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Caterina Herrmann

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of Photoshop

Photo Enhancement versus Photo Manipulation Agenda Image Processing Current Issues in Marketing | January 18th 2013 | Katja Friedrich, Hannah Walker, Andrea Springer-Ferazin, Caterina Herrmann Controversial Campaigns The Ethical Part Photo Enhancement Conclusion Discussion Picture Sources Sources Thank you for your attention! Dove Commercial Focus The Evolution of Beauty (YouTube.com) Where do you draw the line? Photo Enhancement versus Photo Manipulation The Dove Campaign Possible Solutions 1. Dove Campaign 2. Israel's "Photoshop Law" Damage to Society Body Image Disturbance Social Comparison Theory Cultivation Theory Self-Scheme
Theory Eating Disorders Depression Plastic Surgery 1. Anorexia Nervosa
Unrealistic fear of weight gain
Potentially fatal
2. Bulimia Nervosa
Episodic binge eating
Followed by inappropriate compensatory behavior Israel's "Photoshop Law" An Expert Analysis “The skin is one color without being gross. Look at her hands and the inside of her foot – they should be a lot darker [than the rest of her body], and they’re not. Unless this woman’s been living outside naked all day, there’s been work done.” -Kenneth Harris, Re-touching Expert According to expert Kenneth Harris
Minimally altered photo
Basic color correction
Uniformly white underwear
Shadows evened out (Helm, 2008) Extreme prevalence of portrayal of sociocultural beauty ideals
Increase of credibility of social reality
Eventually: normalization of social reality

Reality Gap “We have made the commitment not to distort any of our images to create an unrealistic or unattainable view of beauty. As we have said, this does not mean we do absolutely nothing to the images to make them suitable for printing. There is always something that needs a bit of adjustment to meet professional standards - even in the best run photo shoot with the best photographers. Removing or correcting these things does not mean that people don't see the woman as she really is and does not change our commitment to real women.” Statement from Dove (Helm, 2008) 1. Socially represented ideal

2. Objective

3. Internalized ideal The Dove Campaign For Real Beauty Self-Perception "The Dove® Campaign for Real Beauty was created to provoke discussion and encourage debate." -Dove Three Phase
Campaign 2004 "[An] ad campaign featuring real women whose appearances are outside the stereotypical norms of beauty" -Dove Proposes need for accurate self-evaluation and reduction of uncertainties
Individuals evaluate themselves in relation to peers
Upward versus downward Comparison 2005 "Phase two of the campaign was created to debunk the stereotype that only thin is beautiful" -Dove "Of American, elementary school girls who read magazines, 69% say that the pictures influence their concept of the ideal body shape. 47% say the pictures make them want to lose weight" 2007 "The [third phase of the] campaign celebrated the essence of women 50+—wrinkles, age spots, grey hair and all." -Dove "Beauty has no age limit" "Too old to be in an anti-aging ad" Most commonly digitally altered body parts on female models (Dove.com) 1. Breasts 2. Waist 3. Skin Tone 4. Thighs & Arms Sadness
Difficulty concentrating
May impact body functions
May lead to substance abuse
May cause suicidal thoughts Cosmetic/aesthetic surgery
Enhances physical appearance through medical alterations
Most commonly:
1. Liposuction
2. Rhinoplasty
3. Breast Augmentation
4. Eyelid Correction
5. Tummy Tuck Is this a Solution? New direction for beauty ads
Minimal retouching
Strong portrayal of natural women Ethical? Is the campaign solely a marketing strategy that does not precede a new direction for the industry? (Clegg, 2005) (Clegg, 2005) Is this "reality on a pedestal?"
-Russ Lidstone, JWT PR triumph
Increased consumer awareness
Media attention
Applause from women Our Conclusion While the campaign is a great marketing strategy, it also provides a solution to the Photoshop phenomenon in magazine advertisements. By minimally altering the photos and promoting more realistic ideals of beauty, Dove has found an ethical balance in an industry dominated by unrealistic ideals. 2 part legislation:
Photoshop warning labels
Model BMI requirements (Minsberg, 2012) It is difficult to draw a line where necessary photo enhancement ends and where excessive photo manipulation begins. 1. Change in the industry
2. Legal requirements
3. Increased awareness Israel's "Photoshop Law" May 2012 Another Ethical Dimension Taking Action Photoshop Warning Labels Model BMI Requirements Magazine ads produced by L'Oreal featuring supermodel Christy Turlington and Julia Roberts were banned by the U.K.'s Advertising Standards Authority because they were misleading. Commercial
using people
for advertising Post-enhancement
Post-manipulation Reasoning behind the editing process from a marketing perspective "The very fact that the law was passed sends a significant message against extreme thinness." -Dana Weinberg, Activist "In the US, it would be hard to justify this type of law on either legal or normative policy grounds. The Israeli law is paternalistic in that it prohibits something because of the effect it might have on others in the longer term."
-Donald Downs, expert on the First Amendment "I realized that only legislation can change the situation. There was no time to educate so many people, and the change had be forced on the industry."
- Rachel Adato, an Israeli parliament member (Pickens, 2012) World health Organization malnutrition definition = 18.5 BMI

