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Construction of the Berlin Wall

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Jaileen Cruz

on 18 May 2016

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Transcript of Construction of the Berlin Wall

Construction of the Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall
Summary
The Berlin walls construction began on August 13,1961 and was finished on the same day. The wall stood standing until November 9, 1989. It was constructed to keep communist inside. The Capitalist were stuck inside the barrier on the West side of Berlin. The East side of Berlin was for Communist. At first, the wall was constructed of barbed wire, they then put a concrete wall over it. This wall tore families and friends apart. People were not allowed to pass, even to just visit their families.
Map
This map shows how Berlin was separated, both times. It shows the first time, when it was separated into four sectors, and the second time when it was split into two. It also shows who owns which sector. It shows the supply airplanes, and it also shows the Berlin wall.
Primary Source 1
"Facial Recognition Manual," Making the History of 1989, Item #717, https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/717 . This source is an explanation of the manual that East German police had to use to recognize their own. They used this to tell whether someone trying to cross the wall was a secret agent or if they were citizens who did not have permission to go abroad. This manual made the reader count the number of lines on a person’s forehead, the shape of their ear, and many other facial features.
Reagan Library, "Reagan at the Berlin Wall," Making the History of 1989, Item #553, https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/553. This source is an explanation of the speech that Ronald Reagan gave. If you go to the link where it says “click here” you will be led to another page that really breaks down his speech. His speech is about how he wants General Secretary Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin wall. Ronald Reagan says his speech in front of the Berlin wall.
Primary source 2
Primary source 3
Central Intelligence Agency, "Polish Fears of German Reunification," Making the History of 1989, Item #324, https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/324. This source is telling me how the Polish felt once the Berlin wall went down. They were concerned and scared. This helps me understand how people on the outside of Berlin felt about this. Polish for example, felt safer with the wall. But Berlin was not comfortable with the wall. And therefore the wall was knocked down. This scared the Polish because there was still tension between them and East Germany. With the wall East Germany didn’t have enough time to worry about them.
Timeline

May 8, 1945: Berlin is divided into 4 parts:the American, British, French in the West and the Soviet in the East
June 23, 1948: Currency reform in Berlin, Berlin is divided into two different currency zones
June 24, 1948: Berlin blockade begins
June 25, 1948: Berlin Airlift begins
May 12, 1949: End of Berlin blockade
September 30, 1949: End of Berlin Airlift
May 26, 1952: Border between East and West Germany and between East Germany and West Berlin is closed. Only the border between East and West Berlin is still opened
August 13, 1961: The Berlin sectoral border between East and West Berlin is closed, barriers are built
August 26, 1961: All crossing points are closed for West Berlin citizens
December 17, 1963: West Berliner citizen may visit East Berlin the first time after more than two years
September 3, 1971: Four Power's Agreement over Berlin visiting becomes easier for West Berliners
June 12, 1987: President Ronald Reagan visits Berlin and urges Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall.
November 9, 1989: Berlin Wall was taken down.
October 3, 1990: Germany is reunited
Implications of event
Once the Berlin wall was constructed people in Berlin were upset because they were separated from their friends and family. But the the people in Poland were happy because they knew that they would not have to deal with East Germany for a while. People in Berlin tried to cross the wall but failed. Once the wall was torn down the Polish got scared. But the people in Berlin were happy because they can finally reunite with their families.
Vocab
Communism - noun: a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
Capitalism - noun: an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Cold War - noun: a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare, in particular.
Truman Doctrine - noun: the principle that the US should give support to countries or peoples threatened by Soviet forces or communist insurrection. First expressed in 1947 by US President Truman in a speech to Congress seeking aid for Greece and Turkey, the doctrine was seen by the communists as an open declaration of the Cold War.
Marshall Plan - There was no part of speech for this: A program by which the United States gave large amounts of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after the devastation of World War II. It was proposed by the United States secretary of state, General George C. Marshall.
Satellite State - There was no part of speech for this: A program by which the United States gave large amounts of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after the devastation of World War II. It was proposed by the United States secretary of state, General George C. Marshall.
Interesting Facts
The fall of the Berlin Wall happened by mistake.
The Berlin Wall was constructed more than 15 years into the Cold War.
The Berlin Wall was actually two walls.
More than 100 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall.
John F. Kennedy expressed relief when the Berlin Wall was constructed.
East Germany called the wall the “Antifascist Bulwark.”
A piece of the wall stands in the bathroom of a Las Vegas casino.
Sources
https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/324
https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/553
https://chnm.gmu.edu/1989/items/show/717
http://www.dailysoft.com/berlinwall/history/berlinwall-timeline.htm
http://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-berlin-wall
Full transcript