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Poetry Literary Devices ALL

CA Standards - Reading: 3.1-Forms, 3.6- Literary Devices
by

Jalene Danielle

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of Poetry Literary Devices ALL

Foundation:
Narrative Forms
Free Verse
Literary Devices
Lyrical Forms
The main purpose of this style or type of poetry is to express or invoke feelings and/or emotions.
Gotta Start Somewhere
Narrative Poems are meant to tell a story. They often contain characters, describe events, and can even be deconstructed on a plot line.
Structured poems follow a set of rules or develop a pattern.
This could include one or more of the following:

This style or form of poetry has no defined rules or set pattern to guide its construction.
Literary Devices, aka Figures of Speech, are the tools an author uses to add depth of meaning and sophistication to their writing.
Establish whether or not the poem tells a story.
If it does, it is a narrative poem.
To determine a poem's form, you must first...
If it does not, then the poem is in lyrical form.
Structured or Free Verse?
Answer the following question:
Does the poem follow any set rules or patterns?
If it does have some kind of pattern or follow any set rules, than this is a structured poem.
If the poem does not follow a set of rules or pattern, than it is a free verse poem.
Styles of lyrical poems:
Ode
Sonnet
Ballad
Memory Poem
Haiku
Narrative Poems would include:
Epic
The long tale of a hero and all of his or her amazing, larger than life adventures!!!
Structured Forms
Rhyme Scheme
Repetition
Meter
The structured poems you should know and recognize:
Ballad
Sonnet
Haiku
Epic
A narrative poem that is
song-like with a repeated chorus
Poetry is a genre of literature that uses:
Figures of speech
Descriptive Language
Can have a rhythm or beat
Can have a rhyme scheme
These are not always necessary!
There are many forms or styles of poetry.
The first step to understanding a poem is knowing its form.
Couplet
A couplet can be a two-lined rhyming poem
or
Two lines in a poem that rhyme
When the author repeats a sound, word or phrase multiple times, MULTIPLE TIMES, for emphasis
A rhyme scheme is the pattern created by rhyming the words at the end of a poem line
The pattern is labeled with letters.
Rhyming words get the same letter.
ABCB
ABCA
AABBCCDD
a rhythm that continuously repeats in a predictable pattern
Think of rappers!
Different beats=Different styles and skill levels
Vanilla Ice vs. Eminem
No Exceptions Rule:
To be considered one of the above poems, you MUST have the signature structure. No exceptions.
Authors of less regulated or Free Verse poems can
choose
to add structure to their poems; however, this does not makes them a "structured poem".
For example:
An Ode can rhyme and an Elegy could be done with meter. These are "Free Verse" poems because the author has a
choice
.
Remember the NO EXCEPTIONS RULE!
Elegy
A poem that expresses the
sadness of the author over another person's death.
Normally explains how such person died.
A style of poem
that praises
or raves about
a particular
person, place,
or thing.
This style of poetry has three very strict qualifications.
The poem must be 14 lines long.
No more, no less.
It must have a rhyme scheme.

The standard rhyming pattern is
as follows:
A B A B C D C D E F E F G G
Each of the lines of the poem contains 10 syllables in a stressed/unstressed beat or iambic pentameter
An unrhymed poetry form constructed of three lines, each containing a specific number of syllables
Normally the syllables count is 5, 7, 5
Because of this, all poems that are not identified by their structure fall into this category.
Using Literary Devices is way of: showcasing the author's talent; provoking particular thoughts, images, or feelings; catching the readers attention; adding beauty and interest to a text.
There are two basic categories that the Figures of Speech can be
shuffled into
:

