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Developmental

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Ms Schwinge

on 8 March 2017

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Transcript of Developmental

Social Development
From birth, babies in all cultures are social creatures, developing an
intense bond with their caregivers
.
Adolescence
Development is lifelong
, which means maturation and experience shape us not only in infancy and childhood, but also in adolescence and beyond.
Cognitive
Development
We already know that
cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
. But how did you first become conscious of it?
Gender
Development
Developmental
Psychology

Piaget's Stages of Development
Attachment Differences
Adulthood
Jean Piaget
(1920), a developmental psychologist, wondered this, and after half a century spent with children came to the conclusion that
a child's mind is not simply a miniature model of an adult's
.
Piaget's core idea is that the
driving force
behind our intellectual progression is an
unceasing struggle to make sense of our surroundings.
In order to do this, the maturing brain builds
schemas
;
concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information.
In order to
adjust our schemas
, we
assimilate
new experiences (
interpret them in terms of our current existing schemas
). We also
accommodate
(or adjust) our schemas to
incorporate information provided by new experiences
.
At the early part of this stage, infants
lack object permanence
(the awareness that objects
continue to exist
when not perceived).
However, 5 month old infants will
stare longer at a numerically impossible outcome.
At this stage, children
lack the concept of conservation
(the principle that
quantity remains the same despite changes in shape
).
Children at this age also have
a hard time taking another person's point of view
(known as
egocentrism
)
Theory of Mind
:
People's ideas about their own
and others' mental states
(their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts)
and the behaviors these might predict
This is Sally
This is Anne
Sally puts her ball in the red cupboard
Sally goes away
Anne moves the ball to the blue cupboard
Where will Sally look for her ball?
At this stage,
children fully gain the mental ability to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation.
By age 12, our reasoning
expands from purely concrete (our actual experience) to encompass abstract thinking (like imagined realities)
.
At about 8 months, soon after object permanence emerges, babies develop
stranger anxiety.
Although often irritating for caregivers, it is a behavior that
possibly evolved to protect babies from unfamiliar and potentially threatening
people. It also helps strengthen a child's
attachment
to their primary caregivers.
... But human children aren't the only ones that form attachments.
Harlow's Monkeys
As demonstrated by Harlow's monkeys,
contact is one of the key features of attachment
. Another is
familiarity
, which is often marked by a
critical period
.
Strange Situation Experiment
As these examples indicate,
researchers have more often studied mother care than father care
, but this is a
great disservice to the importance of a father
in a child's life.
Among the
Aka people of Central Africa, fathers form an especially close bond with their infants
. According to a 1991 study, fathers in this culture are
holding or within reach of their babies 47%
of the time.
Babies that are securely attached approach life with a sense of
basic trust
, a sense the world is
predictable and reliable
.
...But what happens to an infant when
attachment is disrupted
? (<2 vs. >2)
Does daycare matter?
Self concept vs. Self esteem
An understanding and assessment of who you are
How you feel about who you are
Children's views of themselves affect their actions.
Children who form a positive self-concept are more confident, independent, optimistic, assertive and sociable
. But how can parents encourage this type of self concept?
Parenting Styles
1.)
Authoritarian
-
parents
impose rules
and expect
obedience

2.)
Permissive
-
Parents submit to their children's desires.
They make
few demands and use little punishment
.

3.)
Authoritative
-
Parents are both demanding and responsive.
They
exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reason for the rules
. They also allow for open discussion and potential exception to the rules.
However,
children's traits may influence parenting more than vice versa
. Parental warmth and control vary somewhat from child to child. Additionally,
child-rearing practices reflect cultural values that vary
across time and place.
Men
Women
Gender Health Differences
4 times more likely to commit suicide or have alcohol dependence

More often diagnosed with autism, ADHD, and antisocial disorder
2 times more likely to suffer from depression and/or anxiety

10 times more likely to develop an eating disorder
Other Differences
The Nature of Gender
-
We all start out as biologically female
, but then our genes activated our biological sex (which was determined by our 23rd chromosome; XX or XY)

-
Women
have a slightly t
hicker corpus callosum and parts of the frontal lobe
, while
men
have slightly
thicker parietal cortex
The Nurture of Gender
82%
of the seats in the world's governing parliaments belong to
men
(which can help
sustain social power inequities
), and in regular settings more leadership positions are offered to men

Women make roughly
77 cents
on men's dollars

When people interact,
men
are more likely to utter
opinions
while
women
more often
express support of opinions


