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Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis

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Merve Dökmeci

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Transcript of Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis
ED 325 - Personality Theories
Biography
Life and works of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Neurologist
The founding father of psychoanalysis
The Structures of Personality
Defense Mechanisms of Ego
Early Life
Born to Jewish parents in Czech Republic in May 6, 1853
Elementary school
The Sperl Gymnasium
Studied Greek and Latins, mathematics, history and the natural sciences
University of Vienna

Education
Elementary school
The Sperl Gymnasium
Studied Greek and Latins, mathematics, history and the natural sciences
University of Vienna

ID
Exist at birth
Unconconscious part of the mind
Primitive parts of our personality including aggression and sexual drives
Consists of insticts and drives
Primary process : from need to wish.
Works according to pleasure principle

EGO
Start at around age 1: From "it" to "I"
Conscious part of the mind
relates the organism to reality by means of its consciousness
searches for objects to satisfy the wishes
This problem-solving activity is called the secondary process.
functions according to the reality principle
It represents reality and, to a considerable extent, reason.
SUPEREGO
Not completed until about 7 years of age
Record of things to avoid and strategies to take
Represents society, rules, laws, norms etc.

Repression
Anna Freud also called it as "motivated forgetting"
Not being able to recall a threatening situation, person, or event.
Phobia: result of a repressed traumatic event

Projection
Also called as "displacement outward"
The complete opposite of turning against the self.
The tendency to see your own unacceptable desires in other people.

Personality Development
5 Stages of Psychosexual Development
1. Oral Stage
0-12 months
Oral acitvities gives pleasure such as sucking & biting by tactual stimulation
tactual stimulation of lips produces oral sexual pleasure
biting produces oral agressive pleasure
oral agressive pleasure comes later because of waiting develeopment of teeth



2. Anal Stage
1-3 years
toddler’s pleasure is experienced with anus
conflict : toilet raining , toddler enjoys controlling the bowels
toilet training is usually first crucial experience that the child has with discipline and external authority
Excessively strict permissive toilet training can cause to the devleopment of anal-explusive traits such as sloppiness and carelessness.
The anal character is characterized by three traits orliness, parsimony, and obstinacy
outcome stubbornness

3. Phalic Stage
Phallic stage
3-5 years
strong sexual attachments to the parents of the other sex
parent of the same sex as a rival
conflict : masturbation and Oedipus/Electra conflict
outcomes: sex role identification
male ; oedipus conflict -castration anxiety; the fear that his penis will be cut off

Psychoanalysis
Dream Interpretation
Early Career
First medical career in Theodor Meynert’s psychiatric clinic at Vienna General Hospital in 1882
Psychiatry was rigid and descriptive
Behaviors are only to understand structures of the brain

Early Career
Fellowship with Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris in 1885
Freud first became interested in hysteria
Started private practise in Vienna in 1886
Specialized in nervous disorders
Began to use hypnosis

Development of Psychoanalysis
Colloboration with Josef Breuer
Breuer’s hysterical patient Anna O. and use of catharsis
Discussions of catharsis as a basis of Freudian
Theory and psychoanalytic practice

Early Followers
Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi

Early Followers
Later, they are called the Wednesday Psychological Society in 1902
Establishment of pyschoanalytic group in Zyrich in 1907
Wednesday group was renamed as the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1908
First International Congress was held in Salzburg in 1908
Later Years
In 1923, Freud developed a cancerous growth in his mouth
Suffered sixteen years and had thirty threee operations
However, he swowed great productivity in these years

Freud and his mom
Later Years
In March 1938 Austria was occupied by German troops, and that month Freud and his family were put under house arrest.
The Freuds were permitted to leave Austria in June
Freud spent his last year in London, England, undergoing surgery
Died on September 23, 1939
His discoveries on the science and culture of the twentieth century is limitless.

