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Parts of Speech

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by

rachel mckee

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Parts of Speech

Parts of Speech
Car Engine...
Nouns
Verbs
Adjectives
Adverbs
Prepositions
Pronouns
Conjunctions
Interjections
Nouns
What are they?
Nouns = person, place, thing or idea
Examples:
Person: Bill, kid, mom
Place: home, New York, park
Thing: kite, desk, balloon
Idea: Love, history
Types of Nouns
1.) Singular
2.) Plural
= ONE
= MORE THAN ONE
Example:
House
Example:
Houses
3.) Common
4.) Proper
= any person, place, thing or idea
= a specific person, place, thing or idea
Example:
coffee shop
Example:
Starbucks
5.) Concrete
6.) Abstract
= tangible (you can touch, taste, see, or hear them)
= an idea or a feeling
Examples:
cup, dog, building
Examples:
love, happiness
7.) Collective
= a singular noun that implies a group
Examples:
team, family
8.) Compound
= two or more nouns together to make one noun
Examples
skate + board = skateboard
air + plane = airplane
9.) Possessive
= shows ownership through use of apostrophes
Examples
Boy's shirt
Dog's collar
Reminder:
A noun always falls into more than one category. Example...
1.) Houses < (plural and concrete)
2.) Airplane's wing < (compound and possessive)
Adjectives
What are they?
= Words that modify or describe nouns
Examples:
Green shirt
Happy baby
Hungry students
Adjectives answer:
1.) Which one?
those
that
this
Special Types of Adjectives
Comparative
Superlative
= Compares one thing to another
= Compares one thing many
Example:
Dan is
taller
than Bob.
Example:
Dan is the
tallest
of them all.
Proper Adjectives
= adjectives that describe a specific noun
Examples
Italian hoagie
Swiss cheese
Articles
A, An, The
2.) What kind?
green
little
old
3.) How many?
one
several
all
Pronouns
what are they?
= a word that takes the place of one or more nouns
Example:
Bob loves reading;
he
particularly enjoys novels.
He
= pronoun
Bob
= antecedent
Antecedent
= the word that the pronoun refers to
Indefinite Pronouns
Everyone, Anyone, Someone
Story time...
One day Ms. McKee took her dog Finn for a walk. It was very _________ outside that day, so she wore her _________ coat. Finn immediately found a ________ hiding under a bush. Finn was very _________, and __________ very loudly. Afterward they returned home for a nice cup of ___________.


What are they?
Conjunctions
= Words used to connect sentences or ideas
Examples:
Molly went home and took a nap.
I was in the mood for milk and cookies.
Types of Conjunctions
Coordinating
And, but, or
Connect equal ideas
I want to go to school,
but
I am sick.
Example:
Correlative
Paired
conjunction to link equal ideas
Both ... and
Either ... or
Neither ... nor
Not only ... but
Examples:
Both
my sister
and
I enjoy dancing.
He was
neither
relieved
nor
satisfied with his grade.
Conjunctive Adverb
Shows cause/effect or relationships
However
Besides
Therefore
Moreover
Furthermore
example:
Always go to other people's funerals;
otherwise
, they won't go to yours.
Subordinating
Connects an incomplete sentence to a complete sentence
Because, since, until, while, although, which,
when, though, before, unless, so that, as
Since
I won the lottery I have been very happy.
I'm not getting my phone back
until
Saturday
.
Examples:
What conjunction is being used?
2.) Yesterday I called my friend,
and
asked about the game.
1.) The storm affected
both
my bother
and
I.
3.) Mike had to sit down,
while
Sally was allowed to play again.
What kind of conjunction is it? Follow the chart:
Is it AND, BUT, or OR?
yes!
Is it paired with EITHER, NEITHER, NOT ONLY, or BOTH?
yes!
Correlative
no!
Coordinating
Does it follow a semicolon? ;
no!
yes!
Conjunctive
Adverb
no!
Subordinating
Verbs
What are they?
= express an action or state of being
Examples:
Jump, sing, think, worry, have, appear
Main Verbs...
... explain what the subject of the sentence is doing.
Examples:
My brother
played
outside.
The students
study
in the hallway.
The movie
was
good.
Helping Verbs...
... are added to the main verb to show when or if it happens
examples:
I
would
enjoy
ice cream tomorrow.
I
am
going
to the beach this summer.
Will
you
sing
in the concert?
Verb tenses...
Past
Present
Future
He
walked
away.
He
walks
away.
He
will walk
away.
Relative Pronouns
That, which, who, whom, whose, whichever, whoever, whomever
Demonstrative
Pronouns
This, that
These, those
Linking Verbs
= when a helping verb is used by itself
for example:
John
was
mean.
She
is

