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Copy of Armenian Genocide

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mariaa alonso

on 21 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide
Who committed the genocide?
When did it happen?
Where did it happen?
Who was targeted?
Why did it happen?
Social Factors
Political Factors
Economic Factors
Historical Factors
Ultranationalism and the Armenian Genocide
Steps of the genocide
Sara Cohan, "A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide," Social Education 69, no. 6 (2005), http://www.questiaschool.com/read/1G1-138440963.
Samuel Totten, "Does History Matter? Ask the Armenians," Social Education 69, no. 6 (2005), http://www.questiaschool.com/read/1G1-138440962.
The Armenians were treated as second class citizens in the Ottoman Empire. They were allowed to practice Christianity but they had to pay extra taxes and there were laws that prevented them from participating in the judicial system. The Armenians also lacked the same safety-net as the Turks against property damage and protection against nomadic tribes.
When the times were economically stable the minorities in the Ottoman Empire were able to prosper and grow. However in 1914 the Ottoman Empire experienced economic trouble as it lost most of its territory and other sources of income. The empire was nearly bankrupt so like Hitler with the Jewish the Ottoman Empire focused on the Armenians who had good jobs and made more money than the Turkish people. Those few well off Armenians were used as scapegoats to fuel hatred and a sense of unity in the Turks as they were mostly farmers and those Armenians were still well off in the economic crisis.
The Armenians began demanding more political freedoms such as the abolition of bias taxation and protection against violent nomadic tribes though they did not advocate for a separate Armenian state and most Armenians believed they were citizens of the Ottoman Empire.
In the 1800's the Ottoman Empire lost territory to Great Britain, Russia and the Balkan states as they were formed out of land that used to belong to the Ottoman Empire and then with the formation of the Balkan League the Balkan states all but drove the Ottoman Empire out of Europe. The Ottoman Empire was now desperate to keep all of the land that they had left and feared that the Armenians might try to take some of it away if they were given any freedom. It also increased religious tensions.
The Treaty of Berlin which was supposed to grant the Armenian people equal taxation, protection from the tribes that roamed the Ottoman Empire and the right to appear in court to give evidence was a failure. It was a failure because the Sultan was assigned to protect the Armenians instead of the Russians because the great powers of Europe did not want Russia to grow even more powerful.
During the second half of the 19th century the Sultan Abdul-Hamid II massacred the Armenian people as they protested the extra taxes on them.
Who helped stop it?
The Armenian Genocide officially started on April the 24th, 1915 after the Ottoman Empire suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Russians.
The genocide officially ended in 1923 after the Armenian civilization had nearly been wiped out and the Republic of Turkey formed.
The Armenian Genocide occurred in the Ottoman Empire which encompassed modern day Turkey, Armenia, Greece, Iraq, Iran, and Syria.
After the CUP triumvirate went into hiding the genocide was continued by Mustafa Kemal.
The German diplomats in the Ottoman Empire did not commit any acts of genocide against the Armenians but they knew and the German government did nothing. Bulgaria also sent Armenians caught in Bulgaria back to the Ottoman Empire for punishment.
The CUP used the Turkish army, the Turkish gendarmes, hired bands of convicts that were let out of jail specifically to kill the Armenian convoys and the governors of each province who rounded up the Armenians for jailing, torture and execution. The Turkish people also participated in the genocide.
The Armenian Genocide itself was carried out and organized by the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) a group from the Young Turks. The Young Turks were the Turkish part of the group that called themselves the Ottoman Liberals and wanted to make the Sultan powerless and create an Ottoman Empire that was modern and gave all minorities equal representation. The CUP was lead by a triumvirate consisting of Mehmet Talaat Minister of the Interior, Ismail Enver Minister of War, and Ahmed Jemal Minister of the Marine. Their goal was to create a Pan-Turanian state consisting of only one language, one religion and Turkish people.
The first major massacre of the Armenian people which happened in 1894-96 and was a precursor to the Armenian Genocide was carried out by the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Sultan Abdul-Hamid II.
Issues about the Armenian Genocide today.
All Armenians, Greeks, Assyrians and other ethnic minorities in the Ottoman Empire were targeted as they were not Turkish.
"Armenian Genocide," accessed June 16, 2013, http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/genocide/armenian_genocide.htm
"Armenian Genocide," accessed June 16, 2013, http://www.armenian-genocide.org/genocide.html
"The Massacre of the Armenians, 1915," accessed June 16, 2013, http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/armenianmassacre.htm
"Armenian Genocide History/Timeline," accessed June16, 2013, http://www.genocide1915.info/history/
The major help the Armenians received was from the Americans and other Armenians. There were also some Arab tribes that found Armenian stragglers in the desert and chose to take them in. There were also some Turkish who helped their Armenian neighbors escape.
The American Ambassador Henry Morgenthau let the United States know what was going on in Armenia which appeared in newspapers and lead to the US congress allowing the formation of the Near East Relief. They were a committee who raised money to feed the Armenians and saved the lives of many.
Great Britain, France and Armenians from other places in the world marched into the Ottoman Empire and caused the CUP leaders to flee and a new leader to be put into place who was quickly ousted by Mustafa Kemal.
