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Brazil

Population
by

Christina Macaluso

on 5 April 2011

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Transcript of Brazil

BRAZIL - Brazil is a big beautiful country in South America - On a map the country looks slighty heart shaped - The country faces the Atlantic Ocean - The country is cultrally diverse
- National language is Portuguese INTRODUCTION - Independence from Portugal was achieved in 1822 - Brazil takes part in the G20 - Home to a diversity of wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural
resources in a variety of protected habitats. - Most of the country is tropical - Brazil is the fifth most populous country - Population is approx. 193,733,795 - 62% of Brazilians are under 29 years of age "The Brazilian national flag features a yellow diamond on a green background: green represents Brazil's lush vegetation and yellow its wealth in gold.

In the centre of the diamond there is a dark blue sphere representing the deep hue of the sky in the tropics. The sphere contains twenty-seven stars representing the capital of the country and its federal states, and across the middle of the sphere runs a white banner bearing the words Ordem e Progresso (Order and Progress)." - It is the fifth largest country in the world - Occupies 3,286,470 sq. miles Factors Affecting Population POPULATION POLICIES A population policy is a plan to manage or control
some aspects of a country’s population. Involves efforts too:

- Reduce growth, infant mortality rate, overcrowding in certain
areas (better distribution of people)
- Improve the standard of living (access to water, health care,
education, employment, housing)

Population policies change over time, for example, as a
country reduces its birth rate and death rate, it will put more
resources into improving standards of living.
- There is overpopulation in Urban areas in Brazil, like the North East.
In the urban areas employment, housing and services lack due to the
mass number of individuals residing in the area. Many do not want to
leave the shanty towns to move to rural zones.
- An area Brazil was attempting to develop for resettlement was
Amazonia which accounts for 60% of Brazil’s land, but only 10% of the
population. The development occurred in 1950s and 60s when Brazil
was working on the new capital city (Brasilia) - This was also done to increase national food production. With all the focus on agriculture and industry there was a lack in clean water, housing and infrastructure for the new areas. There were insufficient resources for settlers. - Another problem due to population is the inequalities in the country. For example, people living in the South East of Brazil live, on average, 27 years longer than those in the North East, due to the quality of life, and are 5 cm taller, due
to a better diet.
- Their education has also been on a downfall since the 1980s. When it initially deteriorated wealthy families survived by sending their kids to private schools, where they gained the knowledge to obtain jobs. Many did not have this opportunity so inequalities began to form in not only education but incomes as well. With this triggered health care as well. The rich used private health care where the poor relied on inefficient hospitals and clinics. Another is the housing issue, while trying to move people out of the dense areas, the rich are moving out into the rural areas making it a very expensive place to live and leaving the other areas to become shanty towns. - There are also many racial concerns in Brazil, it was found out there was a political project to “Whiten” the population and family planning is always connected to the idea of the racial composition of the population. The government wanted to control the birth rate of the poor and non-white population. Which was an attempt to reduce the black population because the government stated. The factors affecting population are numerous however there are a few general but important ones. Here are a few factors that contribute to population change in Brazil:

1. Birth Rate

Factors:
• In South- East/South part of Brazil has world class health care in modern medical centers

• The most important factors affecting mode of birth were related to health service delivery: The probability of delivery by c-section was elevated among women who had given birth between 7:00 a.m. and 7:00 p.m., had made four or more visits for prenatal care or had used the same physician for prenatal care and delivery

• Attitudes on abortion is strick: Brazilian girls or women can only have an abortion if the life of the mother is in danger or assaulted in rape, otherwise there is a severe punishment of one to three years in prison.

• Basic Economy. Today Brazil has the eighth largest economy in the world. It is a major producer of such agricultural products as sugarcane, soybeans, oranges, coffee, cocoa, rice, wheat, and cotton.

• In the last decades of the 20th, increasing mechanization and monopolization of the best farmlands by agribusinesses has increased the displacement of small family-owned farms.

