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Mexican American War and Westward expansion
Transcript of Mexican American War and Westward expansion
"American Blood shed on American Soil
If we fight this war there will be many consequences. Here are some examples of what might happen with our relationship with Mexico.
Mexico will dislike the US.
We are wrongfully taking their land.
Mexico had never accepted the Annexation of Texas
Look at this map...
Opposition to the War
Right now there are many senators that protest the war.
feels that this war doesn't have a good reason to be fought.
feels President Polk is fighting it just to gather slave states.
feels it's a threat to America's republican values.
Many average people were so opposed to the war they didn't pay their taxes.
Henry Clay stated, "This is no war of defense, but one of unnecessary and offensive aggression."
Casualties of War
Casualties are one of the most horrible aspects of war.
The U.S. was better equipped and better led
America is on track to only lose slightly less than half of the total soldiers
Between the two countries that adds up to about 42,435 lives taken or wounded in one war.
Many of the soldiers that fought together in the Mexican - American War, would fight against each other during the Civil War.
Is that enough reason to fight a war against a developing country?
Do you think that's fair?
The Mexican Cession of 1848 is a historical name in the United States for the region of the present day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, but had not been part of the areas east of the Rio Grande which had been claimed by the Republic of Texas, though the Texas Annexation resolution two years earlier had not specified Texas's southern and western boundary.
What were the driving forces behind the United States' quest for Manifest Destiny during the 19th century?
The expansion movement was a blend of the democratic process and spirit of the times (Manifest Destiny)
Declaring war against Mexico was not unanimous
Acquiring lands was a philosophical belief
Nations growth is a slow process by conflicts and challenges.
The US claimed the Rio Grande River was the boundary, Mexico claimed the Nueces River was the boundary
What was the Nickname of the
during the Mexican - American War?
Compromise of 1850
California admitted as a free state
Slave trade prohibited in Washington D.C.
Texas loses boundary dispute with New Mexico Texas gets $10 million
Compromise of 1850
No slavery restrictions in Utah or New Mexico territories
Slaveholding permitted in Washington D.C.
Fugitive Slave Law
4. Relations between the United States and Mexico remained tense, with several military encounters along the border.
5. For the United States, this war provided a training-ground for the armies in the upcoming American Civil War.
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Ended the War between Mexico and U.S.
February 2, 1848
U.S. paid $15 million
Protocol of Queretaro – Civil and Property rights would remain the same.
Rio Grande Southern boundary
The Gold Rush of 1849 made
a booming port city on the West Coast
Theodore Judah, a rail construction engineer, is credited with making the actual beginning of the first Transcontinental Railroad
Reason for the Gadsden Purchase
What were the arguments for and against the annexation of Texas?
What created tensions between the United States and Mexico in the 1840s?
What were the causes and effects of the Mexican-American War?
What is Manifest Destiny?
What groups / cultures were affected?
War with Mexico Group work You have Ten minutes to work on this then each group will present
1. The United States acquired the northern half of Mexico. This area later became the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Utah.
2. President Santa Anna lost power in Mexico following the war.
3. U.S. General Zachary "Old Rough and Ready" Taylor used his fame as a war hero to win the Presidency in 1848.
Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator
Results of the war
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago (1848) forced Mexico to turn over a huge tract of land known as the Mexican Cession, while the U.S. paid Mexico $15 million. Debate continues over whether the Mexican-American War was justified.
Fighting the war
While Slidell was in Mexico, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to take his troops into the disputed border territory. The U.S. used the event of a minor skirmish to declare war on Mexico.
The war starts
American forces under Taylor advanced into northern Mexico. General Winfield Scott marched his forces into Mexico City. In a matter of months, U.S. forces had captured New Mexico and California. When their capital fell, the Mexican government was forced to give in.
G - Mexican Cession
Polk offers to buy G from Mexico & they refuse
In Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, US offers $15 million for G
Explain the cause and effects of the Mexican American War. (Key Terms 1846-1848, John Slidell, Zachary Taylor, James Polk, Santa Anna, Texas Rangers, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Gadsden Purchase)
The Mexican American War
The United States sent John Slidell to buy some land from Mexico
The U.S. would pay Mexico $30 million for the Western half of New Mexico and cede California
Both Forces clashed at
The U.S. declared war on
May 13, 1846
" Los Diablos Tejanos"
meant the U.S. controlled the area between
Old Rough and Ready - Zachary Taylor
Old Fuss and Feathers - Winfield Scott
March 3 – Manifest Destiny -Copies of John O’Sullivan Documents and Guiding Questions
Painting “American Progress.” Ask students to write:
What do you see in this painting?
The floating white woman in this painting is heading West.
What do you think she represents? How is this symbolized in the painting?
Map of United States in 1872
By 1872, the United States had already expanded to the PacificOcean.
This is after the Louisiana Purchase, after the War with Mexico.
