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Transcript of Reconstruction
Reconstruction The Jim Crow Laws Lincoln came up with a plan for reconstructing the south in Which:
-Southerners would take an oath to support the Union
-Slavery was abolished in the Union
-10% of southern state governments were loyal to the Union According to the dictionary, reconstruction is the rebuilding, restoration or rehabilitation of something that was destroyed. In terms of the history of the United States, Reconstruction was the time of "great pain and endless questions" (Ushistory.org) after the end of the Civil War. This was when the people were trying to ensure the freedom of former slaves and reform their nation. Ushistory.org. "Reconstruction." US History Online Text Book. N.p., 2012. Web. 19 Dec. 2012 Johnson's Plan Who were carpetbaggers
and scalawags? A scalawag was a white southerner who acted in support of the Reconstruction efforts after the American Civil War, often for personal gain.
A carpetbagger was a Northerner who went to the South after the American Civil War, expecting personal profit from the Reconstruction governments. The Fifteenth Amendment The fifteenth amendment declared that "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Although this was ratified in 1870 on February third, it was not actually realized for almost a century. Poll taxes along with literacy tests and other means prevented most Southern African Americans from voting for many years still. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was the last push it took to get the majority of African Americans registered to vote. “It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other in any game of cards or dice, dominoes or checkers.”
—Birmingham, Alabama, 1930 Johnson's plans for Reconstruction consisted of:
Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath
No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000
A state needed to abolish slavery to be re-admitted
A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted Jim Crow Laws were legal and social restrictions that separated African Americans from White Americans. Ku Klux Klan The End of Reconstruction Plessy vs. Ferguson Farm tenancy: For a price of cash or crops, a tenant is able to rent land from a farm owner.
Sharecropping: A variation of a tenant arrangement in which a land owner provides all of the capital and the tenant provides all of the labor in exchange for one half of the crops. Tenants and Sharecroppers Black Codes Freedmen's Bureau Fourteenth Amendment Why does the Congress impeach Johnson? Under the lenient Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson, white southerners reestablished civil authority in the former Confederate states in 1865 and 1866. They enacted a series of restrictive laws known as "black codes," which were designed to restrict freed blacks' activity and ensure their availability as a labor force now that slavery had been abolished. For instance, many states required blacks to sign yearly labor contracts; if they refused, they risked being arrested as vagrants and fined or forced into unpaid labor. Northern outrage over the black codes helped undermine support for Johnson's policies, and by late 1866 control over Reconstruction had shifted to the more radical wing of the Republican Party in Congress. Adopted on July, 9 1868
Citizenship Clause– overruled the decision of Dred Scott vs. Sandford
Due Process Clause– prohibits states and governments from depriving people of life, liberty, or property
Equal Protection Clause– requires each state to provide equal protection under the law Johnson was impeached on February 24, 1868.
The House's primary charge against Johnson was with violation of the Tenure of Office Act, passed by Congress the previous year.
Specifically, he had removed Edwin M. Stanton, the Secretary of War (whom the Tenure of Office Act was largely designed to protect), from office and replaced him with Major General Lorenzo Thomas.
The impeachment represented the political battle between the moderate Johnson and Republicans that dominated Congress and sought control of Reconstruction policies. The U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands was established in 1865 by Congress. It's goal was to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the U.S. Civil War. It provided food, housing and medical aid, established schools and offered legal assistance. It also attempted to settle former slaves on Confederate lands confiscated or abandoned during the war. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is the name of a white supremacist/white nationalist/anti-immigrant group. Since the 20th century, they have also been anti-communist. They express these views through terrorism: these people shot into African American homes and burned them. Thousands of them were murdered by the KKK.
Even today, there are an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 members in disassociated groups across the nation.
The first Klan emerged in the 1860s-70s. They dressed in robes, masks, and cone shaped hats which were designed to be terrifying and hide their identity, and it was established by confederate army veterans. They were not afraid to commit murder against white or black Republicans to restore white supremacy.
The second Klan emerged in the early 1920s, using the same costumes as the first. This time around they also did cross burnings. At its’ peak, the organization was said to have 4-5 million members.
After WWII, the third wave emerged. They were opposed to the civil rights movement and to progress among minorities. By 1873, Republicans were starting to lose enthusiasm for protecting black rights. Though the President sent federal troops, white Democrats continued campaigns of violence along with intimidation in an attempt to suppress the Republican vote.
The formal end to Reconstruction was in the disputed Presidential election of 1876. In several states, voting returns were uncertain; Democrats conceded the election to Hayes for his agreement to remove the 3,000 remaining troops. This thereby ensured Democratic control on a platform of white supremacy throughout the South. The south reversed reconstruction after the Civil War by what they called Black Codes. The Black Codes restricted the rights of Blacks and limited economic and educational opportunities. White southerners also formed a secret white supremacist organization called the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). The KKK terrorized blacks with beatings, whippings, burning of homes and lynching. Plessy attempted to sit in an all-white railroad car. After refusing to sit in the black railway carriage car, Plessy was arrested for violating an 1890 Louisiana statute that provided for segregated “separate but equal” railroad accommodations. Those using facilities not designated for their race were criminally liable under the statute. At the trial with Justice John H. Ferguson presiding, Plessy was found guilty on the grounds that the law was a reasonable exercise of the state’s police powers based upon custom, usage, and tradition in the state. Why and how did reconstruction end? In 1876, Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden ran against each other for president. Tilden won the popular vote, but the electoral vote was disputed. An electoral commission convened and gave all the votes to Hayes. Democrats agreed to support this decision if all federal troops were removed from the South. They agreed and military rule in the former Confederate states ended in 1877. This was known as the Compromise of 1877. Where did it fail? Reconstruction failed because there was no clear agenda no clear goal. Once slavery was abolished no one had a clue as to what to do. As fierce as the Abolitionist were in their goal of ending Slavery they remained mostly racist. In their own Churches they made 'blacks' either sit at the very back of the room or most often 'blacks' were restricted to a rickety balcony accessible via a ladder. In fact several leading abolitionists raised funds to build 'black' churches rather than integrating their churches.