jealous
of him.
Verb Phrases
= When you use
more than one verb
to explain the action
Examples:
I
am heading
home later.
John
should have looked
first.
*They always have one main verb and at least one helping verb*
Is the subject DOING something?
Yes!
ACTION VERB... but is there a helping verb?
No!
LINKING VERB
Verb Phrase!
(HV + MV)
Yes!
No!
Just MAIN VERB
(state of being)
=
Adverbs
What are they?
Words that modify or describe verbs, adjectives or other adverbs
Adverbs modify verbs...
Explorers
eagerly

chase
adventure.
Adverbs modify ADJECTIVES...
Some explorers visit
amazingly

beautiful
places.
Adverbs modify ADverbs...
Others
quite

bravely
explore the unknown - space.
Adverbs answer...
How?
Suddenly, carefully, quietly
When?
Yesterday, later, already
Where?
There, ahead, outside
To what extent?
Completely, totally, fully
Special
Adverb: NOT
You should
not
run inside.
Reminder:
Adverbs can come ANYWHERE in a sentence, not just next to the word that they modify.
Examples:
+ LY
Yesterday
Mike
practiced
.
She
closed
the door
fully
.
Some other
linking verbs...
Seem
Become
Grow
Look
Prove
Remain
Smell
Sound
Taste
Turn
Stay
Get
Appear
Feel
After drinking the old milk, Kelly
turned
green.
You
seem
upset today, why?
The soup
tastes
delicious.
*If you can replace a verb with the 8 main linking verbs, then it is acting as a linking verb. If not, it is an action verb.*
He
grew
impatient with me.
The bud
grew
quickly into a flower.

Prepositions
What are they?
They describe relationships between other words in a sentence.
Examples:
Of, for, to, after, around
I am proud
of
my garden.
Common Prepositions
of
in
to
for
with
on
at
from
by
about
as
into
like
through
after
over
between
out
during
without
before
under
around
among
Prepositional Phrases...
Tomorrow I am going
to
school.
Tomorrow I am going (
to

school
).
Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun.
We call that noun the
object of the preposition
.
At lunch I asked my friend about the game.
At
lunch I asked my friend
about
the game.
At

lunch
I asked my friend
about

the

game
.
Mike waited patiently for snow.
Mike waited patiently
for
snow.
Mike waited patiently
for

snow
.
Mr. Qualli gave candy to us.
Mr. Qualli gave candy
to
us.
Mr. Qualli gave candy
to

us
.
At

lunch
I asked my friend
about
the
game
.
Modifiers...
= the words that are between the preposition and the object of the preposition
I am going
to

the

new

store
.
PREP
MODIFIERS
OBJECT of the
PREP
Interjections!
Personal Pronouns
Subject
Pronouns
I
you
he
she
it
we
you
they
Object
Pronouns
me
you
him
her
it
us
you
them
Possessive
Adjectives
my
your
his
her
its
our
your
their
Possessive
Pronouns
mine
yours
his
hers
-
ours
yours
theirs
Reflexive
Pronouns
myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
ourselves
yourselves
themselves
Adjectives
sometimes occur within
a group...
The
red
,
white
, and
blue
flag waved in
the air.
What are they?
= Word or short phrase used to express an emotion or feeling
*End with an exclamation point or comma*
examples:
Yikes!
That was a mistake.
Oh,
I get it now.
Usually...
Words are primarily interjections,
like
YUM
,
WHOA
, and
EWW
!
But sometimes...
Other parts of speech can act as interjections, like
SWEET
or
AWESOME
!
Common interjections...
bazinga
blech
boo-yah
duh
eek
eureka
eww
geez
ha
hello
hooray
huh
oh
oops
ouch
oy
ugh
uh-oh
whammo
whew
whoa
wow
yahoo
yikes
yippee
yo
yuck
yum
Interjection or not?
Holy cow!
I have never seen the moon that big.
Congratulations
are in order!
Congratulations!
You did an amazing job.
Prepositional Phrases
vs. Infinitive Phrases
to
Can start a prepositional phrase
like... I am going
to
the
movies
.
Can ALSO start an infinitive phrase
like... I am going
to
sing later.
*Infinitive phrases always include a VERB*
Breaking down sentences:
A sentence must contain a
subject
and a
verb

Example:
My dogs chase birds in the backyard.
The wind was blowing wildly yesterday.
On the SAT...
Sentences are typically very complex in order to disguise the key elements so you won't notice the mistakes.
For example:
The immense amount of sand brought down by the Zambesi has in the course of ages formed a sort of promontory, against which the long swell of the Indian Ocean, beating during the prevailing winds, has formed bars, which, acting against the waters of the delta, may have led to their exit sideways.
SUBJECT?
VERB?
Subject/Verb Agreement
The verb of the sentence must match the subject in its conjugation.
For Example:
My sisters are going to the movies later.
Many of the participants wanted to stay for the ceremony.
Subject
Verb
Agreement
Rules
and
Practice
Worksheet
Although dancing is fun, it is often difficult.
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