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Maynard Lumhod

on 22 August 2013

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Transcript of EVALUATION

Why do we Grade?
Characteristics of an Evaluation Program
it should be designed

to cover a wide range of many important outcomes

in the educational program.
Importance of Evaluation
It's important as an instrument to the
school system,
to the

teacher, learner, parent, administrator, policy maker

and the

teaching profession.
Types of Evaluation
What's the purpose of Grading?
Why do we need to Justify?
To ascertain or fix the value or worth of.
To examine and judge carefully; appraise.
retrieved from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/evaluation
Principles of Evaluation
Instruments of Measurement
Purposes of Tests in Education
Criteria for selecting Tests
Factors Affecting Usability
Types of Tests
Norm-Referenced Test
Criterion-Referenced Test
Distinction between
General Principles in Test Construction
Types of Standardized Test
Completion Questions
Guidelines for Writing
True-False Questions
Guidelines for Writing
Matching Questions
Guidelines for Writing
Multiple-Choice Questions
Guidelines for Writing
Discussion Questions
Guidelines for Writing
Essay Questions
Guidelines for Writing
Returning Tests and Feedback
Grading & Reporting
Learner's Progress
Referenced from:
by Francisco M. Zulueta
To determine if the learning style is effective to the learners
To determine if the learning takes place
so students will know what progress they're making
to determine the effectiveness of the instructions
so school admins know the effectiveness of the program
so parents have the right to know the progress of their children
It should be within the parameter

to which the learners have attained the objectives of education.
Evaluation is the
systematic process
of collecting and analyzing data in order
to determine
the current status of the subject of evaluation,
to compare
this status with a set of criteria and
to select
an alternative solution among from among two or more in order to arrive at a sound decision.
Multiple Choice/Objective
Math and Science Problems
Short Answer
Open Book
Source: http://web.mit.edu/uaap/learning/test/testtypes.html
Through observation
during class discussions and supervised study,
the teacher can learn a great deal about each learner.
provide a more concrete and detailed evidence in a convenient form,
it is used to supplement the pieces of evidence collected through observation
The norms represent average performances of many
students in various age, grade, and demographic groups
and are used
to compare the performance of individuals or special groups to the performance of those in the norm group
. Designed to measure achievement or past learning’s.
Enable the teacher
to compare a student’s performance to a predetermined
goal or outcome
. Criterion-referenced tests provide a way of determining whether
a student has met instructional goals, or criteria
To document academic progress.
To measure how well a student is able to display mastery of whatever subjects he wanted to learn.
The two major criteria for selecting tests are
A third criterion for selecting a test is
Yields similar results when it is repeated over a short period of time.