• Brazil experienced economic growth from agricultural modernization and, by the early 1980s, agricultural production had increased to the extent that Brazil had become the fourth largest food exporter in the world. But, at the same time, Brazil was not adequately feeding its own people. It is sixth worldwide in malnutrition, ahead of only Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

17.79 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) 2. Death Rate – Brazil’s death rates are slown because of sanitation, nutrition, and health. This means more people are away of death and more people will stay in the population.

3. Immigration & Emigration – Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the formation, structure and history of the population in Brazil, influencing culture, economy, education, racial issues, etc.
4. The Climate & the Country itself - For example, if the area is grassland or forested then it has a low population density because these areas are prone to rainfall. In dry or desert areas there is also a low population density as the climate is too dry. But in this case, Brazil’s life is easy in a warm climate. Also being as big as it is, the inland areas can produce crops through the fertile farm lands and the rain forest to the north means that there is wood to be gathered, as well as crops to be grown on those lands. The heat is quite attractive for tourism also.

5. Attractions - In Brazil there are available space, available food, available water, available jobs. Also, I would say that the contributing factors are that the main cities are along the coast which helps with trade for money and other resources and food from fishing, tourism for more income.
I’m give you 2 scenarios

FIRST

• Regarding Brazil's rapid rise in the worlds economic arena, they are advancing in technology (as is India) they are becoming one of the leading entries in aircraft design and commercial aviation (like Boeing, Airbus and Bombardier), and are currently the leader in improving their countries infrastructure (power dam development, electricity, roads and sanitation).

• Brazil is the only other country in the world (second to Europe) that has a privately sponsored satellite consortium putting commercial payloads into Geo-synchronous orbits. Brazil invests massive amounts of funds into their own domestic improvements instead of foreign ventures. This helps to maintain their wealth internally and not lost externally (to the rich individuals in other countries). There mandate is to make affordable all items to its population at fair prices.

• This stimulates growth, an excellent education, an affordable government run health care and a low deficit. Brazil's exports far exceed its imports which contributes greatly to its already healthy financial stability. Brazil also is in the process of promoting the 'Green Effect' educating the establishment of its benefits. Brazil does not contribute to war machines nor does it instigate boundary disputes and aggression.

SECOND

• On the other hand, Brazil has a long way to go creating stability for its indigenous populations (remote) and the poor. Deforestation of its rain forests has always been controversial by institutions such as the Sierra Club and the like. But those resolves are on the table, so to speak, of which they will eventually be completed. The country, as do many countries, has a large portion of low or extremely low income population (proportionately to the middle class and the wealthy) and slums, but that also is being addressed. With the increase in manufacturing and technology, more jobs will become available and the percentage of the poor will lower and that's a good thing.
Brazil’s population effect on social, economic and environmental conditions -● Brazil's economy (characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors) outweighs all other South American countries, and Brazil is expanding its presence in world markets.
● - Since 2003, Brazil has steadily improved its macroeconomic stability, building up foreign reserves, and reducing its debt profile by shifting its debt burden toward real denominated and domestically held instruments.
● - In 2008, Brazil became a net external creditor and two ratings agencies awarded investment grade status to its debt. After record growth in 2007 and 2008, the onset of the global financial crisis hit Brazil in September 2008. -● Brazil experienced two quarters of recession, as global demand for Brazil's commodity-based exports dwindled and external credit dried up. However, Brazil was one of the first emerging markets to begin a recovery.
● - Consumer and investor confidence revived and GDP growth returned to positive in 2010, boosted by an export recovery.
●Brazil's strong growth and high interest rates make it an attractive destination for foreign investors.
●- Large capital inflows over the past year have contributed to the rapid appreciation of its currency and led the government to raise taxes on some foreign investments.
●- President Dilma Rousseff has pledged to retain the previous administration's commitment to inflation targeting by the Central Bank, a floating exchange rate, and fiscal restraint. Population vs. Economy Brazil’s major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef. The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China)

GDP (Purchasing power): About $2.194 Trillion (US Dollars)

●- Brazil has the 8th highest GDP compared to other countries, being higher than the United Kingdom, France, Canada, etc. GDP Income Sectors (2010 est.):
Agriculture: 6.1%
Industry: 26.4%
Services: 67.5%

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (Which is relatively low)
Because Brazil is the largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador. Because of this, trading and people can do business with nearby countries in South America.