Models must have a doctors note verifying a BMI above 18.5

Models who want to work in Israel must follow these restrictions "I'm sure we'll change the attitude all over the world"
-Rachel Adato, Israeli parliament member The law requires ad agencies to disclose if a photo has been digitally altered.
Any company that wants to run campaign in Israel must comply with these regulations. Marketing Perspective (Sieczkowski, 2012; Lynn 2013; Minsberg, 2012) Where do you draw the line? (Minsberg, 2012) Photo Manipulation Freedom of Speech Good for Society "to intensify or increase in quality"

"improve" Law forces industrial change and forces awareness enhance manipulate "to move, arrange, operate, or control"

"to control or influence somebody or something in an ingenious or devious way"

"to change or present something in
a way that is false, but personally advantageous" Law raises ethical issues with freedom of speech (TheFreeDictionary.com) (TheFreeDictionary.com) (Sieczkowski, 2012) The National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus in the U.S. ruled a CoverGirl NatureLuxe Mousse Mascara advertisement featuring singer Taylor Swift as misleading and it was pulled in the US. December 2011, US: July 2011, UK: Our Conclusion High profile cases and media attention from "Photoshop laws" help to raise awareness about the dangers of Photoshop and the unrealistic ideals that it promotes. While warning labels might be an extreme solution, enforcing guidelines and prosecuting severe cases are a steps in the right direction. Help customers to focus
on the best representation
of the story subject The Israeli Law is bringing media attention to the Photoshop issue and inspiring change in the Industry. Change Ralph Lauren H & M (Picture 4) (Picture 3) Do you think that this girl needs any kind of enhancement? In 2009, new ad campaign for Ralph Lauren Blue Line in Japan
Blog comment: "Dude, her head's bigger than her pelvis."
Instead of addressing this criticism, Ralph Lauren accused website of copyright infringement for reprinting the advertisement
After media outrage Ralph Lauren company released the following statement: Summer Sensation Anthes, Gary. "Smarter Photography." Communication of the ACM. 55.6 (Jun2012): 16-18. Print.

Campbell, Jennifer. "Canadian retailer Jacob “takes a stand” on retouching." FASHION. Joseph Media, 01 09 2010. Web. 14 Jan 2013. <http://www.fashionmagazine.com/blogs/fashion/2010/09/01/canadian-retailer-jacob-institutes-a-no-retouching-policy-for-their-images/>.

Clegg, Alicia. "Dove Gets Real ." Brand Channel . N.p., 18 Apr 2005. Web. 16 Jan 2013. <http://www.brandchannel.com/features_effect.asp?pf_id=259>.

"Dove Campaign For Real Beauty." Dove Social Mission. Dove. Web. 15 Jan 2013. <http://www.dove.us>.

Elliot, Deni, and Paul Martin Lester (a). "Manipulation: The Word We Love to Hate. An Investigation in Three Parts." Ethics Matters. N.p., 01 08 2003. Web. 14 Jan 2013. <http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/lester/writings/manipulations1.html>.

Elliot, Deni, and Paul Martin Lester (b). "Manipulation: The Word We Love to Hate Part Three." Ethics Matters. N.p., 01 10 2003. Web. 14 Jan 2013. <http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu/lester/writings/manipulations3.html>.

"enhance." Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. 2003. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/enhance>.

