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Grace Henderson

on 28 October 2014

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Transcript of BUDDHISM

Traditions Project
LIB 335-02

Creation & Development of Scripture
Buddhist Texts
Buddhism does not have just one text!
Three Baskets of Literature (Tipitaka)
Literary Forms
Grace Henderson
Amanda Minano
Jesse Slocum
Jamie Klap

During the 5th century Gautama was a man born to become a Bhodisattva (a being destined to become a Buddha). Gautama led a very sheltered life and horrors of the world, old age, disease, and death, where kept from him. Upon learning of these horrors Gautama went on a personal journey to discover how to truly achieve enlightenment
5th Century BCE
Buddha dies at age 80
4th Century BCE
The Sangha divides into the Mahasanghika "Great Sangha" and the Theravadins "Adherents of the Teaching of the Elders"
After Gautama (the Buddha) died there was little central authority over the Sangha. This lead to a meeting of monks at Vaisali for the “Second Council” where they decided on what the doctrines should be and how to go about disciplinary actions. Although many groups formed the Mahasanghika “Great Sangha” (the liberals) and theTheravadins “Adherents of the Teaching of the Elders” (the conservatives) were the two main groups. Although the two groups had different ideas about the doctrines and disciplines they were able to work well together and even live in the same communities.
3rd Century BCE
King Asoka supports the spread of Buddhism
Centuries after the death of the Buddha King Asoka conquered all of India and converted to Buddhism. He used the ideals of Buddhism to rule his newly conquered land. He created laws to decrease the strain on the land and to treat each other with respect and kindness. He never spoke directly if the Four Noble Truths however he used their main principals to govern his rule. Asoka also sent Buddhist missionaries all over the surrounding countries to spread the teachings of Buddhism
1st Century BCE
The Tripitaka is published and preserved in the language, Pali.
From the missionaries King Asoka sent there was one that flourished. That was the conservative Theravadin School in Sri Lanka.This school held that favorable rebirth awaits the morally upright but that normally only those who take the vows to become a monk can achieve true Nirvana.
2nd and 3rd Century CE
Rise of Madhyamika and Togacara schools within Mahayan Buddhism
In these centuries two traditions arose Mahayana and Yogacara.

1) The Mahayana school was focused on becoming Bodhisattva. They wanted to be come enlightened for the purpose of staying in the cycle of life until all other beings have become enlightened as well. Their concerns were for the betterment of the whole rather than only the betterment of the self.

2) The Yogacara school was built around the philosophical works of two brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu. Through this school you were taught to deny the physical world as the reality and believe that the ultimate reality lay within your own mind. From this school of thought the three bodies of Buddha were also developed to describe the different phases in which a Buddha can exist.
The “
Transformational Body
” this is sometimes a literal human of flesh and blood and others is a phantom that only appears to be human.

The “
Enjoyment Body
” this is for the enjoyment of being a Bodhisattvas. In this form the Buddha is a supernatural being who rules over his own lands and whose purpose is to serve as a spiritual guide for the people of his land.

The “
Dharma Body
” is used to describe a Buddah who is one with everything. He knows what it is to be enlightened and his world is Nirvana. This state is said to be reached through the practice of yoga and acknowledging that reality is “thought only”
6th Century CE
The Rise of Tantric Buddhism
New sacred literature came about called the Tantras. This literature took a large step away from the traditional Buddhist beliefs. The Tantras promote trying to become a Siddha, a person who is almost sorceror like and through spiritual development accelerated through magical powers, a Siddha can obtain Buddhahood in a single lifetime. Also unlike most other Buddhist teachings things that are generally shunned, desires and cravings, are used to enhance the magical power and further accelerate one's progress. The thing that might differentiate these text's from other most is that these texts are not directly linked to the words of the original Buddha, Guatama.
11th Century CE
Tantric Kagyupa and Sakyapa schools are established
Kagyupa and Sakyapa are two different schools established in Tibet. The first Kagyupa or “Whispered Transmission” school was a school where the ways of Buddhism were transmitted from master to disciple only through whispers and secret yoga truths.