Women
are more prone to
relational aggression
, whereas
men
are more prone to
physical aggression
Gender is also socially constructed.
Culture is everything shared by a group and transmitted across generations
, and we can see its power in the social expectations that guide men and women's behavior.
Because of this,
different groups of people have different gender norms
.
- Gender identity is the sense of being either male or female.
- Gender typing is the actual acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
.
Women are offered help more often
than men
Females are more interdependent
than males (tend to spend less time alone)
As a group,
men tend to be less religious
Effects on Early Development
Our genes dictate our overall brain architecture, but experience is what develops neural connections and prepares our brains for thought and language.
One of the ways to do this is through an
enriched environment
.
For us to have
optimum development, normal stimulation during the early years is critical
.
The Power of Peer Influence
Preschoolers who
hate
a certain food often
will eat
that food
if put at a table with a group of children who like it
Teens who start smoking typically have friends who model smoking
. This may be due to
selection effect
: when people pick out peers with
similar attitudes and interests
.
Children who hear English spoken with one accent at home and another in the neighborhood and at school
will adopt the accent of their peers, not their parents
.
Adolescence starts with the physical beginnings of sexual maturity (puberty), and ends with the social achievement of independent adult status
(the length of time "adolescence" exists depends on the culture of the person).
Puberty
Primary Sex Characteristics
-
the reproductive organs and external genitalia
Secondary Sex Characteristics
-
the nonreproductive traits such as breasts and hips in girls, facial hair and deepened voice in boys
Myelination
Kohlberg Stages of Morality
Kohlberg didn't believe that people could skip stages of moral development
. He, like Piaget, believed that
each stage built on the one before it
, so skipping stages was not likely.
Delayed Gratification
Social Development
Theorist Erik Erikson
(1963) contended that
each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, or crisis, that needs resolution in order to solidify a sense of self in the individual
.
Social Identity:

The "we" aspect of our self-concept
, the part of our answer to "Who Am I?" that comes form our
group memberships
When schooling became compulsory
in many Western countries, independence began occurring later.
This causes the transition between adolescence and adulthood to lengthen
.
Everyone knows that the body ages;
its cells stop reproducing, it becomes frail, and it becomes vulnerable
to things like weather, taking a fall, or minor illnesses. However,
the human spirit
also affects life expectancy.
Death-deferral phenomenon
As we age,
the eye's pupil shrinks and its lens becomes less transparent, reducing the amount of light reaching the retina
(a 65 year old retina receives only about
1/3
as much light as a 20 year old retina)
Brain regions
important to
memory
begin to
atrophy
during aging, contributing to a
5% brain-weight reduction
by age 80
While late-maturing frontal lobes may help account for teen impulsivity, later in life it is
the atrophy of the inhibition-controlling frontal lobe that may explain older people's occasional blunt questions and frank comments
...But exercise helps the aging brain!
Enhances memory
Sharpens judgment
Promotes neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and maintains chromosomal telomeres
Aside from frontal lobe atrophy, more things can go wrong in the aging brain.
The loss of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the chemical messenger that helps memory and thinking, causes difficulty in recalling events and problem solving
.
MRI scans of the brain of people at risk for Alzheimer's revealed more intense activity when compared to normal brains
At risk brain
Normal brain
Memory declines as we age, but
what about our broader intellectual powers
? The research for this developed in phases:

Phase I -
Cross-sectional studies
(a study in which
people of different ages are compared
with one another)

Results -
Older adults give fewer correct answers
on an IQ test than young adults
Phase II -
Longitudinal study
(research in which the
same people are restudied over a long period
)

Results -
Until late in life,
intelligence remained stable
(and on some tests even increased)
Phase III -
It all depends!
We must always be wary of
potential
confounding variables
(i.e. those who survived to the end of longitudinal studies may be bright, healthy people whose intelligence is least likely to decline; maybe people who died younger and were removed from the study had declining intelligence).
Intelligence tests that assess speed of thinking may place older adults at a disadvantage because of their slower neural mechanisms
for processing information, but does that mean they are less intelligent?
When giving tests that assess general vocabulary, knowledge, and ability to integrate information, older adults generally fare well.
In four separate studies,
older crossword puzzle players excelled
when given 15 minutes with a puzzle
Types of Intelligence
Crystallized Intelligence:
Our accumulated knowledge as reflected in vocabulary and analogies tests
(increases up to old age)
Fluid Intelligence:
Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly, as when solving novel logic problems
(decreases slowly up to age 75 or so, then more rapidly)
The Good Stuff
Social clock - the definition of the "right time" to leave home, get a job, marry, have kids, and retire
varies from era to era and culture to culture
The secret to a happy relationship?
A five-to-one ratio of positive to negative interactions, and having a partner who cheers your accomplishments.
The secret to being happy at work? Choosing
a job that fits your interests and provides you with a sense of competence and accomplishment
.
Let go of the negative
. Our brain naturally helps us with this by having
the feelings we associate with negative events fade faster than the good feelings we associate with positive events
. This contributes to most older people's sense that life, on balance, has been mostly good.
Take away point?
Life requires both stability and change
.
Stability
enables us to depend on others, provides our identity, and
motivates our concern for the healthy development of children.
Change
motivates our concerns about present influences, sustains
our hope for a brighter future, and lets us adapt and grow with experience.
Snoop Dogg doesn't care about your gender typing
or gender norms
Prenatal Development
Maturation:
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
For example, prenatal development.
Critical (or Sensitive) Periods:
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
Many of these are found during prenatal development.
In the first week, after dividing about 7 times, the cells start to differentiate, to specialize in function (blood cells, nerve cells, heart cells). This process is directed by the genes.

