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Red Book of Ukraine

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Galia Denisyuk

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Red Book of Ukraine

Red Book of Ukraine
The Red Book of Ukraine records species of animals and plants that are permanently or temporarily staying or growing in the wild in the territory of Ukraine within its territorial waters, continental shelf and exclusive (maritime) economic zone and are endangered. Plant and animal species included in The Red Book of Ukraine are to be protected in the Ukraine.
Let’s consider some of the plants that are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.
Red Book of Ukraine - the main document that generalizes the current state of rare and endangered species under which development of scientific and practical measures for their protection, restoration and sustainable use is done.
Organization of preservation of the species of animals and plants listed in the Red Book of Ukraine relies on the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the Council of People's Deputies, local administrations, executive bodies of local self-government, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine and other state agencies which are charged by the laws of Ukraine and the Republic of Crimea.
The first red book devoted to Ukrainian flora and fauna, was published in 1980 under the name "The Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR".
Depending on the condition and extent of threats to populations of species listed in the Red Book of Ukraine, they are divided into the following categories: extinct (0), endangered (I), vulnerable (II), rare (III), unspecified (IV), unknown (V), recovered (VI).
Extinct:
species, about which after several searches conducted in typical areas or other known and probable locations of distribution, no information about their existence in the wild was found;
Endangered:
species in danger of extinction, conservation of which is unlikely if unfavourable effect is continued.
Vulnerable:
species that in the near future may be classified as "endangered " if the affecting action continues.
Rare:
species, which populations are small, which are not currently classified as "endangered" or "vulnerable", although they threatened;
Uncertain:
species are known, they are classified as "endangered", "vulnerable" or "rare", but there is no reliable information that enables us to determine which of these categories they belong to;
Unknown:
species that could be attributed to one of the above categories, but due to the lack of reliable information that remains to be determined;
Recovered:
species, which populations do not cause concern due to conservation measures, however, they are not to be used, and require constant monitoring.
Volume "Flora " consists of the following sections :
- Pteridophytes (Polypodiophyta)
- Gymnosperms (Gimnospermae (Pinophyta))
- Lycopsids (Lycopodiophyta)
- Angiosperms (Angiospermae (Magnoliophyta))
- Bryophytes (Bryophyta)
- Seaweed (Algae)
- Lichens (Lichenes)
- Mushrooms (Fungi (Mycota, Mycophyta))

In the Red Book of Ukraine the following information is specified
on each of the species included in it:

- Category
- Distribution,
- The main location
- Number in nature, including those outside of Ukraine and its changes
- Information about the propagation or captive breeding
- Measures taken and to be taken for their protection,
- Sources of information.

The book also contains maps and photos (pictures) of plant and animal species included in it.

The presentation of information about plant and animal species in the Red Book of Ukraine is defined by the National Commission on the Red Book of Ukraine. Operation of the Red Book of Ukraine is governed by the "Regulations on the Red Book of Ukraine", which was approved by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on October 29.
Lycopsids (Lycopodiophyta)

1.1. Common Baranets Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank et Mart. (Lycopodium selago L.)

ORDO:
moss

FAMILIA:
Lambs

Status :
I category.

Distribution:
Ukrainian Carpathians, Polissia, Roztochia, northern part of the steppe zone. Species is common in Europe, West and East Siberia, the Far East, in Middle Asia and the North America.

Designated Growth:
Shaded moist forests, swamps margin, gravel slopes, wet soils.

Number:
Populations are few, rare.


Reasons for change in the population:
collecting plants as medicinal plants, deforestation, recreational activities.

General Characteristics:
Perennial, yellowish or pale green plant. Stem 5-25 cm tall, dichotomous branching, densely covered with lanceolate or linear- lanceolate leaves solid . Spore production July - October.

Measures of protection:
the Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR (1980). Protected in reserves - Carpathian (biosphere) and the Roztochia (natural) and sanctuaries, particularly in Buschanskyi of state value (Ostrog district of Rivne region). All locations of species should be identified, especially in the forest-steppe zone, new protected areas should be created.
1.2. Spiny moss Lycopodium annotinun L.

ORDO:
moss

FAMILIA:
moss

Status:
II category.

Distribution:
Ukrainian Carpathians Polissia, occasionally - Volyn Upland, Minor Polissia and northern part of the steppe zone. Species is common in the West and East Europe, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, in the West and East Siberia and the Far East.

Designated Growth:
Coniferous and mixed rainforest (forms curtain).

Number:
multiple populations, their number decreases.

Reasons for change in the population:
Deforestation , recreational load , picking plants as a decorative plant.

