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pippa milham

on 1 July 2015

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Transcript of BTEC SPORT - UNIT 1 EXAM

1. Components of Fitness
Physical Fitness or Health Related
2. Exercise Intensity
1. Flexibility
2. Muscular Strength
3. Aerobic Endurance
4. Muscular Endurance
5. Speed
6. Body composition
Skill-related Fitness
Heart Rate (HR)

Maximal Heart Rate (MHR)
Training Pyramid
BORG Scale (RPE)
3. Principles of Training
FITT Principles
SPAVRR Principles
5. Fitness Testing
Body Composition
Aerobic Endurance
Muscular Endurance
Body Composition
The ability to move all joints fluidly through their complete range of movement.
Exam Question
Q. Describe how each of these performers need flexibility to be successful in their activities (4 marks).

Muscular Endurance
The ability of the muscular system to work efficiently, in which a muscle can repeatedly contract over a period of time against a light to moderate fixed-resistance load.
Exam Question
Q. Describe how a rower uses muscular endurance within their sport (2 marks).
Aerobic Endurance
The ability of the cardiorespiratory system to work efficiently, supplying nutrients and oxygen to working muscles during sustained physical activity.
Exam Question
Q. Explain why aerobic endurance is most important to the athlete in the picture (2 marks).
Is the maximum force (in kg or N) a muscle or muscle group can produce.
Muscular Strength
Exam Question
Q. Explain the importance of muscular strength in shot put (4 marks).

Distance divided by Time taken = m/s

There are 3 different types of speed:
1. Accelerative speed (sprints up to 30 metres)
2. Pure speed (Sprints up to 60 metres)
3. Speed endurance (Sprints with a short recovery period in-between)
Body Composition
Is the relative ratio of fat mass to fat-free mass (vital organs, muscle, bone) in the body.

1. Agility
2. Balance
4. Reaction Time
5. Power

The ability of a sports performer to quickly and precisely move or change direction without losing balance or time.
Exam Question
Q. Describe one example that shows why agility may be needed in a sport of your choice (2 marks).
The ability to maintain centre of mass over a base of support there are two types of balance – static balance and dynamic balance.
Exam Question
Q. Give one example of why balance is important for one of the athletes above (1 mark).
The smooth flow of movement needed to perform a motor task efficiently and accurately.
Exam Question
Q. Using a specific sports example explain how poor coordination may increase the risk of injury (2 marks).
Reaction Time
Definition: The time taken for a sports performer to respond to a stimulus and the initiation of their response.
Exam Question
a. Give two examples that demonstrate the importance of quick reaction times in cricket (2 marks).
The product of strength and speed expressed as the work done in a unit of time.
Exam Question
Give three examples of a specific movement in which an athlete would need power in their sport. Use a different sport for each example (3 marks).
Maximal Heart Rate
Heart Rate (HR) is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of heart beats per unit of time, this is known as beats per minute (BPM).

Your resting heart rate should be between: 60-80BPM
220 - (age) = MHR
Training Pyramid
4. Resting Heart Rate
3. Aerobic Zone (60-85%)
2. Anaerobic Zone (85-95%)
1. Speed Zone (95-100%)
Max HR x 0.60 =60%
0.85 = 85%
0.95 = 95 %
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
BORG Scale
RPE x 10 = Heart rate bpm
E.g Level 13 x 10 =130bpm
– Training must be varied to avoid boredom (use different Types of training methods)
FITT Principles
– How often do you train? (How many times a week)
– How hard do you train? (Heart rate/pyramid, BPM, BORG scale RPE)
– How long you train for? (min. 30mins)
– What type of training method (e.g. weight, circuit, interval…?)
SPAVRR Principles
– training specific to the individual needs of athlete (Sport, Position, Component of fitness, Age, Gender)
Progressive Overload
– Make training gradually harder so body gradually improves and adapts (increase FREQUENCY/INTENSITY/TIME)
– Body adapts in response to training (gets stronger because of strength training etc.)
Rest and Recovery
–Allows adaptation to take place and to avoid injuries due to fatigue/tiredness (have rest days)
– Body will reverse back if training is stopped for a prolonged time (illness, injury, and motivation)
4. Methods of Training
Warm up and Cool down
Flexibility Training
Strength, muscular endurance and power training
Aerobic Endurance Training
Speed Training
Warm up
- Pulse raiser
- Stretches
- Joint mobilisation
Cool down
- Pulse lowering
- Static stretches
- Developmental stretches (PNF)
3. PNF Stretching
Stretch - hold - tension, stretch further
3. Plyometric
- bouncing, throwing, jumping
1. Continuous training – non-stop 30 mins
2. Fartlek Training – ‘Speed play’, slow, medium, fast/different terrain
3. Interval Training – work, rest, work, rest
1. Hollow Sprint
- broken up by ‘hollow’ lower level work