What is Psychoanalysis?
A psychological and psychotherapeutic theory created in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Sigmund Freud.
It has two identities:
1) Comprehensive Theory
2) Method of Treatment

Goals of Psychoanalysis
Increasing self awereness
Symptom relief
More objective capacity of self-observation
Improving relationships with others
The capacity to live a more deeply satisfaying life

Emphasis is on...
Each individual is unique
There are factors outside of a person’s awareness which affect his thoughts and actions
The past shapes the present
Human beings are engaged in the process of deveopment throughout their lives

Psychic Determinism
Nothing happens by chance or accident
Everything we do, think, say, and feel is an expression of our mind
Unconscious forces have the power to influence behavior.
Psychoanalysis as a way to uncover mental causes

The Mind as an Energy System
The mind is a system that contains and directs instinctual drives
The major scientific task is to explain how mental energy flows, is blocked, and gets redirected

"The Mind" as an Energy System
There is a limited amount of energy
Energy can be blocked, but does not dissipate; instead, it gets expressed in some alternative form by being channeled along a path of least resistance
The mind functions to maintain a state of energy equilibrium (homoestasis)

Basic Sources of Energy- Instincts
EROS: Life Instinct.
Preservation of self and
species


THANATOS: Death instinct. Source of aggression
and drive to die
VS.
Instinct may be satisfied...
By external objects – Real or displaced
The object is energized by the instinct
In fantasy
By becoming fused in one action
Eating – aggression and self-preservation

3 Level of Consciousness
Contents kept out of conscious awareness
Not accessible at all
Processes that actively keep these thoughts from awareness
Preconscious
Conscious
Current contents of your mind that you actively think of
What we call working memory
Easily accessed all the time

Unconscious
Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious
Contents of the mind you are not currently aware of
Thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes, feelings
Available for easy access when needed
Dreams
Slips of the tongue
Posthypnotic suggestions
Material derived from free-association
Material derived from projective techniques
Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms

Reaction formation
Anna Freud called "believing the opposite"
Changing an unacceptable impulse into its opposite.

Regression
A movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress
When we are troubled or frightened, our behaviors often become more childish or primitive.
Where do we retreat when faced with stress?
Fixation
Traumatic experiences had an especially strong effect in personality development.

Difficulties in any of the tasks associated with the stages


Tendency to retain certain infantile or childish habits
Stages of Psychosexual Development
Psychosexual Development
Freud 's psychosexual development consists of stages that sees children as developing through distinct periods of life.
Freud emphasized that earlier stage affects later stages.
In addition if a child receives too little or to much gratification during a stage,the child can ebcome “fixated” in that stage.

4. Latency Stage
5 years to puberty
In this stage sexual feeling remain unconcious, typically prefer playmates of their own sex
children interest in nonsexual activities such as intellectuals interests,athletics etc.
Freud mention little about this stage

5. Genital Stage
Genital
puberty to adulthood, last stage
adolescents desire sexual gratification through intercourse with a number of the other sex
Psychoanalytic Treatment
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY TECHNIQUES
Free Association
Freudian technique of exploring the unconscious mind by having the person relax and say whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Transference
Resistance often occurs during free association.

Unconscious attempts to block the process of revealing repressed or unconscious memories or conflicts.
The process by which clients relate to their psychoanalysts as they would to important figures in their past.
It helps to uncover the client’s hidden conflicts and helps the client to work through such conflicts.

Countertransference
The analyst’s reaction to the patient, as distorted by unresolved conflicts.
Main example of countertrasference is sexual attraction.
Pope & Tabachnik, (1993) found that the vast majority of therapists (87%) had been sexually attracted to at least one if not more of their clients.

Dream Analysis
Clients describe their dreams in detail, and the psychoanalyst interprets the latent content, or the hidden meaning, of these dreams
Catharsis
The release of tension that results when repressed thoughts or memories move into the patient’s conscious mind.
Insight
It is being aware of the source of the emotion, of the original traumatic event.








The major portion of the therapy is completed when catharsis and insight are experienced.
Parapraxes
A parapraxis is a slip of the tongue, often called a Freudian slip.
Example: A British Member of Parliament referred to a colleague with whom he was irritated as 'the honorable member from Hell' instead of from Hull
Projective Tests
Rorschach inkblot tests and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).

