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Temporal Dimension

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Transcript of Temporal Dimension

The Temporal Dimension
Phase 2:
Story Building

Phase 1:
Here & Now

150 hours
1200
more words
Lots of creative talking in the present tense
Simple stories with visual aids
Here-and-now grammar,
tuned
pronunciation
Deepening with nurturer,
baby with others
Experiencing differences in home- and host-world stories
The "Dirty Dozen"
Start with 2
Add items 1 by 1
Here and Now descriptions
Lexicarry
Total Physical Response (TPR)
30
hours
70
hours
Lots of talking
Comprehension-based learning of new vocab
"Info gap" activities
Input flooding
Phonetics activities
50
hours
GP in
the lead
Story building using picture books
The Process:
5 minutes "small talk" - in the target language
5 minutes refresh yesterday's new vocab
20 minutes monolingual picture description
5 minutes debrief in English
10 minutes learn new vocab using dirty dozen
5 minutes record sample sentences and the
page word log
4. