Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.



No description

Dylan Bridwell

on 3 May 2010

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Amphibians

Amphibians Frogs Salamander caecilians Newts
Toads Reptiles Crocodiles and Alligators Turtles and Tortoises Tuataras lizards and Snakes Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura (meaning "tail-less", from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin salere (salio), "to jump"). Most frogs are characterized by long hind legs, a short body, webbed digits (fingers or toes), protruding eyes and the absence of a tail. Frogs are widely known as exceptional jumpers, and many of the anatomical characteristics of frogs, particularly their long, powerful legs, are adaptations to improve jumping performance. Due to their permeable skin, frogs are often semi-aquatic or inhabit humid areas, but move easily on land. They typically lay their eggs in puddles, ponds or lakes, and their larvae, called tadpoles, have gills and develop in water. Adult frogs follow a carnivorous diet, mostly of arthropods, annelids and gastropods. Frogs are most noticeable by their call, which can be widely heard during the night or day, mainly in their mating season Salamander is a common name of approximately 500 species of amphibians. They are typically characterized by their slender bodies, short noses, and long tails. All known fossils and extinct species fall under the order Caudata, while sometimes the extant species are grouped together as the Urodela.[1] Most salamanders have four toes on their front legs and five on their rear legs. Their moist skin usually makes them reliant on habitats in or near water, or under some protection (e.g., moist ground), often in a wetland. Some salamander species are fully aquatic throughout life, some take to the water intermittently, and some are entirely terrestrial as adults. Uniquely among vertebrates, they are capable of regenerating lost limbs, as well as other body parts. A toad is any of a number of species of amphibians in the order Anura. A distinction is often made between frogs and toads by their appearance, prompted by the convergent adaptation among so-called "toads" to dry habitats. Many "toads" have leathery skin for better water retention, and brown coloration for camouflage. Their skin also includes wart-like parotoid glands. Contrary to popular belief a toad's "warts" cannot transmit warts by handling or skin contact, in fact their skin's bumps or "warts" are for blending in with their environment. They also tend to walk on foot, unlike frogs which jump, and they burrow in winter to hide their delicate skin. However, these adaptations are not reliable indicators of its ancestry. Because taxonomy reflects only evolutionary relationships, any distinction between frogs and toads is irrelevant to their classification. The Mudpuppy, or Necturus maculosus, is species of salamander that is part of the genus, Necturus. They live an entirely aquatic lifestyle in the eastern part of North America in lakes, rivers, and ponds.Mudpuppies go through paedomorphosis and retain their external gills. Because skin and lung respiration alone is not sufficient for gas exchange, mudpuppies must rely on external gills as their primary means of gas exchange.Mudpuppies are usually a rusty brown color and can grow to an average length of 33cm.Mudpuppies are nocturnal creatures and only come out during the day if the water they live in is murky.Their diet consists of most anything they can get in their mouths and includes insects, earthworms, mollusks, annelids.Once a female mudpuppy reaches sexual maturity, at six years of age, she can lay an average of 60 eggs. In the wild, the average life span of a mudpuppy is 11 years. Because of their prevalence and larger size than other salamanders, mudpuppies are good organisms for dissections. These limbless amphibians are tropical, found in Southern and Central America, Asia, and Africa. They are adapted for a life of burrowing and swimming, with very sleek, muscular bodies which typically come in earthy tones like brown and green, although some caecilians have colorful stripes. Many caecilians spend most of their lives underground, while some South American species prefer to live in aquatic environments. In both cases, caecilians are carnivores, eating small insects, earthworms, and an assortment of other small creatures.
These amphibians do actually have eyes, but, like snakes, their eyes are covered with a layer of skin to protect them, and in some cases the eyes may be deeply set into the skull. As a result, caecilian vision is not good, but the animals can distinguish between light and dark, and they use their eyes to help identify prey. The primary sensory organs of caecilians, however, are the antennae on the forehead, which can sense motion and chemical emissions from potential prey.

Amphibians and Reptiles newt, name for members of a large salamander salamander, an amphibian of the order Urodela, or Caudata. Salamanders have tails and small, weak limbs; superficially they resemble the unrelated lizards (which are reptiles), but they are easily distinguished by their lack of scales and claws, and by their moist, family, widely distributed in tNewts are lizardlike in shape and are usually under 6 in. (15 cm) long including the slender tail. Some are brightly colored and secrete irritating substances. Like other salamanders, newts go through an aquatic, gilled larval stage. In some species the adults remain aquatic, although they lose their gills and breathe air; in others the adults are terrestrial, returning to water only to breed. is an order of large reptiles that appeared about 84 million years ago in the late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage). They are the closest living relatives of birds, as the two groups are the only known survivors of the Archosauria.Members of the crocodilian stem group, the clade Crurotarsi, appeared about 220 million years ago in the Triassic Period and exhibited a wide diversity of forms during the Mesozoic Era.The correct vernacular term for this group is "crocodilians" and it includes the alligator, crocodile, gharial and caiman families. The term 'crocodiles' is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to alligators and caiman, or even their distant prehistoric relatives, "marine crocodiles
Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (the crown group of the superorder Chelonia), characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs that acts as a shield. "Turtle" may either refer to the Testudines as a whole, or to particular Testudines which make up a form taxon that is not monophyleticsee also sea turtle, terrapin, tortoise, and the discussion below.
The order Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. The earliest known turtles date from 215 million years ago,making turtles one of the oldest reptile groups and a more ancient group than lizards and snakes. Of the many species alive today some are highly endangered.Like other reptiles, turtles are ectotherms varying their internal temperature according to the ambient environment, commonly called cold-blooded. However, leatherback sea turtle have noticeably higher body temperature than surrounding water because of their high metabolic rate.

The tuatara is a reptile endemic to New Zealand which, though it resembles most lizards, is actually part of a distinct lineage, order Sphenodontia.The two species of tuatara are the only surviving members of its order, which flourished around 200 million years ago.Their most recent common ancestor with any other extant group is with the squamates (lizards and snakes). For this reason, tuatara are of great interest in the study of the evolution of lizards and snakes, and for the reconstruction of the appearance and habits of the earliest diapsids (the group that also includes birds and crocodiles).Tuatara are greenish brown, and measure up to 80 cm (31 in) from head to tail-tip with a spiny crest along the back, especially pronounced in males. Their dentition, in which two rows of teeth in the upper jaw overlap one row on the lower jaw, is unique among living species. They are further unusual in having a pronounced parietal eye, dubbed the "third eye", whose current function is a subject of ongoing research. They are able to hear although no external ear is present, and have a number of unique features in their skeleton, some of them apparently evolutionarily retained from fish. Although tuatara are sometimes called "living fossils", recent taxonomic and molecular work has shown that they have changed significantly since the Mesozoic era.
Squamata, or the scaled reptiles, is the largest recent order of reptiles, including lizards and snakes. Members of the order are distinguished by their skins, which bear horny scales or shields. They also possess movable quadrate bones, making it possible to move the upper jaw relative to the braincase. This is particularly visible in snakes, which are able to open their mouths very wide to accommodate comparatively large prey. They are the most variably-sized order of reptiles, ranging from the 16 mm (0.63 in.) Jaragua Sphaero (Sphaerodactylus ariasae) to the 8 m (26 ft.) Green Anaconda (Eunectes murinus).
Full transcript