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The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
Transcript of The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
3.1.III During the second industrial revolution (c.1870-1914), more areas of Europe experienced industrial activity, and industrial processes increased in scale and complexity.
A. Mechanization of the factory system became the predominant modes of production by 1914.
B. New technologies and means of communication and transportation-including railroads-resulted in more fully integrated national economies, a higher level of urbanization, and a truly global economic network.
3.3.I The problems of industrialization provoked a range of ideological, governmental, and collective responses.
E. Anarchists asserted that all forms of governmental authority were unnecessary and should be overthrown and replaced with a society based on cooperation
What was the 2nd Industrial Revolution, and what effects did it have on European economic and social life?
What role did socialists parties and trade unions play in improving conditions for the working class?
Second Industrial Revolution
• Substitution of iron for steel
o Easier and lighter to shape
o Increased production and standardization of quality through the Bessemer process
o Germany overtook England in the production of chemicals
ex) artificial dyes
Easily and cheaply converted into heat, light, and motion
1881 Britain constructed first power plant in 1881
o Availability of Electricity spawned other inventions
Illuminated homes and cities—Edison
Guglieno Maroni sent first transatlantic radio waves – 1901
First electric railway—Berlin – 1879
• Electric railcars began to spread across major cities in Europe
o Electricity allowed those countries who were lagging behind to catch up in regard to industrialization.
• Internal Combustion Engine
o Gave rise to the automobile and airplane
Gottleib Daimler developed a lighter-weight version of the engine
In 1900 there were about 9,000 cars
1906, Americans take lead in automobile production
1916, through the use of the moving assembly line, Henry Ford and his company produced 735,000 cars per year.
o Wright Brother –Kitty Hawk, NC—1903
o Airplane production would see a dramatic increase due to the outbreak of World War I.
• In an effort to reap the benefits of domestic markets, countries would institute tariffs, or taxes on imported goods.
o This causes the cost of products that are similar to domestically produced products would be more expensive, thus leading the people to purchase the goods produced domestically
• Within domestic market, there would be a rise in cartels
o Cartels are independent enterprises within domestic markets to work together to set prices and fix quotas
o Decreases the competition that would otherwise set and control prices
Perfect example—Germany wanted to “eliminate the anarchy of competition
• Large Factories
o Iron, Steel, machinery, heavy electrical equipment, chemicals
• Between 1882 and 1907 the number of Germans working in factories that employed more than 1,00o numbered between 205,000-879,000
The increased size led to pressure for more efficiency in production
• Cut labor costs through mechanization
• Develop precision tool production of interchangeable parts
• Assembly lines were used for making non-military goods
• Principle of scientific management
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
• Although there was a spike in prosperity…recessions and depressions
o However, from 1895-1914 Europe experienced a “Golden Age” known as the ‘la Belle époque’
• 1870-Germany surpasses Britain as the industrial leader in Europe
England had already established factories and found it very difficult to switch to the new techniques
Germany entered the game late. They had the ability to adapt to the new production methods (ie electricity) utilizing the most efficient, cheapest and newest.
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
• The women’s right to work was a very controversial topic (sorry Susie)
o Reinforcement of domesticity – a women’s place is in the home.
This was to ensure the moral and physical well-being of the family
This ideology often forced women to work in menial jobs
• White-collar jobs
o A large number of these jobs were created by the growing number of government agencies
Clerks, typists, secretaries, file clerks, sales clerks
Compulsory education created the need for teachers
Increase in the number of nurses.
o Women may also be forced to engage in prostitution to even barely survive.
Organizing the Working Class
• Socialist parties
o Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel formed the German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
SPD reinforced Marxist ideals
Ran for seats in the German legislature known as the Reichstag
+Primary goal was to improve the working and living conditions for the working class
o 1890-SPD had about 1.5 million votes and controlled 35 of the 397 seats
o 1912-SPD received 4 million votes and controlled 110 of 397 seats
• Evolutionary Socialism
o Marxism believed in the complete and immediate collapse of the capitalist system
o Eduard Bernstein
Founded the idea of evolutionary socialism in a book by the same title
• The capitalist system was not breaking through Marxist forces
• Middle class was indeed expanding
• Position of the proletariat was improving
• There was a higher standard of living
• Workers must continue to organize into national parties to gain political power and make changes
• Evolution through democratic means…not revolution
This system was condemned by a large number of socialist leaders
o The Problems of Nationalism
According to Marx and Engels, “The working men have no country…national differences and antagonism between peoples are daily more and more vanishing…”
However, socialist parties, in reality, had some degree of nationalist tendencies
o The Anarchist Alternative
Socialist parties and trade unions became less and less radical in achieving their goals
• Led to anarchism
o Popular in less-democratic/less-industrialized nations
• Early anarchists believed that people were inherently good…they had been corrupted by captitalism and the state.
• True freedom could be established through the abolition of all institutions
In the second half of the nineteenth century, anarchists is some nations advocated violence as a means to an end.
• Michael Bakunin
o Believed that a well armed, well trained force could wreak so much havoc on the state, that it would disintegrate
“Slavery, poverty, weakness, and ignorance—the external forces of man—will be broken. Man will be at the center of nature. The earth and its products will serve everyone dutifully. Weapons will cease to be the measure of strength and gold a measure of wealth; the strong will be those who are bold and daring in the conquest of nature, and riches will be the things that are useful. Such a world is called “Anarchy.” It will have no castles, no place for masters and slaves. Life will be open to all. Everyone will take what her needs—this is the anarchist ideal. And when it comes about, men will live wisely and well. The masses must take part in the construction of this paradise on earth.”
o In an effort to satisfy these ideals, anarchists would make their mark through the technique of assassination.
Russian Tsar Alexander II
French president of the Third Republic Marie François Sadi Carnot
President William McKinley
King Umberto I of Italy