The second, Sakyapa, was named for the mountains where it was founded. In the 16 century theKagyupa school became Tibet's most politically powerful sect.
1578 CE
Mongols give title "Dalai Lama" to the head of the Gelugpa school
The Gelugpa was founded in the 14th century by a monk who thought it was important to enforce greater monastic disciplines.

Monks from this school were called “Yellow Hats” because of the ceremonial hats they wore.

By the 16thcentury the third leader of this sect converted the Mongol emperor of Tibet to Buddhism and was given the title ofDalai Lama, which means Ocean Teacher.
1959 CE
The 14th Dalai Lama flees Tibet
In 1959 the Chinese government began to impose their militaristic government on the land of Tibet. As a result, the 14th Dalia Lama, as well as 80,000 Tibetans fled the country to avoid the Chinese reign.
Gautama a prince of the kingdom Magadha, lead a life similar to Jesus. He was born to his mother, who before had was told that her son would grow to be a great leader. Gautama lead a sheltered life and once he discovered the horrors of the world around him he went on a spiritual journey to discover enlightenment.

Once he had found enlightenment through the truth of the Middle Way he had reached Nirvana. He came back and was at first shunned by those around him. This was only until they saw how he had changed and was at peace with everything. He began to travel around explaining to people how to achieve enlightenment.

Also like Jesus, through his travels he gained many disciples who grew close to him and grew to love him. When Buddha reached the age of 80 he fell ill while on the road and passed away, always worrying about those around him before worrying about himself.
Shortly after his death 500 of his followers spend the rainy season together at Rajagriha. The monks sat together reciting the words of the Buddha to each other, this meeting was called the "First Council" . The stories were repeated in an effort to keep them as true to the original stories as possible

These stories were then written down into the book of Tripitaka, or the “Three Baskets” of Buddha's wisdom. These texts needed to be written down to preserve their essence as it was meant to be when the words came directly from Buddha. Many of the teachings begin with “Thus have I heard,” followed by a description of where and to whom Buddha was speaking when the original story was told. This is a way to keep the texts pure and as close to their original texts as possible.
As new branches of Buddhism formed so did new texts to be added to the original Tripitaka.

Some of the texts were discovered or revealed to the public hundreds of years after Buddha had died. Others were created by those taking the religion to the next level and building off of the original blocks laid down by Buddha.
“In the mind is no painting, in painting there is no mind; yet not apart from mind, is any painting to be found”
(Mahayana Descriptions of True Reality from the Garland Sutra 20)
“Mind is like an artist, able to paint the worlds: The five clusters are born thence; there is noting it does not make.”
(Mahayana Descriptions of True Reality from the Garland Sutra 20)
Historical Narrative
“… She gives birth to the Bodisat, standing, after she has cherished him in her womb for exactly ten months. This is the distinctive quality of the mother of a Buddha elect…
(Jataka Tales: The Birth of the Buddha)
Dramatic Dialogue
“Mara spoke these words whilst standing in the presense of the Awakened One. To Mara speaking thus, the Lord replied: You who are the friend of the neglient, O Evil One, for what reason have you come here?”
(Mara’s Temptation of the Buddha from the Sutra Nipata, III, 2)
Vices and Virtues
“If one of this Sangha, having been properly ordained and having accepted the Full Precepts, engages in adultery or impure conduct, defiling himself or others, such ia one is expelled or cut off.”
(Rules of Discipline in the Vinaya Pitaka)
a. Writings concern the sangha

b. Buddahs rules of discipline for the monks and nuns
i. 227 and 311 rules they follow while living within their monastic communities

c. Information on the founding and history of the early monasteries

d. Vinaya part offers prescribed punishments for those who violate the rules of discipline
i. Sexual intercourse, theft, murder, and false claim to supernatural powers

