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Transcript of Highway Engineering
Are those pavements which reflect the deformation of subgrade and the subsequent layers to the surface. Flexible, usually asphalt, is laid with no reinforcement or with a specialized fabric reinforcement that permits limited flow or repositioning of the roadbed under ground changes.
The design of flexible pavement is based on load distributing characteristic of the component layers. The black top pavement including water & gravel bound macadam fall in this category.
Flexible pavement on the whole has low or negligible flexible strength flexible in their structural action). The flexible pavement layers transmit the vertical or compressive stresses to the lower layers by grain transfer through contact points of granular structure.
The vertical compressive stress is maximum on the pavement surface directly under the wheel load and is equal to contact pressure under the wheels. Due to the ability to distribute the stress to large area in the shape of truncated cone the stresses get decreased in the lower layer.
As such the flexible pavement may be constructed in a number of layers and the top layer has to be strongest as the highest compressive stresses.
To be sustained by this layer, in addition to wear and tear, the lower layer have to take up only lesser magnitude of stress as there is no direct wearing action die to traffic loads, therefore inferior material with lower cast can be used in the lower layers. The rigid characteristic of the pavement are associated with rigidity or flexural strength or slab action so the load is distributed over a wide area of subgrade soil. Rigid pavement is laid in slabs with steel reinforcement.
The rigid pavements are made of cement concrete either plan, reinforced or prestressed concrete.
Critical condition of stress in the rigid pavement is the maximum flexural stress occurring in the slab due to wheel load and the temperature changes.
Rigid pavement is designed and analyzed by using the elastic theory. Definition Definition Advantages of Rigid Pavement
Rigid lasts much, much longer i.e 30+ years compared to 5-10 years of flexible pavements.
In the long run it is about half the cost to install and maintain. But the initial costs are somewhat high.
Rigid pavement has the ability to bridge small imperfections in the subgrade.
Less Maintenance cost and Continuous Traffic and Flow.
High efficiency in terms of functionality Deformation in the sub grade is transferred to the upper layers
Design is based on load distributing characteristics of the component layers
Have low flexural strength
Load is transferred by grain to grain contact
Have low completion cost but repairing cost is high
Have low life span
Surfacing cannot be laid directly on the sub grade but a sub base is needed
No thermal stresses are induced as the pavement have the ability to contract and expand freely
Thats why expansion joints are not needed
Strength of the road is highly dependent on the strength of the sub grade
Rolling of the surfacing is needed
Road can be used for traffic within 24 hours
Force of friction is less Deformation in the sub grade is not transferred to the upper layers. Comparison of Flexible and Rigid Pavement Deformation in the subgrade is not transferred to subsequent layers
Design is based on flexural strength or slab action
Have high flexural strength
No such phenomenon of grain to grain load transfer exists
Have low repairing cost but completion cost is high
Life span is more as compare to flexible
Surfacing can be directly laid on the sub grade
Thermal stresses are more vulnerable to be induced as the ability to contract and expand is very less in concrete
Thats why expansion joints are needed
Strength of the road is less dependent on the strength of the sub grade
Rolling of the surfacing in not needed
Road cannot be used until 14 days of curing
Force of friction is high Composition of structure:
Road Structure Cross Section is composed of the following components:
4.Surface/Wearing Course CC302 Highway Engineering INSTRUCTIONAL DURATION: 15 WEEKS
HIGHWAY ENGINEERING provides knowledge on history of highway construction and the organization involved in Malaysia. The emphasis of this course is on the technical planning, pre-construction of the highway, pavement materials used in highway construction and methods of construction of highway. This course also emphasize on drainage system, traffic control devices and road furniture, flexible pavement design, highway maintenance and conducting laboratory works. LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:- 1. Explain briefly the history of road and highway construction
2. Apply the correct concepts of highway engineering to the solution of practical problems
3. Independently seek information on construction of flexible pavement and rigid pavement highway and requirement to meet the quality control.