The Armenians from the Ottoman Empire fled to Russia and joined up with the Armenians in Russia. When the Turkish attacked them they got weapons and fought back beating the Turkish and establishing the country of Armenia.
The French navy found and took to France some Armenians who had resisted the attempts by the Ottoman Empire to force them on death marches.
The French, the British and the Russians helped the Armenians out through their advances in World War I but they did not do much else.
The genocide ended with the formation of the Republic of Turkey and the near eradication of the Armenian culture and history as well as the expulsion of the Armenians from Turkey.
Russian troops allowed some Armenians who were defending themselves and their city in the east of the Ottoman Empire to flee when the Russian troops advanced on the Ottoman Empire.
"Armenian Issue Allegations-Facts Armenian Rebellions and Massacres," accessed June 16, 2013, http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN,32262/the-massacre-of-the-turks-by-the-armenians.html
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(accessed June 16, 2013).
“Armenian genocide world map.” Map. deviantart.net, http://fc02.deviantart.net/fs70/f/2012/101/7/1/armenian_genocide_world_map_by_saint_tepes-d4tuldr.png (accessed June 16, 2013).
“Armenian ref. Children.” Photograph. genocide-museum.am, http://www.genocide-museum.am/eng/img/Collection-of-the-Library-of-Congress/4.jpg (accessed June 16, 2013).
“Starved Armenian woman with two children.” Photograph. 1915. Collection of Armin Wegner Society, http://www.genocide-museum.am/eng/children/6.jpg
(accessed June 16, 2013).
"Maps," accessed June 16, 2013, http://www.armeniangenocide.com.au/maps
“Abdul Hamid II in Balmoral Castle in 1867.” Photograph. 1867. wikimwdia.org, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wikiFile:Abdul_Hamid_II_in_Balmoral_Castle_in_1867.jpg
(accessed June 16, 2013).
Map of Armenian deportation and resistance.
Map of which countries do or don't recognize the Armenian Genocide as genocide.
Turkey still does not recognize the Armenian Genocide as genocide they claim that the Armenians were rebelling and acting a certain way to create anarchy and then twisted the story to make themselves the victims. As well Turkey claims that the Armenians were spies for Russia and that those Armenians who joined the Turkish army in World War I deserted and took their weapons with them when they joined the Russians.
Canada is one of the countries that does recognize the Armenian Genocide as genocide. This leads to Canada not having as good trade relations with Turkey as they could.
The United States as a whole do not recognize the Armenian Genocide as genocide however certain states such as Alaska, California, and Florida do. Other states such as Texas and Montana do not.
What may be some of the reasons, political, economical or otherwise why Turkey does not recognize the Armenian Genocide?
If Turkey was to recognize the event as genocide what might be some of the repercussions?
Do you believe that this event should be recognized as genocide?
Other than closer ties with Turkey is there any other benefits that Canada could gain if they had denied the event as genocide.
Why might Canada have decided to recognize the event as genocide?
The United States was the country who offered the most aid to the Armenians during the genocide and they have first hand documents from American diplomats that witnessed the killing yet they do not recognize the event as genocide. Why might they not recognize the event as genocide, trade benefits, etc.
Do you believe these benefits are more important then recognizing the event as genocide?
World War I was an excuse to kill the Armenian people because they could be working with the Russians as they had more in common with the Russians than with the Turks. World War I also provided an excuse for the government to demand the Armenians turn in their weapons which all of them did, with harsh punishment if they did not turn in a weapon forcing some Armenians to buy weapons at high prices. In addition the Turkish soldiers could kill Armenians while they were fighting and the Armenians could be moved with the excuse of them living in an unsafe zone.
The historical land of the Armenians was split between Russia and the Ottoman Empire so there were Armenians in both countries which lead to the Ottoman Empire fearing that the Armenians might have loyalties to Russia.
There was also a rise in Islamic Fundamentalists and many anti-Armenian demonstrations were held. Difference in religion was a major factor towards Armenian hatred as they were branded as 'infidels' and not allowed to hold certain positions. Religious and political leaders told the ordinary citizens that killing the Armenians was a task from god and that Armenians were not people.
The Armenians practiced Christianity while the Turks practiced Islam. They believed in education while the Turkish did not and some had prestigious jobs such as doctor or banker. Those Armenians were used as scapegoats to show the cultural difference between the Armenians and the Turks.
In the Ottoman Empire the Armenians were treated as second class citizens. They were also very culturally different than the Turkish.
The demands for more legal rights made the government suspicious as they had never shared power before and nationalistic movements had caused the Ottoman Empire to lose their territory in the Balkans when the Balkan states, such as Serbia, were created.
The CUP seized power in 1908 and they were able to bring about their ultranationalistic goal of a Turkish only state now that they had the resources and power to do so.
Some young women and children that survived were placed in bondage homes where they had to work, become the religion of their captors, speak the language of their owners, and were not allowed to grieve for those who had died. Others were put in concentration camps, lead on another desert march further south, drowned, or pushed off of cliffs.