2. Acceleration Sprints
- jogging to striding and finally to sprinting at maximum speed.

3. Interval Training
- work, rest, work, rest
Sum of Skinfolds
Use CALLIPERS to measure skin on the BICEP, TRICEP, SHOULDER BLADE and HIP.
Add measurements together and use to the JACKSON-POLLOCK nomogram (4 lines)
+ Provides accurate percentages of body fat
- Needs specialist equipment
- Problems with people revealing bare skin
Multi Stage Fitness Test (MST/Bleep test)
Cones/Lines 20m apart, run in-between to the sound of a beep. Gradually gets faster. Longer you can keep up the higher the level
+ Can test a large group at once
+ Tests to maximum effort
- Practice can affect score
- If outside environment may affect
- Scores can be subjective
Aerobic Endurance
35m sprint test
Sprint from one line/cone to another in a straight line over 35m. Record time and compare to normative data.
+ Little equipment so cheap to run
- Human error when timing can affect results

Grip dynamometer
3 attempts, squeeze grip dynamometer measure result in Kg or KgW.
+ Simple and easy test
+ Lots of normative data
- Must be adjusted for hand size which may affect results

Sit and Reach test
Both feet against the sit and reach box, reach forward and measure result in centimetres
+ Well known test
+ Quick and easy to perform
- measures lower back & hamstrings only
- length of arms and legs affect results
Sit up and press up tests
Count how many sit ups or press-ups completed in 1 minute
+ Quick and easy
+ Little equipment
+ Large groups at once
- Arguments of correct technique can affect results

Illinois Agility test
Cones set up as in the image, lie face down on the floor at the start, measure time to complete course in seconds
+ Cheap and easy to conduct
- Human error with timing can affect results
- Weather or surface conditions can affect results

Vertical Jump test
Stand side on to wall reach up and mark/set the measure. Standing jump as high as possible touching wall. Measure between two marks/measures.
+ Quick and easy
- Technique can affect result as need to jump and mark wall
Warm up & Cool Down
Flexibility training
1. Static Stretching
Active (you)
Passive (someone/thing else)
2. Ballistic Stretching bouncing, actions
Strength, muscular endurance
and power training
1. Free weights
- Sets, reps, barbell, dumbbell
2. Circuit Training
- stations
Aerobic Endurance Training
Speed Training
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Measure your HEIGHT and WEIGHT use the chart to find out whether your underweight, healthy, overweight, obese or extremely obese.
+ Easy to carry out
- Results can be misleading as muscles weighs more than fat
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
BIA = electricity passed through body from WRIST to ANKLE. Measures the resistance from muscle and fat
+ Quick and gives instant results
+ Can be repeated over time with no bad effects - Needs expensive equipment
Forestry Step Test
Step/ bench- 33cm for females and 40cm for males. Step up and down for 5 minutes to a metronome. (90bpm/22.5steps a min). Record pulse and compare to table
+ Low cost
+ Can be performed inside or outside
+ Can test on your own
- People may struggle to keep with the stepping pace on metronome
Muscular Endurance
Practice Exams
Revision Videos
Take a look at these videos for more information
Full transcript