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16/5/30 Interdisciplinary

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Transcript of 16/5/30 Interdisciplinary

Analyzing the Role of Technologies
in Knowledge Formation:

Ori Freiman

Bar-Ilan University

30/5/2016
only persons participate
in the act of testimony
It is possible to receive
testimony from instruments
Supervised by
Towards a Theoretical Framework
of
Techno-Epistemology
Noah Efron (BIU)
Duncan Pritchard FRSE (U. of Edinburgh)
Boaz Miller (BIU)
(Ph.D. working title)
I
know
how to swim
(know-how knowledge)
I
know
something bad is going to happen
(strong feeling)
Propositional knowledge
Common philosophical
account of knowledge as
Justified, True Belief
The ancient Greeks
knew
that the [...]
(time & place dependency)
Various Concepts of Knowledge
Traditional & Social Epistemology's
Concept of Knowledge
Knowledge
Testimony
in the
1) A subject
S
is telling me that
P
.
2)
S
is generally reliable.
3) I do not hold the knowledge that
~P.
so,
4) I now know that
P.
A rough example:
P
P
former Cambridge & Edinburgh
2002
Graduate Program in Science, Technology and Society
me
Subject
S
Testimony
Theory of Knowledge
in the
Testimony
Sociology of Knowledge
1998
Actor-Network Theory
Debating the Fundamental
Theoretical Notion of Testimony
in the Sociology of Knowledge

Orthodox views
in the
Testimony
Sociology of Knowledge
Causality
Impartiality
Symmetry
Reflexivity
David Bloor,
Barry Barnes,
Harry Collins,
Donald A. MacKenzie
The Strong programme
1976
Bruno Latour
LSE,
Cornell University, &
Sciences Po, Paris
(Symmetry between humans and non-humans)
Martin Kusch
University of Vienna
Testimony is the principal way by which epistemic communities
are formed
and
knowledge is generated.


It is possible due to the abilities of testimony to
establish

social agreement
that transforms mere opinion or belief into knowledge.
Is it possible
for instruments
to testify?
Quasi-Testimony
P
P
Knows that
P
?
YES
NO
Non-Orthodox views
Defended mostly by proponents of
Actor-Network Theory
, primarily
Latour
Also advocated, on different grounds, by
a minority of philosophers
(e.g. Green 2006, 2008; Humphreys 2009).
Humphreys, Paul. 2009. “Network Epistemology”, Episteme 6(2): 221-229.
Latour, Bruno. 1993. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Green, Christopher R. 2006. The Epistemic Parity of Testimony, Memory, and Perception. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Notre Dame.
Green, Christopher R. 2008. “The Epistemology of Testimony”, In Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, (eds.) B. Dowden & J. Fieser

the testimonies of non-humans are “even more reliable than [those of] ordinary mortals”
WE HAVE NEVER BEEN MODERN
Advocated,
inter alia
,
by
sociologists of knowledge
(e.g. Collins & Kusch 1998; Bloor 1999; Collins 2010),
and by
most philosophical accounts of testimony
(Coady 1992, 268; Lackey 2008, 189).
Only testimony-based beliefs
originate from epistemic subjects
who are "susceptible to full-blooded normative assessment" (Goldberg 2012, 191).
Bloor, David. 1999. "Anti-Latour", Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 30(1): 81-112.
Coady, C. Anthony. J. 1992. Testimony: A Philosophical Study. Oxford University Press.
Collins, Harry M, & Kusch, Martin. 1999. The Shape of Actions: What Humans and Machines Can Do. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Collins, Harry M. 2010. “Humans not instruments”, Spontaneous Generations: A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science 4(1): 138-147.
Goldberg, Sanford C. 2012. "Epistemic extendedness, testimony, and the epistemology of instrument-based belief", Philosophical Explorations: An International Journal for the Philosophy of Mind and Action 15(2): 181-197.
Kusch, Martin. 2002. Knowledge by Agreement: The Programme of Communitarian Epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lackey, Jennifer. 2008. Learning from Words: Testimony as a Source of Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Orthodox views of trust, as reduced
to humans behind the technologies
Robert Merton
Émile Durkheim
Karl Mannheim
Causality
Impartiality
Symmetry
Reflexivity
David Bloor,
Barry Barnes,
Harry Collins,
Donald A. MacKenzie
The Strong Programme
1976
(Sociology of Scientific Knowledge)
SSK
Introduction
Knowledge
SSK
Testimony
SSK
(Sociology of Scientific Knowledge)
Epistemology
Technology & Testimony
Knows that
P
Testimony
-based
beliefs
P
Algorithm
Estelle
P
P
mediating
initiating
Technology
-based
beliefs
in the
Testimony
Sociology of Knowledge
Martin Kusch
ori.freiman@biu.ac.il
!הדות
Analyzing the Role of Technologies
in Knowledge Formation:
Ori Freiman

Bar-Ilan University
30/5/2016
Graduate Program in Science, Technology and Society
Debating the Fundamental
Theoretical Notion of Testimony
in the Sociology of Knowledge
ori.freiman@biu.ac.il
Analytic Traditions

Discourse:
of epistemology, social epistemology,
philosophy of science, and philosophy of technology
Full transcript