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Stages of Childhood

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Makenna Jahr

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of Stages of Childhood

Stages of Childhood
Infancy: Birth to Twelve Months (1 year)
Toddlerhood: Twelve to Twenty-four Months (1-2 year)
Head size increases half an inch every 6 months
Around 6-10 teeth will appear in this time period
Children will grow around 4-6 inches
Children will gain around 4-7lb
Visual acuity is around 20/60
Goes from walking awkwardly to more stable walking and even into running
Early Childhood: Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Old
During Early Childhood children tend to be very energetic and curious. During these years they are refining their motor skills. They also show wild imaginations in their art work, story telling, and dramas.
By: Makenna Jahr and Bailey Walker
Early Childhood: Six-, Seven-, and Eight-Year-Old
This age range children grow most in the Perceptual-Cognitive, Speech and language, and Social-Emotional developmental sections. Their level of understanding different concepts grows significantly, as they learn new things in school. Literacy, sensory activities, and hands-on-learning help bring out these developments in children of this age.

Motor Development
Perceptual-Cognitive Development
Enjoys object-hiding activities.
Puts toys in mouth less often
Enjoys looking at picture books
Starts showing signs of understanding of functional relationships
Names everyday objects
Uses some facial expressions (not always used correctly)
Speech and Language Development
Uses holographic speech (using one word to convey an entire thought)
Follows simple directions
Points out familiar objects
Starts to respond to questions
Produces 25-50 percent intelligible speech
Acquires and uses 5-50 words each year (things familiar to them)
All together vocabulary is around 500 words, usually names of toys, some colors, and a few prepositions
Babies usually double their weight within the first 5 months and they triple their weight within the first year
Within the first year their height increases by 10 inches
Has sensitive skin
Head is proportionally large to body and tongue appears large in proportion to mouth
Cries with tears
Detects color (color vision)
Begins teething
True eye color is established
Approximately four upper and four lower incisors and two lower molars erupt
Feet appear flat because the arch has not completely developed
Physical Development
Infants develop ideas about the world around them, these ideas are usually illogical but "cute"
Hearing is more acute than vision
Prefers to listen to mothers voice than a strangers
Distinguishes so tastes; shows preference towards sweets
Has a keen sense of smell
Distinguishes parent's face from strangers with cues
Shows signs of depth perception
Delights in repeatedly throwing objects overboard for someone to retrieve
Handles and Explores objects in different ways
Bangs objects together
Shows appropriate use of everyday items
Shows awareness of certain objects and their functions
Cognitive Development
Social relationships to an infant are very important, infants survive on the social relationship between its guardian
An attachment between the infant and its caregiver is vital to its survival because they rely on the contact between them
attachment-the enduring affectionate tie that binds one person to another
Infants usually prefer being held by someone or being with someone than being alone
Exhibits a definite fear of strangers
Offers toys and objects to others
Becomes attached to a certain toy or blanket and becomes upset when it is missing
Repeats behaviors that get attention
Develops stranger anxiety (clings to people they know)
Social and Emotional Development
Social-Emotional Development
Remains friendly toward others
Most of the time helps pick up and put away toys when asked
Observes and imitates adult actions in play
Eager for adults attention
Recognizes self in mirror
Enjoys companionship
Resorts to tantrums when something goes wrong, or when something does not go in the way they want it to.
Infancy is the first year of a child's life. During this period of time through their life they go through extreme changes to adapt to the new world around them. Even though all its body systems are developing at a fast rate it is completely dependent on an adult for survival.
Physical Developments
Toddlers are full of curiosity, energy, and enthusiasm. During this stage children's growth is somewhat slowed down or even stopped for a while; however many other important developments are being made. Toddlers vocabulary, motor, social, language, and cognitive stills increases at a surprisingly fast pace during this period of there life.
Mom and Pap's
Motor Development
At birth the reflexes that are present are: swallowing, sucking, gagging, coughing, yawning, and blinking.
Infants can be startled by sudden loud noise or touch (Moro Reflex)
Infants develop grasping reflex, curl hands around fingers
Raises head and upper body on arms