When the stimulus is vague, the client fills it with his or her own unconscious themes.
Recovered Memory Controversy
Traumatic sexual experiences in childhood had led patients to develop a variety of symptoms such as depression and eating disorders and also to repress the memory of the abuse.
If memory for the traumatic event could be restored, a theraupatic benefit would be obtain.

Two aspects of superego:
Conscience:
an internalization of punishments and warnings.

Ego ideal:
derives from rewards and positive models presented to the child.

The
conscience
and
ego ideal
communicate their requirements to the ego with feelings like pride, shame, and guilt.
The Royal Road to Unconscious
FREUD'S DISCOVERY OF DREAM CONTENT
Dream
A conscious expression of unconscious fantasy or wish not readily accesible to conscious waking experience.

2 ways to Interpret Dreams:
Symbolism Decoding
Decoding
+
Distortion in Dreams
Latent Content
Manifest Content
Symbolism

Represents a form of regression to an earlier stage of mental development
Typically, the use of the symbol and its meaning is unconscious
Freud discovered that the ideas or objects represented in this way were highly charged with inappropriate feelings and burdened with conflict
Displacement
Refers to subtitution of objects with neutral ones in attemp to pass the borders of repression easily.
For example; the father may be represented by an unknown male figure.

Condensation
Means that single image in manifest dream content represents several unconscious wishes, thoughts.
Diffusion
Is the opposite of the condensation which means that a latent impulse is represented by multiple images in the manifest content.

Projection
Allow dreamer to see the emanation of unacceptable impulses or wishes from other persons. These figures are those dreamer's own unconscious impulses are directed to
Secondary Revision

Is an intellectual process which organizes the absurd, illogical and bizzare aspects of the dream thoughts into a more logical and coherent form.

Three Characteristics of Memory in Dreams:

1. Dreams show a clear preference for the impression of the immediately preceding days

2. They make their selection upon different principle from our waking memory, since they do not recall what is essential and important but what is subsidiary and unnoticed

3.They have at their disposal the earliest impressions of our childhood and even bring up details from that period of our life which, once again, strike us as trivial and which in our waking state we believe to have been long since forgotten.

Thank You for Attention
ANY QUESTIONS
Freud’s Basic Assumption Concerning Human Nature
The Devolopment of Personality
• The topographic, which involves concious versus unconcious modes of functioning with the pre concious.

• The dynamic, which entails the interaction and conflict among psychic forces
• The structural which revolves around the persistent functional units of the id, ego and superego

• The genetic, which concerns the origin and development of psychic phenomena through the oral, anal, phallic, latency nd genital stages

• The economic, which includes the distribution, transformation, and expenditure of psychological energy

• The adaptive view, implied by Freud and developed by Hartmann which involves the inborn preparedness of the individual to interact with an evolving series of environments (Prochaska & Norcross, 2007)

1- Freedoom / Determinism
According to assumption, a theory is evaluated by concerning the free will choice personal responsibility, self-determination by concious recognition.

Freud proposed that repression provides the energy to move material from conciousness to the unconciousness

Freud became convinced that unconcious forces have the power to influence behaviour, an assumption called psychic determinism (Cloninger,2007) . Moreover, for Freud, only one therapeutic process could succeed in making the unconcious concious (Prochaska & Norcross, 2007)
2. Rationality /Irrationality
Are humans primarily rational beings capable of directing their behaviour through reasoning or Are they in fact principally directed by irrational forces?

Rational side of human comes throught the psychoanalysis which helps to control over the personality. But in this process , patient will need the psychoanalysis with the help of him he or she can find the rational side for mastery and control.
3. Holism / Elementalism
Holistic assumption adheres to the idea that behaviour can only be explained by studying people as totalities

Theory of Freud stresses on the unity of personality because it is dynamic with interactions and interdependencies of id-ego-superego (Hjelle & Ziegler, 1981). The dynamic structure comes from unconcious conflict among sexual and aggressive impulses, societal rules aimed at controlling those impulses, and the individual’s defense mechanisms controlling the impulses in such a way as to keep guilt and anxiety to a minimum while allowing some safe , indirect gratification
4. Constitutionalism /
Environmentalism
How much basic nature of individual fixed by bodily and how much is product of environmental influences. Freud theory takes mostly part in the constitutionalism part because for him psychosexual development is herita and biologically determined.
5. Subjectivity / Objectivity
Subjective, world of experiences leads to behaviour. External, objective factors lead to behaviour. Freudian theory can be evaluated by different perspectives. Freud supported that person is subjectivity due to the feelings, emotions, perceptions and meanings (Hjelle & Ziegler, 1981).