So this painting is basically celebrating what had already happened.
Why did he choose to draw the map this way?
This is Melish’s explanation for why he drew the map that way.
Hand out Melish Map and have students answer questions.Manifest Destiny
What do you think of this explanation?
What does this say about the power of maps?
Do you think Melish would have said that his map is inaccurate?
Hand out O’Sullivan documents and Guiding Questions. Student should work
on the questions in pairs.
Review student answers.
Why did Americans think they were so special?
Are you surprised by the reasons that O’Sullivan gives for expansion?
Do you think he really believes that God wants Americans to expand?
This theory that Americans are special is called “American
Exceptionalism.” It’s this idea that America has had such a unique
history and has become so powerful that there’s something really
special about it.
Where did your family come from?
What is the term called that counts Americans?
Because of the war, the Rio Grande River became the official border with Mexico
Mitchell's map influenced boundary disputes and treaties in North America for nearly a century after its publication, the Melish map similarly became the essential source map for the 19th Century. It has been described by several commentators as the visual embodiement of Manifest Destiny to an American public searching for a graphic depiction of America's territorial acquisitions from coast-to-coast in the early 19th Century.
The first federal census taken in Texas, 1850, revealed that 212,000 persons (including slaves) inhabited the state.
By the eve of the Civil War, the Texas population had tripled to over 604,000.
From Harpers Weekly:
WE publish above a sketch, by one of our most reliable artists, of a TEXAN RANGER. A gentleman, just from Richmond, gave the following account of these redoubtable warriors
Ben McCullough's Texan Rangers are described as a desperate set of fellows. They number one thousand, half savages, each of whom is mounted upon a mustang horse. Each is armed with a pair of Colt's navy revolvers, a rifle, a tomahawk, a Texan bowie-knife, and a lasso. They are described as being very dexterous in the use of the latter.
John S. "Rip" Ford. As a captain of Texas rangers, Ford played a critical role in protecting the Texas frontier.
How did President Polk avoid war with Britain over Oregon?
What were the causes & result of the Mexican-American War?
How was the United States able to fulfill it’s “Manifest Destiny” through the Mexican-American War?
“In his History of Texas (1855),” historian Henderson K. Yoakum “portrayed Texans as a people nourished by American democratic institutions and possessed of an industry and energy then breaking a path for civilization and republican institutions. To Yoakum, Texans were ably helping to fulfill the United States’ manifest destiny. (Calvert, De León & Cantrell, 130.)
The climate, soil, rivers, mountains, and vegetation of a place.
What is Physical Geography?
Texas was annexed (admitted as a state) in 1845.
Mexico was upset because they felt Texas still belonged to them.
Why was Texas Annexation controversial?
BAD ROADS AND BRIDGES = DIFFICULT transportation
Conditions for travel remained as poor as they had been during the period of the republic, which slowed a nonetheless growing economy. The state government entrusted internal improvements to the counties, but inadequate resources compelled local authorities to let bad roads languish. Besides the sorry shape of the roads, few bridges existed. Water travel was also quite arduous, for Navigation into the Gulf remained treacherous.
The defeats at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma caused political turmoil in Mexico, which Antonio López de Santa Anna used to revive his political career and return to Mexico from Cuba.
He promised the U.S. that if allowed to pass through their blockade of Mexico, he would negotiate a peaceful conclusion to the war and sell the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. Once he arrived in Mexico he reneged and offered his military skills to the Mexican government. After he had been appointed general he seized the presidency.
Santa Anna!!!! AGAIN
WHO WOULD THEY CHOOSE?
The Mexicans needed a leader.
Mexico and the United States disagreed about their border (Nueces River v. Rio Grande).
The Mexican and U.S. army fought in conflicted area and the U.S. Mexican War began.
What border issue led to the U.S. Mexican War?
In 1848, Gold was discovered! People came a year later in 1849 to find gold and that’s why their called 49er’s. Hmmm? Sounds like a good name for a football team.
What’s the next part?
Annexation of Texas -1845
Louisiana Purchase in 1803 from France
Mexican Cession - 1848
Oh, there it is!
From the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819
This became Part of the U.S. in 1783 With the Treaty of Paris
What land did Thomas Jefferson purchase when he was President?
What area made up the U.S during the Revolutionary War from 1776 -1782?
What river formed the western border of the U.S. in 1800?
What small area was acquired in 1818?
March 2, Texas Independence Day
Go to San Antonio, to learn about your ancestors
What can you learn about a map
Frontier Settlements of Texas
Complete the Map with your group
The completion of Manifest Destiny has been completed?
Which path would you choose?
As a result of the Oregon Treaty, the U.S. achieved is goal of what? (View the map)
Details on Map
Before Mexican - American War
What does the term expenditures mean?
What failed event led to Texas captives having to draw beans in order to decide their fate?
Today, March 6 marks the end of the
13 Day Siege at the Alamo