Around the 10th day, the zygote attaches to the uterine wall where it will stay for about 37 weeks.
The Zygote
Three stages of prenatal development:
1.) zygote (fertilization – 2 weeks)
2.) embryo (2 – 8 weeks)
3.) fetus (9 – 40 weeks)
16 – 18 days after fertilization, a neural tube, with a brain bulge at one end, forms. This tube will development into the spinal cord.

26 – 28 days The tube will fold in on itself and the brain bulge will enlarge to form the brain’s major sections.

The embryo begins to curve into a “C” shape.
The Embryo
At 4.5 weeks the embryo’s bones are still soft, but the skeleton is well formed. The arms and legs are forming
The
placenta
is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall. The placenta forms connections with the mother's blood supply to supply oxygen and nutrients.

The placenta also connects with the fetus's blood supply, from which it removes waste and filters teratogens. The mother and fetus do not share blood supplies.

The umbilical cord connects the embryo to the placenta. It replaces the yolk sack, and is formed by the 5th week.
The eyelids have formed, and fingers & toes have begun to become more distinct. Skin is still transparent, so we can see into internal organs.
Teratogens
A
teratogen
is anything that can disrupt the development of an embryo or fetus in a pregnant mother's womb. A teratogen may cause a birth defect, malformation, or terminate the pregnancy altogether.

It can be in the form of infectious agents, harmful drugs or chemicals, like birth control pills, nicotine, alcohol, or some types of medication.
Thalidomide:
Used to treat women with
morning sickness
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
(FAS)
The Fetus
The embryonic period is all about the formation of important systems of the body; the basic foundation and framework.
The fetal period is more about growth and development so the baby can survive in the outside world. The fetus can feel movement and may respond to sound.
From Embryo to Fetus
What Can Babies Do?
Much of babies' activities in their first weeks of life is reflexive. The presence and strength of a reflex is an important sign of neurological development and function.
Baby Reflexes
Grasping
Plantar Toe
Moro (startle)
Babinski
Stepping
Tonic Neck
Rooting
Sucking
Many infant reflexes disappear as the child grows older, although some remain throughout adulthood. The presence of an infant reflex after the age at which the reflex normally disappears can be a sign of brain damage or damage to the nervous system.
Examples of reflexes that persist into adulthood are:

Blinking reflex
-- you blink your eyes when they are touched or when sudden bright light appears
Cough reflex
-- you coughs when your airway is stimulated
Gag reflex
-- you gag when the throat or back of mouth is stimulated
Sneeze reflex
-- you sneeze when nasal passages irritated
Yawn reflex
- you yawn when the body needs additional oxygen
Continued Reflexes
Vision
Birth: 20/600 (about 12” from their face to yours)
6 months: 20/100
10 months (crawling age): see as well as most adults
3-4 years: 20/20 (depending on genetics)

Like complex, high contrast patterns, but enjoy the human face the most. By 2 months, babies focus on eyes/mouth. By 3 months babies can distinguish Mom from others
 When you look at this figure, you can see a white square--what is called a subjective contour, because it does not actually exist on the page. Seven-month-olds can also see the overall pattern here, and detect the illusory square
Hearing
Startle at loud noise, turn toward sound; disappears at 6 weeks reappears at 3 – 4 months... Why? Due to brain maturation: reflexive vs. voluntary
Distinguish between human voice & other sounds (will suck on nipple to turn on vocal music, but not instrumental)
Prefer Mom’s voice (1 day), and that of other guardian (2-3 days)
Perceive critical characteristics of speech (1 month): can tell the difference between “pah” & “bah”
Touch
Well developed at birth, vital to growth
Elicits reflexes
Human contact is critical for healthy development
Smell
Birth: Prefer scent of Mom’s milk
1 day old: Discriminate between citrus & floral odors
6 weeks: Differentiate between scent of Mom & stranger
Sweet smells trigger decrease in heart rate & respiration
Ammonia: increase in heart rate & respiration. Why?
Taste
More sensitive to taste & texture of food due to more receptors on tongue
Sweet & salt: smile, lick lips
Sour: wrinkle nose
Bitter: DISGUST!
Motor Skills
Maturational process:
Proximo (near) to distal (far)
(activities with trunk mastered first)

Cephalo (head) to caudal (tail):
closer to head develops first, then feet
(ex. You lift your head before you crawl)
Full transcript