General Characteristics :
Perennial herb 10-30 cm tall stem creeping , long, cylindrical , rooted at the nodes , sparsely covered with linear- lanceolate leaves upward . Strobili solitary, sessile, cylindrical. Spore production in July - September.


Measures of protection :
the Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR (1980). Protected in Polissya natural and Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. The status of populations should be constantly monitored.

1.3. Lake quillwort Isoetes lacustris L.

ORDO:
moss

FAMILIA:
Isoetaceae

Status :
II category .

Distribution:
West Polissia. Species is common in the Atlantic and the Central Europe, the Scandinavia, West Siberia, North America.

Designated Growth:
shoal mesotrophic lakes with sandy bottom at depth of 0,5-1,8 m.

Number:
Forms thickets, mostly monodominant. Two location are known.

Reasons for change in the population :
Pollution of lakes and wetland drainage tracts that surround them.

General Characteristics :
Perennial herb up to 20 cm. Stem bulbous, awl-like leaves, dark green. Sporangia solitary, located at the base of leaves. Spore production in July - September.

Measures of protection :
It is advisable to create a Conservation Area on the lake Voronky (Volodymyrets district of Rivne region).

2. Pteridophytes (Polypodiophyta)

2.1. Adiant lady hair Adiantum capillus-veneris L.

ORDO:
Centipede

FAMILIA:
Adiantovi

Status :
I category .

Distribution:
South coast of Crimea (near waterfalls Uchansu and Jur- Jur, outskirts of the city of Yalta and Mishora tops Ai- Petri Yavluz , Yauzlar and Castel). Species is common in Atlantic Europe, East and West Mediterranean, the Caucasus, in Middle Asia.

Habitat :
Wet rocks (mainly limestone) and clefts near waterfalls, along the rivers and streams.

Number:
Populations are few.

Reasons for change in the population :
Reduced humidity, disturbance of growth, harvesting as an ornamental plant .

Background:
Long- ferny plant height of 20-30 cm, with long creeping rhizome. The leaves are light green, thin , ovate; can survive winter. Shanks are black-brown, thin and shiny. Spore production in June - August. Propagated by spores and vegetatively.

Measures of protection :
the Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR (1980). Protected in nature reserves - Yalta mountain forest and Cape Martian . It is necessary to create reserves in habitat of species.

2.2. Marsilia quadrifolia L.

ORDO:
Marsyliyi

FAMILIA:
Marsileaceae

S
tatus :
I category .

Distribution:
West Polissia (Shatsky Lakes ), Transcarpathia steppe zone ( flowing Danube and Dniester) , occasionally - right-bank forest-steppe . Species are common in Western Europe ( except northern regions) , south of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Iran, China, Japan , North America, Australia and Africa.

Designated Growth:
shoal water with stagnant water , muddy shores ; drying areas for the summer creates a ground form.

Number:
a few populations , especially in coastal waters. Several populations has not been studied .

Reasons for change in the population :
overgrown ponds , their pollution, coastal zone development and reclamation activities.

General Characteristics :
Perennial ( ferny ) aquatic plant (length 22 cm). Rhizome creeping , shallow roots develop on its nodes. Leaves petiolate (length 5-15 cm) plate that has four wedge- obovate leaves. Spore production in July - September.

Measures of protection :
the Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR (1980). Protected in Shatsky National Nature Reserve . It is advisable to examine the status of populations (especially in the Carpathians and in the floodplain of the South Bug) in order to create reserves.

2.3. Salvinia natans All.

ORDO:
Salvini

FAMILIA:
Salviniaceae

Status :
II category .

Distribution:
All territory of Ukraine ( in the valleys of the Dnieper, the Desna , South Bug, Seversky Donets) - sporadically. Species is common in the Centeral Europe, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, on Wednesday. Asia and the West Siberia, China, Japan , North America.

Habitat :
freshwater shoal and standing water (depth 0.5-2.5 m) of silty sand and silty - peat sediments. In the lower reaches of the river is characterized by grouping species into other places creates only frahm.

Number:
Populations are sharply reduced in polluted waters.

Reasons for change in the population :
ecotypes drainage , salinity and water pollution .

General Characteristics:
An annual herb ( ferny ) aquatic plant length 10 - 20 cm stem (diameter 1-2 mm) floating branches. The leaves are three rings: two - floating ovate, arranged in pairs , the third - submerged , dissected, covered with brown hairs. Spore production in August - September. Propagated by spores and vegetatively.