Freud was a darwinist, hence shows more tendency to place understanding of deepest subjective experiences of the individual into some sort of more or less mechanistic, objective, disindividualized, scientific Darwinian mold (Nelson, 1957).
6. Proactivity / Reactivity
The assumption is concerning the question of the locus of casuality in explaining human behavior (Hjelle & Ziegler, 1981).

Eagle (2011) convinced that in the theory of Freud there is circualar casual relation in which drive state can influence perceptual salience and in which perceptual experiences can influence drive state.
7. Homeostasis / Heterostasis
First question in this assumption is “Are individuas motivated primarily or exclusively to reduce tension and maintain an internal state of equilibrium?” The guestion refers to Homeostasis structure of the personality theory.Secon question is “Is their basic motivation directed toward growth, stimulus seeking and self-actualization?” (Hjelle & Ziegler, 1981).

The theory has tendency to homeostasis structure because people behave to reduce the tension generated by the instinctual energy source (Hjelle & Ziegler, 1981).
8. Knowability / Unknowability
Through systematic observation and experimentation, the principles underlying human behaviour eventually could be dicovered.

According to his theory, human being is biologically determined and the deepest wotivations in the human being can be held light by using scientificaly based psychoanalysis techniques. (Hjelle & Ziegler, 1981).
9. Changeability / Unchangeability
The assumption is aiming at the answering the question how much fundamental change in personality can actually take place throught a life time.
In the Freudian theory, to some extent, differences in experiences during each life stages which are oral, anal, phallic, and genital stages are critical determining the prominent traits and personalities that ensue (Prochaska & Norcross, 2007). However,Bloom (1985) supports that “Instink” which is German word for instinct, in Freud’s language , is a performed behavioral pattern, whose arrangement determined hereditarily
Social evaluation and criticism
subjectivity and the unconscious became accessible for scientific observation

different assumptions of psychoanalysis could not be confirmed empirically,

dead instinct starting point of comprehensive theories of culture

that Freud had a much broader notion of "sexuality"

Freud's statements as too little scientifically or empirically.

Freud's theory contradicts himself

Latent Content
Diffusion
REFERENCES
Cloninger, S. C. (2004). Theories of personality: understanding persons. (4 ed., pp. 51-54). New Jersey, USA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Greenberg, R. P., & Fisher, S. (1978). Testing Dr. Freud. Human Behavior, pp.28-33.
Hall, C. S. (1954). Primer of freudian psychology. (1 ed., pp. 103-104). New York: The World Publishing Company.
Rathus, S. A. (2006). Childhood and adolescence. (3 ed., pp. 9-11). Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Wilhelm Reich: „Der masochistische Charakter. Eine sexualökonomische Widerlegung des Todestriebes.“ Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse.(1932), S. 303-351;Otto Fenichel: „Zur Kritik des Todestriebes“. Imago.(1935), S. 458-466.
Ziegler, D. J., & Hjelle, L. A. (1992). Personality theories: basic assumptions, research and applications. (3 ed., pp. 30-36). New York: McGrawl Hill.

http://www.apsa.org/About_Psychoanalysis.aspx
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http://www.arthistoryunstuffed.com/surrealism-freudian-theory/
http://www.zionism-israel.com/Albert_Einstein/Einstein_Freud_Why_War.htm
Rationalization
Dealing with an emotion intellectually to avoid emotional involvement
"Everybody else does it, so I don't have to feel guilty"
Identification
Modeling behavior after someone else
Eg. imitating one's mother or father
Displacement
Satisfying an impulse with a substitute object
Scapegoating (Günah keçisi)
Sublimation
Rechanneling an impulse into a more socially desirable outlet
Eg. Satisfying sexual curiosity by conducting sophisticated research into sexual behaviors
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