovery of the Americas would have never occurred and the world as we know it today would be much different.
Today the compass is superseded by the GPS which is essentially a more technologically advanced version of the compass, and still offers the same basic directional information that the compass once provided.
The writings of Homer are ranked eighth because of the massive influence that it had on the literature of the modern world, Homer's writings are ranked higher than paper because they would go on to both directly and indirectly influence the works of the countless authors whom would eventually use paper to pass on their ideas.
Despite the controversy surrounding Homer there is no doubt that he has had an immeasurable effect on the modern world. Homer was writing not only as the Greek world was developing, but also as the patterns for the Western world were being set.
In his writing we can find early templates for ideas of the common good versus the power of the individual, the pitting of mortal strength against fate and the gods, the obligations of men to their leaders, of women to their men, of children and their parents to each other, the right of might and the nobility of blood, all of which was delivered as a story for entertainment.
These ideas all still have relevance today and these common themes are carried on in many works of literature in the modern world.
The discoveries of the Gupta Dynasty are in tenth because of they had a shaped the field of mathematics for centuries to come. This is ranked in tenth because while it is still an important discovery to note, these discoveries did not necessarily have their roots in India, these ideas regarding mathematics have been conceived independently by other mathematicians around the globe at this time
Aryabhatta and Varahamihira, were two great mathematicians contributed much during this period in the field of Mathematics. Aryabhatta estimated the value of "Pi" to the fourth decimal place. They also developed algebra, to a certain extent, and they were also one of the first to come up with the concepts of zero, infinity, and decimals.
These discoveries set the stage for modern mathematics and are used in almost all levels of math. Looking at the mathematics taught in public schools, these ideas are integral to almost every course, including geometry, algebra I & II, and pre-calculus
5. Roman Architecture
Roman Architecture is ranked at fifth because their use of arches and other architectural techniques have had significant influences on modern architecture, it is ranked higher than Greek architecture because although the Greek method of post and lintel was the basis for architecture a lot of societies had already came up with it, but the Roman arches and aqueducts were more of an architectural breakthrough.
The Romans created many different structures that we use today, such as arches or Pillars, all of which paved the way to building many more impressive buildings. If it weren't for them, we wouldn't have any of the high quality of things like stadiums, bridges, or sophisticated water systems
The Roman aqueducts were the first of their kind and allowed for the transfer of clean water to sustain cities much farther from a water source than ever before. They have influenced the way in which modern piping systems are designed for the transportation of water.
Today features of Roman architecture such as domes and arches can be found on important governmental buildings such as the Capitol building in DC and it is especially exemplified in the remnants of the remaining ancient Roman buildings such as the Pantheon and the Coliseum.
4. Creation of Buddhism
Buddhism is ranked at fourth because of the way it would forever change the culture of several east asian countries, it is also ranked fourth because although it offers many of the same teachings as Christianity, it does so to far fewer adherents.
Initially founded by Siddhartha Gautama Buddhism was a religion which had many teachings of moral and ethical values.The spread of Buddhism eastwards forever changed the cultures several east asian countries such as China and Japan. Buddhism explained the human condition and offered consolations that other religions did not give. It also introduced a culture of compassion into societies where survival depended on social status and where poverty was abundant. Its philosophy and aesthetics established and created not only a new social structure, but also new ideals. Buddhist ethics permeate the societies in which Buddhism took root.
In addition to this Buddhism is also one of the largest world religions today, at almost 500 million adherents, and it has permanently changed the face of Asian culture and society
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The symbol denoting Pi as it is used today
A bust of Homer
An dry compass
The Dharma wheel, symbolizes Buddhism like the cross symbolizes Christianity
A painting of Jesus Christ, the founder of Christianity
A bust of Aristotle
A sketch of Pythagoras, the father of the Pythagorean Theorem