Basket One: Vinaya Pitaka “Basket of Discipline"
Buddhas remembered teachings (5 sections)

i. The long discourses (Digha Nikaya)
34 lengthy sermons that convey the compassion, power and wisdom of the Buddha.
Includes “The Buddah’s Last Day”

ii. The middle length discourses (Majjhima Nikaya)
152 mid-length sermons of the Buddha delivered in a wider variety of contextual settings

iii. The grouped discourses (Samyutta Nikaya)
7,762 shorter teachings grouped into 56thematic categories

iv. The numbered discourses (Anguttara Kikaya)
9,550 short teachings arranged into 11 divisions according to the number of verses about a single topic

v. The little books (Khuddaka Nikaya)
Includes the Dhammapada
A collection of 15 (17 in the Thai edition and 18 in the Burmese) shorter works that contain some of the earliest and some of the latest material in the canon

Basket Two:Sutta Pitaka “Basket of Discourses”

Basket Three: Adhidhamma Pitaka “Basket of Elaboration”
a. Explores the physics and psychology of existence

b. Seven books, each having a technical manual for meditation

c. Most important book:
Enumeration of Phenomena
1. Describes 52 mental factors
2. 89 possible states of consciousness
3. 4 primary elemens
4. 23 physical phenomena

*Also contains Book of Relations (a detailed analysis of 24 laws of conditionality that govern the interactions between mind and mater)

Divisions and Score of Later Additions to the Sacred Canon
Mayana Buddhism
Tantric Buddhism
Goal: Becoming a Bodhisattva
Goal: Becoming a Shiddha
40 sutras
100,000 pages
Importance of wisdom among the 10 perfections that are found in the Bodhisattva
Written in first century and printed in Chinese in 868 CE
Believed to be the first book ever written
The Perfection of Wisdom Sutras (Prajnaparamita)
The Lotus Sutra (Saddharma-Pundarika)
Written in Sanskrit between 100 BCE and 150 BCE
Recognized by Mahayana schools as containing the purest expression of the Buddha’s teaching about supreme enlightenment
Emphasis on devotion and faith
Teaches the doctrine of the eternal cosmic Buddha who’s universal grace is the source of salvation
The Three Pure Land Sutra
Consist of the Sutra of Amitabha, the Teaching of Infinite Life, and the Visualization Sutra
Central texts for Mahayana Buddhism’s Pure Land Schools
The Pure Land is a place for the dead to go to find enlightenment so that they will be able to return to the earth in a future life in order to help others
Teaches 16 methods of visualizing Amitabha Buddha, the Bodhusattvas, and the Pure Land paradise
Central Message: salvation is not obtained by human efforts but by the total reliance on the grace of Buddha Amitabha

The Lankavatara Sutra
Asserts that the Buddha went to the island of Lanka to teach this sutra to the Emperor Ravana, a king depicted in the early hindu epic Raayana.
The key to enlightenment is to be freed from the illusions of dualistic concepts that falsely discriminate between subject and object
Influential in the formulation of a school of Mahayana Buddhism known as Yogocara

The Garland Sutra (Avatamsaka)
420 CE
encompasses a wide range of subjects, including all things interdependent and interpenetrating (things are what they are because of their relationship with other things)
teaches the human mind Is the universe itself

The Tibertan Book of the Dead
A self-help guidebook that is intended to help the dying and recently deceased souls to find their way through the difficult stages of the afterlife
Reportedly based on accounts of spiritual masters who had total recall of their own between-lives experiences

Songs of Milarepa
Milarepa was a great tibertan mediator whos tragic youth and early search for enlightenment were amked by violence and extreme hardship
He was sent by his master teacher to meditate in remote caves
He kept warm by only his inner heat of his yoga mastery