Measures of protection :
the Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR (1980). Protected in nature reserves : the Danube Plavni , Lugansk ( Luhansk Stanichno brach), Kaniv, Roztochia and sanctuaries of state value (including Sacred Lake in Kozeletska district of Chernihiv region.) . It is necessary to investigate the status of populations.

3. Gymnosperms (Gimnospermae (Pinophyta))

3.1. High Juniper Juniperus excelsa Bieb.

ORDO:
Cypress

FAMILIA:
Cupressaceae

Scientific significance:
Relict of Mediterranean species in the northern limit of the range.

Status :
II category .

Distribution:
South. Crimean coast ( from Cape Aya to Karadag ). Species is common in the Balkan, Crete, in Asia Minor, West Caucasus.

Places of growth :
Mostly - coastal steep slopes (up to height 400 m above sea level) , mostly southern , with gravel - stone.

Number:
in communities grows largely, in other places grow in small groups and individually.

Reasons for change in the population :
Cutting , recreational load , construction, lack of natural regeneration .

General Characteristics:
Evergreen tree to 15 m tall. Lifespan 600 years. Leaves 1 mm. Cone (diameter approx. 1 cm) purple- black, woody scales are formed , mature in one year , in the fall . Flowers in March – April. Propagated by seeds. High light plant.

Measures of protection :
protected in nature reserves - Yalta mountain forest . Cape Martian and Karadag , the Conservation Area Ajudag , Karaul -Oba . New World, Kanaka etc. It is necessary to investigate the dynamics of populations of species, introduce it into a culture.

3.2. Yew Taxus baccata L.

ORDO:
yew

FAMILIA:
Taxaceae

Scientific significance:
Relict species (tertiary) with disjunctive habitat.

Status :
III category .

Distribution:
Ukrainian Carpathians, Crimean Mountains. Species is widespread in mountainous areas West and SE Europe, the Mediterranean, on Middle East, North Iran and the Caucasus.

Designated Growth:
hornbeam and beech, beech and beech-pine forests. In carbonate rocks, often on limestone rocks, in crevices.

Number:
There are more than 40 locations. Local populations, are few, their number is decreasing.

Reasons for change in the population :
massive logging in the past for mahogany.

Background:
deciduous trees or shrub - 16 m, with plate or smooth bark. It grows slowly. The life span is 1 to 3 thousand years. Wood heavy, strong, red. The leaves (needles) needle-like, dark green , shiny, bottom - light green , dull ; toxic (containing alkaloid Thaksin ). Seeds are edible. It flowers in April - May. Fruits in September - October. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively. Shade-tolerant plants.


Measures of protection :
the Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR (1980). Protected in Yalta mountain forest and natural Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, sanctuaries Kniazhdvir ( Kolomiysky district , Ivano-Frankivsk region.). Yew Ravine ( Storozhynets district , Chernivtsi region. ) Jajla - Karabakh (Belogorsky district, Crimea), the Grand Canyon of Crimea ( Bakhchisarai region ) and others. It is recommended to create a botanical reserves and natural monuments in all places of berry yew growth, and increase its plantation area (in forests, botanical gardens, parks ).

3.3. Polish larch Larix polonica Racib.

ORDO:
Pine

FAMILIA:
Pinaceae

Status :
I category .

Distribution:
Ukrainian Carpathians (Kedryn and Maniava ). Species is common in the Carpathians.

Designated Growth:
Predominantly coniferous forests (including European pine).

Number:
Populations few.

Reasons for change in the population :
Cutting for mahogany.

General description :
A tree with soft needles that are shed in the winter, 20-30 m tall growing rapidly . Life expectancy - more than 500 years. Wood reddish-brown, resinous , durable . Cones are small, 15-25 mm long , ovate. Seeds are small, winged . It flowers in April - May. Fruits in September - October. Propagated by seeds. Light- , cold-resistant plant.

Measures of protection :
the Red Book of the Ukrainian SSR (1980). Protected in sanctuary Kedrynske (Tachivski district , Transcarpathian region) And Maniava Cell ( Bohorodchanske district , Ivano-Frankivsk region.) . Grows in woods , parks and botanical gardens. It is necessary to organize the genetic forest reserves , grow Polish larch in forestry.

Over the long history of our planet many living beings are forever gone, but today this dangerous phenomenon has accelerated. It is believed that the species are endangered, when the total number of individuals less than one thousand or fewer individuals are born than die. Scientists estimate that every day on Earth is dying one kind of plant or animal.
Red Book is called "Book of anxiety and hope". Red Book of Ukraine includes information about rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi, and advice on their propagation.

Thank you
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