Farlex, . "Medical Dictionary." The Free Dictionary. N.p., 01 Jan 2013. Web. 17 Jan 2013. <http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/>.

"H&M slammed by skin cancer doctors for ." Daily Mail. 09 05 2012: n. page. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2141871/H-M-slammed-skin-cancer-doctors-alarming-use-deeply-tanned-model-swimwear-campaign.html>.

Helm, Burth. "An Expert’s Analysis of Dove’s Campaign for “Real” Beauty." Bloomberg Business Week. 19 May 2008: n. page. Web. 15 Jan. 2013. <http://www.businessweek.com/the_thread/brandnewday/archives/2008/05/an_experts_analysis_of_doves_campaign_for_real_beauty.html>.

Lynn, Kecia. "Israel's "Photoshop Law" Goes Into Effect." Big Think: Smarter Faster. N.p., 07 Jan 2013. Web. 16 Jan 2013. <http://bigthink.com/ideafeed/israels-photoshop-law-goes-into-effect>.

"manipulate." Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged. 2003. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/manipulate>.

Melago, Carrie. "Ralph Lauren firing of 'too fat' size 4 Filippa Hamilton raises ire of women, body-image experts." Daily News. 15 10 2009: n. page. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/fashion/ralph-lauren-firing-fat-size-4-filippa-hamilton-raises-ire-women-body-image-experts-article-1.382299>.

Miller, Emily. "Ralph Lauren Model Fired for Being Too Fat?." Politics Daily. 2009: n. page. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.politicsdaily.com/2009/10/14/ralph-lauren-model-fired-for-being-too-fat/>.

Minsberg, Talya. "What the U.S. Can—and Can't—Learn From Israel's Ban on Ultra-Thin Models." Atlantic . 9 May 2012: n. page. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/05/what-the-us-can-and-cant-learn-from-israels-ban-on-ultra-thin-models/256891/>.

Neda, . "Get the Facts on Eating Disorders." . N.p., 01 Mar 2011. Web. 17 Jan 2013. <https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/get-facts-eating-disorders>.

Pickens , Hugh. "Israel Passes Photoshop Law To Combat Anorexia." Kennebec Valley Computer Society . http://www.kvcs.org/index.php/13-law/22412-israel-passes-photoshop-law-to-combat-anorexia, 09 May 2012. Web. 16 Jan 2013. <http://science.slashdot.org/story/12/05/09/1842227/israel-passes-photoshop-law-to-combat-anorexia?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed: Slashdot/slashdot (Slashdot)>.

Publications Int. Ltd, . "20 Most Common Plastic Surgeries." . N.p., 04 Nov 2011. Web. 17 Jan 2013. <http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/surgeries-procedures/20-most-common-plastic-surgeries.htm>.

Salvo, Suzanne. "True Lies. Manipulating Images: Is it ethical?." Communication World. 25.5 (Sep/Oct 2008): 26-30. Print.

Serdar, Kasey L.. "Female Body Image and the Mass Media: Perspectives on How Women Internalize the Ideal Beauty Standard." Westminster. N.p., 2005. Web. 17 Jan 2013. <http://www.westminstercollege.edu/myriad/index.cfm?parent=2514&detail=4475&content=4795>.

Shapiro, Lila. "Ralph Lauren Apologizes For Image Of Emaciated Model: "We Are Responsible"." Huffington Post. 18 3 2010: n. page. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/10/09/emboing-boingem-and-ralph_n_311593.html>.

Sieczkowski, Cavan. "Supermodels Without Photoshop: Israel’s ‘Photoshop Law’ Puts Focus On Digitally Altered Images." International Business Times . N.p., 11 Apr 2012. Web. 16 Jan 2013. <http://www.ibtimes.com/supermodels-without-photoshop-israels-photoshop-law-puts-focus-digitally-altered-images-photos>.

SkinInc, . "Top 5 Most Digitally Altered Body Parts." . N.p., 03 Mar 2010. Web. 17 Jan 2013. <http://www.skininc.com/spabusiness/trends/86202857.html>.

