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Western Imperialism in Asia
Transcript of Western Imperialism in Asia
shogun: leader of military in Japan, because of the weakness of the emperor, the shogun was generally the real ruler
Western Imperialism in
Belief that China was the cultural center of the world and that foreigners were "barbarians." Foreign rulers were expected to recognize the prominence of the Chinese court including "tribute" payments/gifts
Portuguese trade ships arrived in China 1513
Portuguese established trade outpost at Macau
Ming Dynasty saw Portugal as part of its tribute system
1750s - China restricted trade to Canton
taxes on trade goods easily collected in one place
control of foreigners made easier
Europeans came to China to acquire silk, tea, porcelain
Chinese traded for some wool and furs, but primarily silver
British demand for tea
British manufactured goods
1793 - Britain, through Lord George Macartney, wanted
trade at a wider variety of places
to send Christian missionaries
Macartney arrived with 95 advisors, 50 soldiers, and 600 gifts for Chinese Qianlong Emperor
"Two Edicts from the Qianlong Emperor"
(Documents 1, 2)
Answer the following questions on separate sheet of paper titled "Western Imperialism Documents":
1. What Chinese system did the Qianlong emperor expect the British to submit to? How does this compare with what kind of relationship the British were expecting to have with China?
2. Why would the Qianlong emperor think his expectations are reasonable?
3. What reasons might have made the Qianlong emperor accept some or all of the British requests?
4.Why is it important for diplomats to understand the worldview of the other party? Would it have been possible for the British in 1793 to change their request in order to get more of what they wanted? If so, how? If not, why not?
1773-1830s - Britain increased Indian opium trade to China, outlawed by Chinese emperor
smoked as a drug; opium is also processed chemically to produce both heroin and morphine
1838 - Emperor Jiaqing sent commissioner Lin Zexu to Canton to end opium in China
- Who is the speaker or producer? What do you know about his or her background? How might his or her personal background have influenced their work?
(historical context) - Where and when was the document produced? What was happening at the time period?
- For whom was the document written/produced? How might an audience have received/reacted to this document and why?
- Why was the document produced? What did the producer hope to accomplish through his words?
"Lin Zexu to Queen Victoria (1839)"
Read and complete SOAP
Opium War (1839-1842)
1839 - Chinese officials destroy opium in Canton
British respond by attacking
British military technology was far
British captured Shanghai and Chinese signed "Treaty of Nanjing" in 1842
Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking) - 1842
First "unequal treaty"
Britain acquired control over Hong Kong
China payed Britain's war expenses
legalized opium in China
80 trade ports were open
western nations set tariffs
most favored nation clause
1600s - Japan issued sakaku, a policy of "closed country" to end influence of foreign "barbarians"
1852 - Commodore Matthew Perry sailed to Japan with the purpose of opening Japan's ports
"Letters from Matthew Perry" (July 1853)
(Documents 4, 5)
Answer the following questions:
1. How does the tone of Perry's second letter differ from the tone of Perry's first letter?
2. What in Perry's letters might reassure the Japanese about America's intentions?
3. What in Perry's letters might be interpreted as intimidation?
4. Why does Perry stress that the United States "do not interfere with the religion of their own citizens, much less with that of other nations" and emphasize that America is fully separate from the nations of Europe?
5. If you were the Tokugawa shogun, how seriously would you take Commodore Perry's letters?
March 31, 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa signed
"Treaty of Kanagawa" (1854) and "Treaty of Nanjing" (1842)
(Documents 6, 7)
Write a paragraph comparing the two treaties (similarities
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
Japanese unprepared for arrival of "black ships"
a person who represents his or her country's government in a foreign country