Movements are large and jerky but are slowly becoming smoother as their muscles become more toned and muscle control improves
Begins rolling from front to back
Moro reflex disappears
Transfers objects from one hand to the other
Handles, shakes, and pounds objects; puts everything in their mouth
Enjoys being put in standing position, jumps in place
Stacks objects
Begins pulling itself into standing position
Can crawl up and down stairs
Walks with adult support
Skillfully Crawls
Stands alone
Walks unassisted
Picks up and throws objects
Attempts to run
Helps feed them self
Starts to be able to scribble by hold writing utensils (usually incorrectly at first)
Speech and Language Development
Crying and fussing is main way of communication
Shows preference to certain sounds
Responds to own name
Imitates some non-sound noises
"Talks" to toys
Laughs out loud
Produces a full range of vowels and constants
Expresses emotions
Shakes head for "no" and may nod for "yes"
Waves and claps
Says "da-da" and "ma-ma"
Enjoys simple rhythms and dances
Works Cited:
Growth and Physical Development
Neck appears longer as "baby fat" disappears
Has a full set of baby teeth
Begins to lose baby teeth
Body is adult-like in proportion
Motor Development
Kicks a large ball
Can feed themselves
Likes to swing on a swing
Achieves complete bladder control
Walks a straight line
Hops on one foot
Form shapes with clay
Can ride a tricycle
Can control writing utensils
Can cut along a line with scissors
Establishes dominant hand
Cognitive Development
Spends a lot of time looking at books
Requests for stories
Plays realistically
Delights in creating a silly language
Can sort and organize objects
Eager to learn new things
Speech and Language Development
Asks many questions
Calls attention to them self
Sings songs
Uses almost intelligible language
Changes tone of voice to match listener's level of understanding
Can recite personal information
Has a vocabulary of 1,500 words or more
Recognizes the humor in simple jokes
Answers telephone appropriately
Social-Emotional Development
Laughs frequently
Has nightmares and fears about the dark, monsters, or fire
Is out-going and friendly
Is moody
Has imaginary friends
Shows pride in accomplishments
Has one or two special playmates
Shares toys, takes turns, plays cooperatively
Is very caring
Likes to tell jokes, entertain, and make people laugh
TOMONARI, DANA, and RACHELLE FEILER. "Child Development, Stages of
Growth." Encyclopedia of Education. Ed. James W. Guthrie. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003. 276-280. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
Physical Development
Gains around 6-7 lbs each year
Height increases around 2-3 inches each year
Body takes on a lanky appearance
Loses baby (deciduous) teeth, and permanent Teeth start to show up
Motor Development
Exhibits fine motor control
Exhibits improvement in agility, balance, speed, and strength
Always seems to be energized
Starts, and improves on writing techniques
Is able to complete everyday tasks with ease, like tying shoelaces, brushing hair and teeth, and getting dressed
Perceptual-Cognitive Development
Is able to tell time, and understand the concept of days months and years
Reading and spelling skills increase
Organization increases
Enjoys working independently
Understands simple math
Speech and Language Development
Seemingly nonstop talking
Vocabulary dramatically increases
10,000-14,000 words in vocabulary now
Engages in story, joke, and riddle telling
More adult like sentence structure
Uses gestures when trying to explain something
Social-Emotional Development
More cooperative with adults
Sees humor in everyday things
Likes to be the teachers helper
Tends to blame others for their mistakes
Easily disappointed or frustrated
Begins to form own opinions on moral matters
Participates in team activities
Desires adult attention

Some contributing theorists to childhood development are Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Lawrence Kohlberg, and Erik Erikson.
Stages of childhood are defined by the social customs and laws that make up a society.
Most researchers and professionals define the period of early childhood as birth to eight years of age, while others in the United States consider age five the end point because it coincides with the entering of schooling.
Need to know:
Decker, C. A. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12 (7th ed.).
Tinley Park, Ill.: Goodheart-Willcox.

Marotz, L. R., & Allen, K. E. (2013). Pre-birth through Adolescence:
Developmental profiles: Pre-birth through adolescence (7th ed.). Belmont,
CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

[The head start child development and early learning framework promoting
positive outcomes in early childhood programs serving children 3–5 years old]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.giarts.org/article/head-start-child-development-and-early-learning-framework
Childhood Development. (n.d.). Retrieved October 26, 2013, from PBS Parents
website: http://www.pbs.org/parents/child-development/
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