Some Armenians were not forced to go on death marches at all instead they were disposed of quickly by loading them on boats and drowning them in the Black Sea. Others were tortured or raped until they died or put into harems where they would be killed if they tried to disobey their master.
Diplomats and missionaries were ordered out of the country in 1916 as they were also being targeted by the CUP. Henry Morganthau goes back to America.
Ultranationalism was one of the major causes of the Armenian Genocide. The CUP members decided to kill all of the Armenians because they wanted to create a Pan-Turain Empire and the Armenains were in their way so they figured they could just kill them as they were only second class citizens and therefore less than human. Also they wanted an only Turkish state as their Turan Empire was to consist of only one language and one religion which was obviously theirs because they thought they were better than the minorities.

“Bu Felakete Üç Katır Çekmedi mi?.” Painting. 2010. http://tarihvemedeniyet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/enver-cemal-talat-pasalar.jpg (accessed June 16, 2013).
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(accessed June 16, 2013).
Enver, Jemal, and Talaat.
Henry Morgenthau
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(accessed June 16 2013).
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(accessed June 16, 2013).
Greek Deportees
Sultan Abdul-Hamid II
Mustafa Kemal
Turkey Today
Historic Armenia
There are still millions of Armenians alive today. Though only about half live in the country of Armenia.
Armenia Today
Surviving Armenians Today
"Commemoration of the Armenian Genocide." Map. 2010. Armenian National Committee, http://www.anccv.org/images/map_us_gen.gif (accessed June 16 2013).
"Armenian intellectual leaders were murdered or publicly hanged to spread fear among the Armenians of the Ottoman Empire." Photograph. 1915. http://www.fredsakademiet.dk/library/karekin/_gifs/hanged.jpg (accessed June 16 2013).
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KPBS. The Armenian Genocide and Exploring the Issues (PBS, 2006).From Youtube. 1:22:16.
After the CUP seized power there were boycotts of Armenian stores and then there were anti-Armenian protests which resulted in the deaths of many Armenian people.
Then the First World War began. The Ottoman Empire suffers a defeat at the hands of the Russians and they target the Armenians as being the reason they lost since the Armenians are the same religion as the Russians they must have been spying for them and a few of the Armenians from the Ottoman Empire had defected to Russia. The Armenians were ordered to turn in their weapons or else they would be beaten.
Armenian stores were burned and looted and the Armenian soldiers in the Ottoman Empire's army were sent to work in labor battalions where they stayed until they died of exhaustion or they were rounded up and shot.
Coded messages were sent to the political leaders such as provincial governors, that told them it was time to arrest, torture, and then hang the Armenian politicians, teachers, religious leaders, writers or dignitaries. Also the Turkish soldiers in the army killed all Armenians that lived in the war zone or were in a town on the way to or from a battle.
There were mass Armenian arrests with help from the civilian population and those that were arrested were shot by the Turkish police, Turkish volunteers, the gendarmes, or Turkish death squads. Armenians were charged with offenses such as poisoning soldiers' bread and they were beaten for it even when doctors proved the charges were false by eating the bread.
There were random massacres and looting of Armenian cities in which the government did not punish the offenders as they were preparing to blow up Constantinople a city with a large Armenian population.
Legislation passed that all Armenians had to leave their houses and move to villages in the interior. They were told that they had to leave by notice or criers and some Armenians gave their children to neighbors that were Turkish or Persian as they wouldn't be able to handle the 60 day march.
Also in 1915 women, children over the age of five, and men were asked to leave their house if they did not live in the war zone. They were marched to the Syrian Desert and sometimes farther with no water, rest or food; it was called a resettlement program but it was really a way for the government to kill people yet leave their houses and belongings intact so that the Turks who moved into the deserted villages and town would have a place to live and furniture. On theses marches the Armenians were sometimes marched in circles to tire them out or over the hardest terrain so no one would survive.
The government also had the Turkish adopted Armenian children who were taught to be Turkish not Armenian.
Bands of killers were hired by the government to attack the Armenian convoys of deportees as well as steal the limited possessions they had brought and the gendarmes that were supposed to protect them let them be killed and often raped women and young girls. They were not feed and many had to walk in the nude as they had their clothing stolen. Many Armenians committed suicide by throwing themselves into rivers. The roads soon became full of corpses that the diplomats and foreign ambassadors saw.
The Ottoman Empire starts to lose the war and those Armenians that are resisting have the opportunity to flee when the Russians, Great Britain and France advance.
The Bulgarians surrender and the Armenians in Bulgaria are safe from being deported back to the Ottoman Empire.
The war ends and war tribunals are held. A new leader is put in for the members of the CUP who have fled. Treaties are signed.
The surviving CUP members who had not fled or been arrested joined a nationalistic Turkish movement lead by Mustafa Kemal, who overthrew the leader appointed by the British due to popular vote, and the movement eliminated the rest of the Armenian people through expulsion and massacre; they also destroy remains of Armenian civilization such as art and Armenian cities.
All of the CUP members who have fled are assassinated. The assassins are arrested but never found guilty.
Mansell, Clint. Lux Aeterna. The Kronos Quartet. © 2000 by I-Tunes. mp3 file.
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