"Tan Model In H&M Ad Gets The 'Tanorexic' Treatment, Has Doctors In A Tizzy." Huffington Post. 9 5 2012: n. page. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/09/tan-model-hm-ad_n_1503662.html>. Picture 1: http://img11.nnm.ru/0/e/a/b/a/0630e0e7d257a6e0a210ceeaac9.jpg
Picture 2: http://www.fashionmagazine.com/blogs/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/sept10retouch_lg.jpg
Picture 3: www.nydailynews.com/life-style/fashion/ralph-lauren-firing-fat-size-4-filippa-hamilton-raises-ire-women-body-image-experts-article-1.382299
Picture 4: www.photoshopdisasters.blogspot.com
Picture 5: http://www.staragora.com/images/flux/default/f/c/cfa50c5f2f630ca54f4a22ec74f92f124fae3121af22e.jpg
Picture 6: http://www.staragora.com/images/flux/default/f/c/cfa50c5f2f630ca54f4a22ec74f92f124fae3121af22e.jpg
Picture 7: http://www.zimbio.com/pictures/ZTv3y-kKJfO/Victoria+Secret+Fashion+Show+Runway/g-jX1ZjayTD/Isabeli+Fontana
Picture 8: http://blog.megamodelagency.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/053-a.jpg
Picture 9: http://www.psdisasters.com/2012/01/top-10-photoshop-disasters-of-2011.html
Picture 10: http://www.pcwelt.de/galerien/Die-schlimmsten-Photoshop-Pannen-172355.html?container_id=172351&ref=%2Fratgeber%2FDie-groessten-Photoshop-Pannen-172351.html&bild=3
Picture 11: http://derstandard.at/1285199445903/Crazy-Anatomy-Shiseido-wird-mit-Photoshop-Panne-zur-Lachnummer-im-Web
Picture 12: http://www.psdisasters.com/2012/01/top-10-photoshop-disasters-of-2011.html
Picture 13: http://www.pcwelt.de/galerien/Die-schlimmsten-Photoshop-Pannen-172355.html?container_id=172351&ref=%2Fratgeber%2FDie-groessten-Photoshop-Pannen-172351.html&bild=3
Picture 14: http://jezebel.com/macy.s-boobs-photoshop/
Picture 15: http://www.mamamia.com.au/entertainment/are-these-prada-shoes-racist-week-in-pics/
Picture 16: http://www.tutorvid.com/category/photoshop-tutorial/in-depth/page/2/
Picture 17: http://thelookfactor.kopiblog.com/tag/beforeafter/
Picture 18: http://thelookfactor.kopiblog.com/tag/beforeafter/
Picture 19: http://selfhypnosisblog.wordpress.com/2009/06/20/self-hypnosis-for-anorexia/
Picture 20: http://annabelsworld.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/collins_dove1.jpg
Picture 21: http://www.chickjunk.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/12/dove-real-beauty.jpg
Picture 22: http://jjpropaganda.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/realcurves1.png
Picture 23: http://images1.friendseat.com/2011/05/Model-Eating.jpg
Picture 24: http://assets.creativity-online.com/images/work/large/d/o/v/dove-print050713.jpg
Picture 25: http://www.baerpm.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/dove11.jpg
Picture 26: http://files.coloribus.com/files/adsarchive/part_676/6762005/file/dove-skin-firming-range-bigger-bums-small-36914.jpg
Picture 27: http://o.aolcdn.com/dims-global/dims3/GLOB/resize/600x600/quality/60/http://www.blogcdn.com/www.styledash.com/media/2008/05/dove-real-beauty-5.jpg
Picture 28: http://zeldalily.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/dove3-500x579.jpg
Picture 29: http://slummysinglemummy.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/dove-bird.jpg
Picture 30: http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m74lxinTyW1rw8qd0o1_500.jpg
Picture 31: http://smr.lexispr.com/content/images/gallery/8/original/baaf3fa6-1ed6-4cb8-ae44-c988328e8a41.jpg
Picture 32: http://stephanievalenti.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/freckles.jpg?w=500
Picture 33: http://img4.hotnessrater.com/GetPicture/11167/bar-refaeli
Picture 34: http://www.bigmagazinecover.domacamuzika.net/slike/magazinecover/Nicole-Richie-Vogue-magazine-cover-1320062480.jpg
Picture 35: http://www.newfaces.com/blog/uploaded_images/thin-776705.JPG
Picture 36: http://www.thedrum.com/uploads/news/old/24098/master.BBC.jpg
Picture 37: http://cdn05.cdn.justjaredjr.com/wp-content/uploads/headlines/2010/12/taylor-swift-covergirl-ad.jpg
Picture 38: http://www.acrl.ala.org/international/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/america-globe.jpg
Picture 39: http://flvrd.com/static/pics/lBt7m.jpg
Picture 40: http://10steps.sg/wp-content/uploads/article132/38.jpg Put yourselves in the shoes of a mother of a teenage girl...how do you feel about today's magazine images?