4. Demonstrate positive team working attributes by contributing actively in group for laboratory tests that yield valid results. BAB 1 INTRODUCTION TO HIGHWAY 1.1 Understand the history of highway construction a. Laterite road
b. Roman road
c. Pierre Tresaguet road
d. John Metcalf road
e. Thomas Telford road
f. John Macadam road a. laterite road laterite from the Latin word later, which means a brick; this rock can easily be cut into brick-shaped blocks for building. A represents soil; B represents laterite, a regolith; C represents saprolite, a less-weathered regolith; D represents bedrock .After invention of wheel, animal drawn bullock carts continued to be the popular mode of transport for quite a long time. This necessitated in providing hard surface for wheeled carts. The first hard surface was discovered in Mesopotamia at about 3500 B.C. B. roman road How the Road was Built... 1) First, the army builders would clear the ground of rocks and trees. They then dug a trench where the road was to go and filled it with big stones.
2) Next, they put in big stones, pebbles, cement and sand which they packed down to make a firm base.,
3) Then they added another layer of cement mixed with broken tiles.
4) On top of that, they then put paving stones to make the surface of the road. These stones were cut so that they fitted together tightly.
5) Kerb stones were put at the sides of the road to hold in the paving stones and to make a channel for the water to run away. The Roman roads were a vital part of the development of the Roman state, from about 500 BC through the expansion during the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. Roman roads enabled the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate. The Roman road system spanned more than 400,000 km of roads, including over 80,500 km of paved roads. c. pierre tresaguet road a roman street in Pompeii Pierre-Marie-Jérôme Trésaguet (1716 – 1796) was a French engineer. He is widely credited with establishing the first scientific approach to road building about the year 1764. Among his innovations was the use of a base layer of large stone covered with a thin layer of smaller stone. The advantage of this two-layer configuration was that when rammed or rolled by traffic the stones jammed into one another forming a strong wear resistant surface which offered less obstruction to traffic. First of all an earth foundation was excavated parallel with but about ten inches below the finished surface of the new road. This was convex in cross section to encourage water to drain off the finished surface.
Next, large stones were laid on edge and any protruding pieces on their upper edges broken off to leave an even surface. This stone foundation was covered with a second course of smaller rounded stones.
Finally a third layer of hard broken stone, (about the size of walnuts) was spread by a shovel to produce the surface layer.
This system was used continuously in France from 1775 until 1820 when the country changed to the cheaper Macadam method John Metcalf (17171810), also known as Blind Jack of Knaresborough or Blind Jack Metcalf, was the first of the professional road builders to emerge during the British Industrial Revolution.
Blind from the age of six, John had an eventful life, which was well documented by his own account just before his death. In the period 1765 to 1792 he built about 300 km (180 miles) of turnpike road, mainly in the north of England. d. John Metcalf road But it is believed that he was following the procedure outlined by Robert Philips in 1737. Robert Philips method consisted of laying gravel layer upon a well drained and dried sub-grade. Gravel layer was used to be compacted in due course of time, by the action of the traffic using road. thickness = 30cm
faundation layer = 8cm
top wearing course = 5cm
cross slope = 1:45 E. Thomas Telford Road gravel excavated road materials large stone foundation gravel/broken stone 50mm max size f. John Macadan Road A level sub-grade which may be on embankment or cutting was prepared in the required width. Telford adopted 9 mm width of the road. On the prepared sub-grade a layer of large size stone boulders, varying in size from 17 cm near the edges to a maximum size of about 22 cm at the centre of the width of the road was laid. Laying of the stones was done by packing. By using smaller size stone near the edges and larger size near centre, a cross slope, of 1 in 45 in road surface was developed. The interstices in this boulder foundation layer were filled with smaller stones and chippings and properly compacted. 150 mm layer of stone no bigger than 60 mm in size on top of the rock foundation telford picthing McAdam's method was more simple and yet more effective at protecting roadways: he discovered that massive foundations of rock upon rock were unnecessary, and asserted that native soil alone would support the road and traffic upon it, as long as it was covered by a road crust that would protect the soil underneath from water and wear. Unlike Telford and other road builders of the time, McAdam laid his roads as level as possible. His 30-foot-wide (9.1 m) road required only a rise of three inches from the edges to the center. Cambering and elevation of the road above the water table enabled rain water to run off into ditches on either side. Size of stones was central to the McAdam's road building theory. The lower 200 mm road (7.8 inches) thickness was restricted to stones no larger than 75 mm. (2.9 in) The upper 50 mm (1.9 in) layer of stones was limited to 20 mm size (.787 in) and stones were checked by supervisors who carried scales. The importance of the 20 mm stone size was that the stones needed to be much smaller than the 100 mm width of the iron carriage tires which traveled on the road. McAdam believed that the "proper method" of breaking stones for utility and rapidity was accomplished by persons sitting down and using small hammers, breaking the stones so that none of them was larger than six ounces in weight. He also wrote that the quality of the road would depend on how carefully the stones were spread on the surface over a sizeable space, one shovelful at a time. McAdam directed that no substance which would absorb water and affect the road by frost should be incorporated into the road. Neither was anything to be laid on the clean stone to bind the road. The action of the road traffic would cause the broken stone to combine with its own angles, merging into a level, solid surface which would withstand weather or traffic. Through his road building experience McAdam had learned that a layer of broken angular stones would act as a solid mass and would not require the large stone layer previously used to build roads. By keeping the surface stones smaller than the tire width, a good running surface could be created for traffic. The small surface stones also provided low stress on the road, so long as it could be kept reasonably dry. Explain the professions that are involved in transportation and construction of roads and highways
b.Road and highway engineer
e.Structural engineer Agencies that are involved in highway construction
a. Road and Highway Planning Unit
b. Public Works Department
c. Highway Council Malaysia
d. Town / District / Local Council
e. City Council Categorize highways in Malaysia
a. Toll highway
b. Federal road
c. State road
d. Council/city council road
e. Rural road Takrif:
Rangkaian perhubungan antara bandar yang dibangunkan dan dikenakan bayaran.