The Phases of Buddha
The story of the first Buddha

The Creation of Scripture

The Development of Scripture

Human Rights

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
In 1948 the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was written. This document marks the first time the rights of the individual, not the collective, were written as international law
Key Elements of the Universal Declaration
Protects the individual against powerful institutions of state, society, religion or others
Moral individualism is the core ideal of Universal Decleration
Expressing Justice
1. Expressing ones
to the entitlement to being treated justly
2. Expressing ones
to treat others justly
Duty vs. Right
Having the presence of a duty implys the presence of having a right
Example: It is a kings
to despense justice impartially. It is a citizens
to just and impartial treatment by the law
The idea of "Right"
Comes from the moral precepts of Buddhism
The idea of a 'right' is not specifically stated in the Tripitaka, the basis for the idea can be found through what is explained in a Dharma's duties
The Duties of a Dharma
Follow the eight-factored observance made by the Awakened One
do not kill a living being;
do not take what is not given;
do not speak a lie;
do not drink intoxicants;
abstain from sexual intercourse;
do not eat food at night, at the wrong time;
do not wear flower-garlands nor use perfumes;
use the ground as a bed or sleep on a mat
From these duties the entire basis for modern human rights can be found
Meditation Break!
"Buddhist meditation practices are techniques that encourage and develop concentration, clarity, emotional positivity, and a calm seeing of the true nature of things."
-The Buddhist Centre
Conflict and Violence
Buddhism as
a religion of love
"As a mother, even at the risk of her own life, protects her son; her only son, so let him cultivate goodwill without measure toward the whole world, above, below, around, unstitnted, unmixed with any feeling of different or opposing interests. Let a man remain steadfastly in this state of mind all the while he is awake, whether he be standing, sitting or lying down.
This state of heart is the best in the world

The finest qualities of man such as strength, purpose, patience and unselfishness have developed due to the relationship between these two forces.
whatever tends to union
man's ordinate desires for self
The will of man can be used for either good or evil!
If used for good, one's gain will be proportionate.
If used for evil, one sets himself againts the force of the universe. For awhile one may flourish in selfishness, and by law, the karmic pendulum will bring him the dukkha, or suffering, which becomes the consequence of choosing evil.
Every man is free within the limitations of his self-created karma which is a result of past bodily actions, speech and thought!
Compassion is when you lose yourself to art, meditation, knowledge and interconnectedness to others.
We are stuck within an egocentric misperception
We lack knowledge of connectedness with one another
Once we step outside of our negative affect, we open our minds to empathy and see the deeper meaning of life
Violence does not fit within this Buddha nature!!
Decreasing self-centeredness and thinking of others induces happiness and a boradened perception of the needs of others
Two Central Values
1. Goodheartedness
2. Restraint
The Role of Buddhism
in the Public Realm

Buddhas Birthday: Varies by sect
Mahayana Buddhistovserve the buddahs birthday during the flower festival (hanamatsuri) on April 8 and the Theravadas honors his birthday as well as his enlightenment and entry into nirvana during the Full Moon Day festival (often called Vesek, name of month in Hindu calendar)
Mahayana Buddhist celebrate Buddas sacred story on Bodhi Dah (Dec 8) and Nirvana day (Feb 15)
Ohigan, which means other shore, celebrates during the spring and autumn equinoxes
-Refers to the passing to the next life that lies beyond this world of life and death
-Worshippers set aside this time to praise Buddha for his great compassion and to recall and commit themselves to his Six Perfections:
• Charity
• Morality
• Endurance
• Endeavor
• Mediation
• Wisdom
-Family members also pay decease to ancestors by visiting graves of parents and grandparents
• Dancing a folk dance
• Offering gifts to the departed spirits
• Lighting lanterns to guide these spirit on their yearly visit to the family home

Summer Festivals
Buddha's Birthday in South Korea
Methods & Practices
Opening the Mind’s eye
Seeing into one’s true nature

Silent meditation
Yogic exercises with prescribed posture and breathing
Various visualization techniques
Chanting of mantras

Buddhists have enshrined relics, allegedly from the body of the Buddhas, in monuments known as
People walk around the Stupas usually 3 times and then kneel or stand before it in reverence
-Present offerings of food or flowers usually

Buddhism in the Home
Set aside a space as a shrine to the Buddha
Surround the shrine with flowers, decorations, utensils, and candles.
Well known “Three Refuge:
“I go to the Buddha as my Refuge; I go to the Dharma as my Refuge; I go to the Sangha as my Refuge."