Put yourselves in the shoes of a marketing campaign manager...what direction would you take considering the ethical implications?

Is make-up a physical version of photo enhancement
and is plastic surgery an equivalent to photo manipulation

Do you feel "warning labels" on manipulated images make sense?
Why/ why not? "The clothing giant is creating, not least among young people, a beauty ideal that is deadly."
-Swedish Cancer Society

H&M's comment:
"The model in the swimwear campaign is called Isabeli Fontana and she is Brazilian, which means that she has a darker skin tone than most Europeans. [...] We will simply try to take this in ahead of the next campaign and next summer." Quiz No? Ralph Lauren does... "After further investigation, we have learned that we are responsible for the poor imaging and retouching that resulted in a very distorted image of a woman's body. [...] The image in question was mistakenly released and used in a department store in Japan and was not the approved image which ran in the U.S. We take full responsibility." "I find this very alarming. Many people, especially the young, will try to emulate this and will try to be just as brown, although with some skin types this is just not possible." -Dr. Ralph Braun, dermatologist and professor at University Hospital Zürich

"I think it's a shame, because such advertising conveys a wrong impression." -Amanda Ammann, a former Miss Switzerland and sufferer of skin cancer (Melago, 2009), (Shapiro, 2010), (Miller, 2009) (The Local, 2012; Daily Mail, 2012; Huffington Post, 2012) (Picture 5) (Picture 6) (Picture 7) (Picture 8) (Picture 13) . . . Has always been
with paintings Simple improvements of the original or negative image Digital image processing (Picture 2) 20th century Computers and advanced technology made it easy to alter the content of an image Software: Photoshop, Picasa, etc. 1 Image Processing 4 The Ethical Part: Damage To Society 3 Controversial Campaigns 2 Photo Enhancement and Photo Manipulation 6 Discussion 5 Conclusion: Possible Solutions (Picture 2) RAW image Image used in campaign Retouched image JACOB (clothing retailer) Optimization of brightness and contrast Color correction Burning and dodging to control tonal range Cropping a frame to fit the layout Retouching of dust and scratches Adding, moving, or removing objectives within the frame Color change other than to restore what the subject looked like Cropping the frame in order to alter its meaning . . . Self-confident women
want to see figures and faces
like their own Classic looks, which women would all secretly love to possess (Helm, 2008) (Helm, 2008) (Minsberg, 2012) Filippa Hamilton (Picture 14) (Picture 15) (Picture 16) (Picture 17) (Picture 18) (Picture 11) She has a darker skin tone, but that dark...? (Picture 9) (Picture 10) (Picture 11) (Picture 12) (SkinInc, 2010) (Serdar, 2005) (Serdar, 2005) (Serdar, 2005) (Neda, 2011) (Picture 19) (Farlex, 2013) (Farlex, 2013) (Publications Int. Ltd, 2011) (Picture 20) (Picture 21) (Picture 22) (Picture 23) (Picture 24) (Picture 25) (Picture 26) (Picture 27) (Picture 28) (Picture 29) (Picture 30) (Picture 31) (Picture 32) (Picture 33) (Picture 36) (Picture 37) (Picture 39) (Picture 40) (Anthes 2012; Elliot & Lester 2003a; Elliot & Lester 2003b; Salvo 2008) (Salvo 2008) No reshape of the bodies of their models
Not against all retouching (Campbell, 2010) (Clegg 2005; Elliot & Lester 2003b) What makes women feel good? Women see a beautiful model promoting a brand Respond: imagination of being beautiful like the model Power of association: model's magic rubbed off Problem: thrust of consumer culture Society becoming more obsessed with
the pursuit of perfection Popularity of makeover programs
Phenomenal growth of Botox
Cosmetic surgery Campaign launched in 44 countries and on the H&M website
Criticism for promoting unhealthy tanning habits: (Picture 34) (Picture 35)
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