Those that add to the meaning of the text,
and
Those that add to the "sound" of the text.
Meaning
Devices in this category make the audience "read between the lines", creating a more detailed picture for the reader to uncover and understand.
Metaphor Vs. Simile
If the words "like" or "as" are ANYWHERE in the comparison, then you have a simile.
If the comparison is DIRECTLY connected to the object or uses the "BE" verb, then you have a metaphor.
The comparison of two unlike objects.
Simile
Examples:
Life is
like
a box of chocolates.
Her hair is
as
golden
as
sunshine.
Metaphor
Examples:
Life
is
a box of chocolates.
Her sunshine-gold
en ha
ir.
Personification
This is when the author gives inanimate objects (things like your vacuum) or animals human-like traits, characteristics, or abilities.
Think of most Disney Pixar movies (Cars) or that really creepy part of Alice in Wonderland when all the strange talking flowers start beating up on her...
So you know, most written personification is a bit more subtle.
I hate that part.
Foreshadowing
When an author foreshadows, they give you hints about what may or may not be happening in the text.
This always makes me think of the scary music just before something bad happens in a movie...
Symbolic Meaning
This whole idea is based off of the fact that we associate or connect particular objects or symbols with specific people, places, things, or feelings.
For example:
The American Flag is the symbol of the USA, but also of freedom, liberty, democracy, our soldiers, and more.
Allusion
An Allusion is when the author refers to a person, place, thing, or event that should be common knowledge.
The author is expecting that you "get" and understand the connection without explanation.
"My lyrics get out a split atom like Hiroshima and Nagasaki"
- Black Eyed Peas
These lyrics make reference to the atomic or nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.
Simplified: My words = Nuclear Bombs
Idiom
An expression, commonly used, that has a figurative meaning, not a literal one.
It is how the expression is used that gives it meaning, not the denotation of the words.
For instance, when you tell me "it's raining cats and dogs" that does not (literally) mean canines and felines are falling from the sky. It (figuratively) means that it is raining heavy.
Irony:
There are three types of
Verbal Irony
Situational Irony
Dramatic Irony
The difference between what is said and what is meant
Like sarcasm
We can hear clues to verbal irony by listening to the tone of the speaker.

It is not what is said, but the way they say it.
For example, saying someone who just fell:
"Aww. Did you had a nice trip?"
This is a "real life" situation that does not quite turn out or work out like you expected.

Life happened.

The results often make you laugh or exclaim "That's messed up!"
Think about a beautiful car with an awesome custom
flame
paint job...
That dies when its engine catches
fire
!
That is ironic!
When you know something that the person in the situation does not.
Sound
The literary devices in this category affect the way we experience a piece of literature. They add character to the text.
Alliteration
Dialect
Onomatopoeia
Rhyme vs. Rhythm
A rhyme is the repetition of the same
end
sounds of multiple words.
Rhythm is the pattern created by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Irregular rhythm patterns are found in Free Verse poems, while regular patterns are called
Meter
ed poems.
C
at
, H
at
, B
at
Pr
ove
, Gr
ove
, Rem
ove
Abomin
ation
, annihil
ation
, retali
ation
Think back:
What is this pattern in a poem called
and how is it defined?
The words that make the sound they describe.
Buzz
Boom
Woof
Cock-a-doodle-doo
Moo
A variation of language spoken by a particular group.
Most notable differences are seen by region.
Regional Examples:
Ya'll
fleg vs. flag
Post vs. mail
Southwest/Texas/Cowboy
Northern States near Canada
British
The repetition of consonant sounds within multiple words.
Our brains love repetition. Major brain candy!
Think of tongue twisters
A caner can can any thing that he can, but a caner can't can a can, can he?
Remember:
Poems need their meaning unpacked. To truly enjoy them, you must slow down, break them down, and read them again.
Pay attention to the
details
and you'll see an amazing picture bloom!
All good skills need a foundation.
So you know, poems can also be called a verse.
A recollection of a childhood memory in the form of a poem.
AABBA
What is this?!?!
Ambiguity
Stanza
A group of lines forming the basic recurring metrical unit in a poem; a verse.
Spoken Word
Enjambment
the continuation of a
sentence or phrase from one line
of verse into the next line
without a pause.
Uncertainty or inexactness of meaning in language.
Literal Meaning
Taking words in their usual or most basic sense without metaphor
hyperbole
Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
Example:
"The Raven" by Edgar Allen Poe
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door...
Memory from Childhood - Antonio Machado
A chilly and overcast afternoon
of winter. The students
are studying. Steady boredom
of raindrops across the windowpanes.

It is the schoolroom. In a poster
Cain is shown running
away, and Abel dead,
not far from a red spot.

The teacher, with a voice husky and hollow,
is thundering. He is an old man badly dressed,
withered and dried up,
who is holding a book in his hand.

And the whole child's choir
is singing its lesson:
one thousand times one hundred is one hundred thousand,
one thousand times one thousand is one million.