Meningkatkan kadar kebolehgerakan
Mengurangkan kesesakan di atas lebuh raya persekutuan
Merangsang ekonomi a. Toll highway Takrif:
Laluan yang menghubungkan negeri-negeri di Semenanjung Malaysia.
Dibina dan diselenggara oleh JKR melalui peruntukan daripada kerajaan pusat.
Laluan Persekutuan I menghubungkan semua bandar besar di Pantai Barat SM bermula dari Kangar ke JB.
Laluan Persekutuan II menghubungkan Pantai Barat SM dengan Kuantan.
Laluan Persekutuan III menghubungkan bandar-bandar utama di Pantai Timur SM bermula dari Kuantan ke Kota Bharu. b. Federal road Bercabang dari Laluan Persekutuan untuk menghubungkan bandar dan pekan di dalam sesebuah negeri dan menjadi peredaran utama di dalam sesebuah negeri. Peruntukan pembinaan dan penyelenggaran menjadi tanggungjawab kerajaan negeri dan dilaksanakan JKR negeri. c. State road Bercabang dari Jalan Raya Negeri.
Di bawah bidang kuasa pihak berkuasa tempatan (Dwn Bandaraya, Majlis Perbandaran & Majlis Daerah).
Penyelenggaraan juga boleh dilaksanakan oleh JKR Daerah. d. city council road Bidang kuasa Pejabat Daerah dan kerja penyelenggaran boleh dilaksanakan oleh JKR Daerah.
Kebanyakkan jalan jenis tanah dan jika berturap mempunyai spesifikasi yang rendah. e. rural road R6/U6
Kadar kawalan masuk penuh dikenakan
Kemasukan boleh dilakukan melalui persilangan bertingkat
Bergerak jauh, laju, dijamin keselamatan & keselesaan
Taraf rekabentuk geometri tinggi, bwh LLM.
Darjah kawalan masuk separa
Jarak perjalanan agak jauh
Taraf reka bentuk geometri agak tinggi
Jalan raya lain boleh menyilanginya pada aras yang sama
Taraf reke bentuk geometri sederhana
Had kelajuan maksimum yang dibenarkan tidak tinggi R3/U3
Untuk menampung lalulintas tampatan sahaja
Taraf rekabentuk geometri rendah, Tiada sekatan kawalan masuk
Jalan raya sekunder dan jalan pengumpoul termasuk dalam heirakiini
Sama seperti R3/U3 tetapi taraf rekabentuk geometri lebih rendah, malahan terendah untuk jalan raya yang membawa lalu lintas dua hala.
Hierarki dan taraf rekabentuk geometri yang terendah. Lalulintas sehala. Rekabentuk jalan masuk ke kawasan terlarang dan perumahan kos rendah dibuat berdasarkan nilai angka hierarki jalan hierarki JALAN Fungsi:
Pengumpulan maklumat tentang ciri-ciri perjalanan dan operasi lalulintas.
Menyatupadukan perancangan jalanraya dengan perancangan guna tanah.
Merangka keperluan sektor jalanraya bagi program jangka pendek/panjang.
Menjalankan kajian kemungkinan terhadap projek jalanraya.
