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Lecture 5 February 9th, 2016

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Michael Cameron

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of Lecture 5 February 9th, 2016

The Behavior Analysis
Process
Instructor:
Dr. Michael Cameron
Review
Class Goals
As a behavior interventionist, you will perform the work of a sleuth
The Scientific Method
The scientific method is simply a framework for the systematic exploration of patterns in the world. The behavior analytic process is an incremental process that involves collecting information about behavior and the environment, identifying patterns, forming explanations for the patterns, and testing your hypotheses about behavior
Why Describe?
Describe the Environment

Lecture 5
February 9,
2016

Option 4
Chapter 5:
Describe Behavior and Environment in Observable and Measurable Terms
Project Recommendations:
At the conclusion
of this lecture, identify a target behavior may be
interested in using for your project

Dr. John Lutzker
Georgia State University
Describe the problem
in behavioral terms
Conduct assessments (e.g.,
behavioral excesses, deficits, and
assets)
Select target behaviors
Establish behavioral
objectives and mesures
Devise and implement
behavior change
programs (skills
emphasized)
Evaluate the behavior
change programs
You will follow the scientific process and
Describe
,
Explain
,
Predict
, and
Control
behavior
Criterion for a Definition
Objectivity
. Refers to observable
characteristics of behavior or to events in the environment that can be observed
Environment is a general term which
describes the surroundings of a person

We are interested in all the various environmental
factors that may influence a person:
Setting
(e.g., a classroom, a grocery store)
Other people
(presence or absence)
Sounds, visual stimuli, motion
in the environment
Demands and expectations
imposed
Biological context
(e.g., Menstrual
Discomfort as a Biological Setting
Event for Severe Problem Behavior:
Assessment and Intervention)
Carr, Smith, Giacin, Whelan, and
Pancari 2003



So we can collect accurate information about behavior
So we can document interactions between the environment and a person's behavior
So we can design appropriate interventions
So we can determine whether behavior changes once interventions are introduced
Case Study
Background

Student: Vahe
Age: 13
Grade: Middle School
Challenge: Emesis
As a behavior interventionist you will
assist with this entire process
Questions: (1) What classes occur within
the high frequency time frames? (2) What
people does Vahe come in contact with during
the high frequency time frame? (3) What
demands are imposed during this time?

Medication:
Abilify, Zoloft, Ativan
Our Approach

The behavioral methodology involves a focus on direct observation of behavior (e.g., emesis) in situ (in the natural or original position or place)
Components of the Approach

Data collection

Planned activities appropriate to the
situation and individual behavioral dynamics
of the context (e.g., school)
Treatment strategies that match the
developmental skill level of the individual and
never be demeaning or nonfunctional
Interdisciplinary team (Speech and
Language Pathologist, Occupational
Therapist, Physical Therapist, School Psychologist, Social Worker)
There may be a biobehavioral component
and a requirement to monitor the effects of
pharmacological interventions
Generalization programming. Use active
"promotional" strategies to produce
generalization (e.g., programming common
stimuli).
Scope of Professional Work
ABC Recording and Scatterplot
Observing behavior and describing the conditions and circumstances that surround behavior (context). As a behavior interventionist you will assist with
"descriptive assessments"
The
A
ntecedent -
B
ehavior -
C
onsequence and Scatterplot
are two tools you will use during your observations and
during the process of assisting with a Functional
Behavior Assessment (FBA)
An
ABC
assessment is accomplished by observing a person and recording anecdotal information across many observation periods. The observer records events right before the behavior of concern (antecedents) and events that occurred right after the behavior of concern (consequences). This process helps identify patterns (e.g. both triggers for a problem and the consequences that may maintain a challenging behavior).
Behavior Intervention Technologies
Scatterplot
A chart or grid where an observer records events,
or a sequence events, that occur during a given context
(e.g., when required to write paragraphs, on the playground). We create a scatterplot to identify patterns and uncover possible correlations between a target behavior and:


Time of day
Physical setting

People
Activities
Learning theory
Focus on observable behavior
Guided by assessment
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
8 categories of reinforcement (auditory, visual, thermal, social, tactile, vestibular, olfactory, gustatory)
Positive punishment
Negative punishment
Extinction
The goals of this module are to:
Discuss your data collection
responsibilites as a Registered
Behavior Technician
Describe the "behavior analysis
process"
To discuss"why"
we put such an
emphasis on
data collection
To describe
A
ntecedent -
B
ehavior -
C
onsequnece Recording
To provide an overview of the Scatterplot
Questions
Answers
What are BITs?
Behavior Interventions Technologies
Steps of the scientific process
Describe, Explain, Predict, Control
One of your fundamental
requirements as an interventionist
Data collection, of course
What information are you gathering
during ABC recording?
Information on antecedents, behaviors,
and consequences
What information are you gathering
when constructing a scatterplot?
Information on correlations between
behavior and time of day, activity,
people, and physical locations
Clarity
. The definition is so clear that
that another person unfamiliar with the
behavior could observe the behavior and
measure it consistently
Completeness
. The boundaries of
the behavior are clearly delineated so
that responses can easily be
included or excluded. This also
includes a temporal measure
Full transcript