Used for measuring the accuracy and consistency with which a measuring device measures what it purports to measure.
Can be viewed as consistent, dependable and stable.
Measure what it is represented as measuring.
Used for measuring the degree to which measuring instrument measures what it purports to measure.
should be easy for students to understand, easy to administer and score, within budget limitations if it has to be purchased, suitable to the test conditions (for example: time available) and appropriate in the degree of difficulty.
Unclear Directions
Reading Vocabulary and Sentence Structure are too Difficult
Poorly Constructed Test Items
Test Items Inappropriate for the Outcomes Being Measured
Test is too short
Improper Arrangement of Items
There are fundamental principles that should be observed and guide the teachers when designing an assessment system as they prepare their own tests. Tests that are well-planned that covers a wide range of objectives and topics and are well-executed will most likely ensure validity. No matter what type of test the teacher may use, it must be valid and reliable.
Measure All Instructional Objectives
Cover All Learning Tasks
Use Appropriate Test Items
Make Test Valid and Reliable
Use Tests to Improve Learning
Base true-false items upon statements that are absolutely true or false, without qualifications or exceptions.
Express the item statement as simply and as clearly as possible.
Express a single idea in each test item.
Include enough background information and qualifications so that the ability to respond correctly to the item does not depend on some special, uncommon knowledge.
Avoid lifting statements from the text, lecture or other materials so that memory alone will not permit a correct answer.
Avoid using negatively stated item statements.
Avoid the use of unfamiliar vocabulary.
Avoid the use of specific determiners which would permit a test-wise but unprepared examinee to respond correctly.
False items tend to discriminate more highly than true items. Therefore, use more false items than true items (but no more than 15% additional false items).
Include directions which clearly state the basis for matching the stimuli with the responses. Explain whether or not a response can be used more than once and indicate where to write the answer.
Use only homogeneous material in matching items
Arrange the list of responses in some systematic order if possible (e.g., chronological, alphabetical).
Avoid grammatical or other clues to the correct response.
Keep matching items brief, limiting the list of stimuli to under 10.
Include more responses than stimuli to help prevent answering through the process of elimination.
When possible, reduce the amount of reading time by including only short phrases or single words in the response list.
Omit only significant words from the statement.
Do not omit so many words from the statement that the intended meaning is lost.
Avoid grammatical or other clues to the correct response.
Be sure there is only one correct response.
Make the blanks of equal length.
When possible, delete words at the end of the statement after the student has been presented a clearly defined problem.
Avoid lifting statements directly from the text, lecture or other sources.
Limit the required response to a single word or phrase.
Use Plausible Distractors (wrong-response options)
Use a Question Format
Emphasize Higher-Level Thinking
Keep Option Lengths Similar
Balance the Placement of the Correct Answer
Be Grammatically Correct
Avoid Clues to the Correct Answer
Avoid Negative Questions
Use Only One Correct Option (Or be sure the best option is clearly the best option)
Give Clear Instructions
Use Only a Single, Clearly-Defined Problem and Include the Main Idea in the Question
Avoid the “All the Above” Option
Avoid the “None of the Above” Option
Determine whether an essay question is the most appropriate format for the type of learning you want to assess.
Administer enough different question items to adequately sample the domain of knowledge covered by the exam.
Avoid ambiguous prompts; state the question clearly and precisely and make clear what information the answer should contain.
Provide a detailed prompt that mitigates the degree to which a student’s writing skill interferes with her ability to demonstrate knowledge of the course subject matter.
Do not allow students to choose which questions to answer.
Minimize influence of extraneous factors.
Adopt practices to improve the reliability of grades.
immediate and delayed feedback
increased the proportion of correct responses and reduced the proportion of intrusions (i.e., lure responses from the initial multiple-choice test) on a delayed cued recall test.
Increasing Learning When Returning Exams
this includes
a variety of methods and techniques
for securing and recording pieces of evidence to come up with a reliable and credible evaluation.
Objectives should be defined

in terms of learner behavior.
It is
an integral part
of the educative process.
should be cooperative
should be comprehensive
It utilizes
a variety of measurement instruments and techniques
Records should be utilized
to give a complete and clear picture of the learners.
Phases of the evaluative process are
Diagnosis and remedial teaching
(like tests)
Diagnostic Evaluation
Formative Evaluation
Summative Evaluation
this is where the teacher
determine the different levels in terms of learning experience
of children to serve as basis for grouping them:
the teacher performs the learning activities
giving adequate information to learners for self-appraisal.
(to motivate the learners)
serves as
a guide in determining the effectiveness of instruction
and be a gauge for planning future learning activities.
used by teachers
to determine grades
form the reports
sent to the students and their parents.
work samples
rating scales
means that the process of constructing a test stimulates teachers to clarify and refine meaningful course objectives
means that tests may provide a means for
"quality control" for the school system.
tests provide a means of feedback to the teacher
tests can motivate learning
are useful means of overlearning
tests are useful for program evaluation and research
tests enables better decisions on classification and placement
test can increase the quality of selection decisions
tests can be useful means of accreditation, mastery or certification
means that
tests can be of value in diagnosing and individual's special aptitudes and abilities
Intelligence Tests
Achievements Tests
Aptitude Tests
Personality Tests
Inventory Tests
Teacher-made Tests
Survey or general achievement tests
Diagnostics tests
Competency tests
Stanford-Binet (SB) - a group intelligence test
Wechler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) - an individual basis test
- used as a screening device for students who wish to enroll on special schools like music, art and science
- used for special placement students with learning problems
- used to measure the degree of mastery before the teaching of the subjects
- used to measure the achievements, progress, weakness or defects of each learner
Give clear and concise directions, indicating the length of response and amount of detail expected.
Questions should focus on important instructional objectives and course content.
Allow sufficient time for students to answer the questions.
Match questions and expected responses with the age and abilities of the students.
Use the same techniques and criteria for evaluating all the students responses.
To determine the students to be promoted to next year level.
To motivate the students to study hard.
The uses of GRADES are:
To guide the planning of students current school work.
To guide educational plans for future direction of education.
To provide records for the school and researchers.
To provide reports for student progress for the learners, parent and the school.
The teacher should write down only information which can help elicit parent cooperation.
The report should be brief and clear.
The language of the report on the learner's growth and development should be simple and easy to understand.
The comments of the teacher in the report card should be encouraging with a positive attitude of optimism.
There should be a duplicate copy of every report to be sent to the parent/guardian and for the office file.
Reporting Learner's Progress
Full transcript