Mengkaji punca dan mengenal pasti tempat berlaku kemalangan serta merangka langkah untuk mengatasinya. A. Road and Highway Planning Unit Bertanggungjawab ke atas pelaksanaan projek pembangunan, khususnya pembinaan bangunan awam, jalanraya persekutuan, jalan raya negeri, jambatan dan lapangan terbang.
Penglibatan JKR bermula daripada peringkat perancangan sehingga projek siap dan seterusnya penyenggaraan.
Cawangan Jalan :
Berperanan merancang serta memelihara semua rangkaian jalanraya supaya berkeadaan baik dan selamat digunakan.
Kerja pemulihan jalan, termasuk melebar, membaiki dan mengukuhkan turapan, perparitan dan perkakasan jalan spt. Rel adang, bebendul jalan, lampu jalan dll. b.Public Works Department Peranan LLM termaktub dalam Akta 231:
Menyelia dan melaksanakan rekabentuk, pembinaan dan penyenggaraan lebuhraya.
Menyelia dan melaksanakan rekabentuk, pembinaan dan penyenggaraan kaw rehat dan rawat serta kemudahan lain.
Memungut tol dari pengguna lebuhraya dab bayaran lain yang berkaitan
Merancang dan menyelidik penggunaan lebuh raya dan kemudahan lain secara yang paling berkesan.
Melaksanakan sebarang tindakan untuk memajukan lagi lebuhraya dan kemudahan lain. c. Highway Council Malaysia PBT terdiri drpd Majlis Daerah, Majlis Perbandara dan Dewan Bandaraya
Mempunyai kuasa untuk merancang dan membangunkan kaw pentadbiran msg2 dlm semua aspek perancangan. d. Town/District/Local Council PBT bertanggungjawab:
Membuat peruntukan infrastruktur dan perancangan jalan raya
Mengurus dan mengawal kesesakan lalulintas
Menyediakan tempat letak kereta yang mencukupi serta membuat kutipan
Menyediakan perkhidmatan awam yang cekap, murah lagi berkesan
Mengawal pembinaan dan menyenggara jalan raya Lembaga Perlesenan Kenderaan Perdagangan (LPKP) Bertanggungjawab terhadap pengeluaran dan pengawalan permit lesen kenderaan perdagangan serta perkhidmatan awam spt bas, teksi/kereta sewa.
Fungsi terhad kepada membuat pertimbangan terhadap permohonan untuk mendapatkan lesen dan mengenakan syarat tertentu ke atas lesen yang diluluskan. Polis Negeri (Cawangan Lalulintas) Bertanggungjawab menjaga keselamatan dan disiplin di atas jalan raya, disamping menguatkuasakan dan melaksanakan undang-undang lalulintas. Peranan:
Memastikan lalulintas berjalan lancar dengan membuat rondaan dan menyuraikan kesesakan lalulintas di kawasan bandar.
Mengeluarkan saman dan mengutip kompaun daripada pengguna yang melanggar peraturan jalan.
Merekod, menganalisis dan menyiasat kemalangan jalanraya untuk mengenal pasti pihak yang bersalah
Mengawal lalulintas di tempat keramaian. Jabatan Perancangan Bandar Dan Desa Mengatur dan mengawal pembangunan selaras dengan peruntukan Akta Perancangan Bandar dan Desa 1976
Bagi sektor pengangkutan JPBD berperanan melaksanakan perancangan pengankutan bandar.
JPBD Negeri membantu Kerajaan Negeri dan PBT dalam perancangan guna tanah dan mengawal pembangunan supaya selaras dengan polisi negeri dan kebangsaan.
Menyediakan pelan struktur dan pelan tempatan yang meliputi pelbagai aspek perancangan termasuk pengangkutan. Jabatan Alam Sekitar Bertanggungjawab mengawal dan mengawasi pencemaran, memelihara serta mengekalkan alam sekitar semula jadi.
Dalam konteks pengangkutan:
Menguatkuasakan Peraturan Kenderaan Bermotor 1977 da bawah Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar 1974
Mengawal pencemaran hingar daripada kenderaan bermotor
Mengkaji dan menganalisis kesan persekitaran drpd projek pembinaan jalan dan lebuhraya untuk menyediakan laporan Penilaian Impak Alam Sekitar. Topic 2.0 PRE-CONSTRUCTION OF HIGHWAY