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The First Law of Thermodynamics-Copy

The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, specialized for thermodynamical systems. It is usually formulated by stating that the change in the internal energy of a closed system is equal to the amount of heat s

Alfredo Mabalot

on 22 February 2014

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Transcript of The First Law of Thermodynamics-Copy

History of the First Law
The First Law Of Thermodynamics
A Closer Look
-Helmholtz was born on August 31st 1821 and died on September 8th 1894.
-In 1847 he published a paper called Über die Erhaltung der Kraft (on the conservation of force), which studied the mathmetical aspects of the first law.
-He was like Mayer in that he studied animal heat as well.
Hermann Von Helmholtz
-Energy is either categorized as potential or kinetic energy.
-This proves the first law of thermodynamics to be true because it says that energy can change its form but cannot be created nor destroyed.
From the definitions of potential and kinetic energy, we know that
-potential energy has stored energy, but is not moving
-Kinetic energy is a moving object
-Thus, kinetic energy changes into potential energy and vice versa. It is a never ending cycle.
-The first law of thermodynamics is also called the law of conservation of energy.
-The law states that energy is neither created nor destroyed.
-“Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but only transferred from one body to another and change from one form to another, that is, the energy in the universe is constant,” (Hamilton).
What Does the First Law State?
-"BIOGRAPHY: James Prescott Joule." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012.
-Carnot, Sadi. "Fourth Law of Thermodynamics." Wikis on Wetpaint. N.p., 9 Mar. 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2012.
-"Conservation of Energy." Conservation of Energy. TutorVista, n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2012.
-Hamilton, Michael. "Lesson 10: Law of Conservation of Energy." Lesson 10: Law of Conservation of Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012.
-"Hermann Von Helmholtz." NNBD. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2012.
-Mahanti, Subodh. "Hermann Von Helmholtz." Hermann Von Helmholtz. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012.
-Newburgh, Ronald, and Harvey S. Leff. "The Mayer-Joule Principle: The Foundation of t he First Law of Thermodynamics." The Physics Teacher. American Association of Physics Teachers, Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2012.
-Williams, Henry. "The Century's Progress in Physics." Julius Robert Meyer and the Conservation of Energy. N.p., July 1897. Web. 23 Nov. 2012.
-Zumdhal, Steven, and Susan Zumdhal. Chemistry. 8th ed. Independence: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.
-Prescott was born in England. He was born in 1818 and died in 1889.
-Around the same time Mayer published his hypothesis, Joule investigated heat as well.
-He came up with Joule’s law which states that the amount of heat produced each second in a conductor by a current of electricity is proportional to the resistance of the conductor and to the square of the current.
-Through this experiment, he helped verify the first law of thermodynamics by observing how mechanical energy converted into heat energy.
-Lord Kelvin (William Thompson) researched jointly with Joule.
James Prescott Joule
-Kinetic Energy is energy due to the motion of the object and depends on the object and its velocity.
-To put it simply, kinetic energy is a moving object.
Examples of kinetic energy include
- Water being released from a dam
-A boulder rolling down from the top of a hill
Kinetic Energy
-Potential Energy is energy due to position or composition.
-In other words, an object that is not doing anything at the moment, but has stored energy.
-Examples of potential energy include
-Water behind a dam
- A boulder on top of a hill
Potential Energy
-Mayer was born on November 25th 1814 and died on March 20th 1878.
-Mayer noticed how the color of blood was different from his patients that he was sailing with than that of patients in more temperate climates.
-Due to this observation, this lead Mayer to the discovery of the theory of heat and the law of conservation.
-He published his hypothesis in 1848.
Julius Robert Mayer
Energy Continued~
-According to an article about the laws of thermodynamics, 3 people were involved in the discovery of the first law.
-The 3 people who discovered the first law was Julius Robert Mayer, James Prescott Joule, and Hermann Von Helmholtz.
By: Phuong Tran
An Example
- To better understand the first law of thermodynamics, one must be familiar with the concept of energy.
-Energy is the ability to do work or some act.
-Energy can be categorized in many forms, but the two main forms are potential energy and kinetic energy.
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