Brazil is the most populous country in Latin America, as well as one of the most populous in the world. The population of Brazil in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 178,470,000, which placed it as number 5 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 6% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 30% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 97 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.24%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 201,970,000. The population density in 2002 was 20 per sq km (53 per sq mi).
Population vs. Social Age structure:
0-14 years: 26.2% (male 27,219,651/female 26,180,040)
15-64 years: 67% (male 67,524,642/female 68,809,357)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 5,796,433/female 7,899,650) (2011 est.)


Urbanization:
Most of Brazil’s population resides in the urban areas of its biggest cities, being Sao Paulo (19.96 million); Rio de Janeiro (11.836 million); Belo Horizonte (5.736 million); Porto Alegre (4.034 million); (BRASILIA) (capital) 3.789 million. [2009]

Population Growth Rate:

1.134% (2011 est.)
Nationality:

Noun: Brazilian(s)
Adjective: Brazilian


Ethnic Groups:

White 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (based on a 2000 census)


Languages:

Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language); note - less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages.

Diseases:

-Brazil’s population is barely affected by HIV, AIDS or other disease due to free healthcare paid in full by the government.
-In 2002, there was fewer than 600,000 estimated infections, less than half the prediction (1.2 Million)
Population vs. Environment Major cities The environment of Brazil is characterised by high biodiversity with a population density that decreases away from the coast.
Brazil's large area comprises different ecosystems, which together sustain some of the world's greatest biodiversity. Because of the country's intense economic and demographic growth, Brazil's ability to protect its environmental habitats has increasingly come under threat. Extensive logging in the nation's rainforests, particularly the Amazon, both official and unofficial, destroys areas the size of a small country each year, and potentially a diverse variety of plants and animals.
The majority of the Amazon rainforest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, and with minor amounts in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana.

Brazil is currently the second-largest global producer of soybeans after the United States. The needs of soy farmers have been used to validate many of the controversial transportation projects that are currently developing in the Amazon. The first two highways successfully opened up the rain forest and led to increased settlement and a great amount of deforestation.
Environment – Current Issues:

- The deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area

- There is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade

- Air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities

- Land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

- Wetland degradation

- Severe oil spills


Government’s actions:

Due to these issues, mostly caused by human actions, Brazil’s government has signed numerous agreements in order to reduce potential problems for the environment.

Some of these agreements include: the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83 and Tropical Timber 94.
Brazil is entering that expertise of becoming a first world country and will eventually dominate all South America and Central American counties in exports and infrastructure. They are quietly but not surreptitiously, being watched very carefully by the other world powers as to its advancements. (The US, Europe, China, Japan and India. Brazil, in the area of aviation alone, (Embraer, the world's third largest commercial airplane) has progressed at an alarming rate. They have outsold Lockheed, Boeing and Airbus (a subsidiary of EADS) quantitatively in 2010 alone. CONCLUSION

BEMFAN. Pesquisa Nacional sobre Demografia e Saúde 1996: Relatório
Preliminar, 1996.
F. de Azevedo, Brazilian Culture (tr. 1950, repr. 1971); E. B. Burns,

“Brazil.” Cia World Fact Book. 2005. 4 April 2011.

CARVALHO, José Murilo de. Cidadania no Brasil: o longo caminho. Rio de
Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2002.

CUNHA, Estela M. G. de P. "Mortalidade infantil e raça: as diferenças da
desigualdade". Jornal da Rede, Rede Saúde, n. 23, mar. 2001. World Wide
Web: www.redesaude.org.br/jornal/html/jr23-estela.html [06.2006]

“Economy of Brazil.” Brazilinfo.net. 2003. 4 April 2011.

“History of Brazil.” Wikipedia. 2007. 4 April 2011.

A History of Brazil (2d ed. 1980); P. McDonough, Power and Ideology in Brazil (1981);

T. C. Bruneau, The Church in Brazil: The Politics of Religion (1982); P. S. Falk and D.

V. Fleischer, Brazil's Economic and Political Future (1988);

R. P. Guirmaraes, Politics and Environment in Brazil (1991). WORKS CITED - Third world country
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