• Dharma= Document
• Sangha= Community of Monks

Function of Scripture within the Buddhist Community
• The scriptures of the Canon are referred to as the Buddha’s actually teachings and sayings, which help the community to have a strong connection with the Buddha

• The scriptures of the Non-canon are stories and ideas from Buddhist teachers, which help the community to learn more information about Buddhism.

Around 500 BCE Siddhartha Gautama was born in to the arms of his parents King Suddhodana and Mother Queen Maya in the area of Lumbini, which is present day Nepal. His father was the King of the Indian group called the Shakyas’. His mother on the other hand, died shortly after his birth. Actual events and dates of Siddhartha’s life are debated on about the exact time of occurrence.
One night, following a long event of starvation from food and water, he was sitting under a Bodhi tree and refused to get up until the truths he wanted answers to were answered. As he meditated for several days, purifying his mind and thoughts and overcoming evil threats, he finally saw the answers he had been seeking. It was at this moment Siddhartha Gautama became known as the “Buddha” meaning the enlightened one or the one who is awake.
Video on Siddhartha
Major Characters
The councils that were formed starting with the "First Council” following Buddhas death consisted of monks who followed the buddha and listened to his teachings. They began reciting the buddhas words that they remembered and began writing scriptures; starting with the rules of life in the monastic community that nuns and monks were to follow.
Major characters include Buddha himself, many monks and nuns, the Buddha's family[his father the king, his mother, his aunt and cousins], Sujata [who was the woman who offered Buddha food during his long practices of fasting], King Ashoka - who was the first king to practice buddhism and promote it in Tibet, and many other followers and disciples of Buddha

In telling and/or writing:
In the stories of the scriptural tradition:
Community Connections!
This work was done to provide a visual regarding the thousands of images that would
result from a Google search on Buddha today. Are these images true depictions of who Buddha is and what he stands for? Or can an original and substantial piece of writing or spiritual figure become lost within advanced, technological translations?
This current example of art shows how a text or tradition is able to be redefined and reshaped within newer times and through newer ideas.
Grand Rapids Artprize 2014
Projecting Buddha
By Eric Souther
Bilhartz, T. (2006). Sacred words:
A source book on the great religions of the world.
Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill.

Blackburn, Anne M.
Locations of Buddhism.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. Web. 2 Oct. 2014.

Covell, S. (2004).
Traditional buddhism in contemporary Japan
. Nagoya, Japan: Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture.

Faure, Bernard.
Unmasking Buddhism
. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2009.Web. 2 Oct. 2014

Gaer, Joseph.
What the Great Religions Believe
. New Yord: Dodd, Mead, 1963. N. pag. Web. 2 Oct. 2014.

Humphreys, C. (1990).
(3rd ed.). Penguin Bks.

Jacobson, N. (1996).
Buddhism and the emerging world civilization essays in honor of Nolan Pliny Jacobson
. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Leukel, P. (2006, January 1).
Buddhism and the Idea of Human Rights: Resonances and Dissonances
(1). Buddhist-Christian Studies, 33-49.

McMahan, David, ed.
Buddhism in the Modern World.
New York: Routledge, 2012. Web. 2 Oct. 2014.

Wangu, M. (2009).
(4th ed.). New York: Chelsea House.

Wilson, Liz, ed.
Family in Buddhism.
Albany: SUNY Press, 2013. Print.

The Buddha began his teachings with the understanding of the “four noble truths”
Full transcript