A chilly and overcast afternoon
of winter. The students
are studying. Steady boredom
of raindrops across the windowpanes.
O Captain! My Captain!
by Walt Whitman

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done, The ship has weather'd every rack,
the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; But O heart! heart! heart!
O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.
O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up- for you the flag is flung- for
you the bugle trills,

For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths- for you the shores
a-crowding,
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;
Here Captain! dear father!
This arm beneath your head!
It is some dream that on the deck,
You've fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will,
The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;
Exult O shores, and ring O bells!
But I with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.
William Shakespeare - Sonnet #18

Shall I compare thee to a Summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And Summer's lease hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And oft' is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd:
But thy eternal Summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;
Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou growest:

So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
Enough Already, Ode to a Turkey
Oh how I love thee with your white and dark meat
Thou art the very best
But because of you, I can’t see my feet
My navel is two feet from my chest
To diet and lose so I don’t wobble no more
I would be very willing
It would be impossible now, because somehow
I finished four bowls of filling
My wife pointed at me and said look at him
He sits at the table, like a dog he begs
I stare at you and your magnificent breast
Can hardly wait to get my hands on your legs
Enough already, I’m on my knees
Give me some stuffing and some black eyed peas
Sweet potatoes, corn and a salad I’ll toss
And bury your butt with cranberry sauce
Oh turkey, my turkey, you’re the one who rocks
Now I’ve gotten so fat, I can’t put on my socks
My love for you was fleeting
And we are finished I fear
But I’ll fall in love with another turkey
Same time next year.
One apple, alone
In the abandoned orchard
reddens for winter
-Patrick Blanche
How many stanzas?
Humpty Dumpty

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall;
All the King's horses and all the King's men
Couldn't put Humpty together again
http://www.rhymezone.com/
Let's practice with some words and phrases on the board.
The Delight Song of Tsoai-talee
by N. Scott Momaday

I am a feather on the bright sky
I am the blue horse that runs on the plain
I am the fish that rolls, shining, in the water
I am the shadow that follows a child
I am the evening light, the lustre of meadows
I am an eagle playing with the wind
I am a cluster of bright beads
I am the farthest star
I am the cold of dawn
I am the roaring of the rain
I am the glitter of the crust of the snow
I am the long track of the moon in a lake
I am a flame of four colors
I am a deer standing away in the dusk
I am a field of sumac and the pomme blanche
I am an angle of geese in the winter sky
I am the hunger of a young wolf
I am the whole dream of these things
You see, I am alive, I am alive
I stand in good relation to the earth
I stand in good relation to the gods
I stand in good relation to all that is beautiful
I stand in good relation to the daughter of Tsen-tainte
You see, I am alive, I am alive
"Picture an elephant inside your head."
Ahh! There is an elephant
inside my head!
I am thinking of an elephant.
"The pain of losing you is like being stabbed with ten thousand knives."
"My heart exploded with love."
"I would rather die than write my paper."
"You are the funniest person alive."
CLICK ME!!
*Activity*
With a partner, create your own type of Structured Poem. Put final product on the paper provided.

-Create a title (like "Sonnet," make up your own)
-Create rules about some of the following:
How many stanzas does it have?
What is the rhyme pattern?
Does it have a certain number of lines and/or syllables?
Does it use repetition?
Make up a creative rule...
-Write 2 example poems

*We will post these throughout school*
*Example*
Title: Thebest
Rules: 1 stanzas of 5 lines
8 words per line
Rhyming pattern of AABBC
Each line has obvious alliteration
No spaces

Example:
"Theend"
Tanksturntightlytowardthetinyteaplace
Hankhonkshishornhopingtheyhurrypace
Butbabies'blanketsareburningbythestreet
Fathersfulloffearandfryingtheirfeet
Wherewomenworkwewillsoonbeweeping.
*Example With Spaces*

"The end"
Tanks turn tightly toward the tiny tea place
Hank honks his horn hoping they hurry pace
But babies' blankets are burning by the street
Fathers full of fear and frying their feet
Where women work we will soon be weeping.
Final Assignment:
1. Choose your favorite poem, rap, or song (something with the details we've discussed)

2. Answer the questions given to you (packet) that describes its form and meaning.

4. Present the poem, rap, song to class and summarize what you wrote about in your presentation.

5. Hand in packet with a copy of the poem or lyrics.
With 2 other people, come up with at least 5 poem or song titles that you know tell a story (narrative poems).
Full transcript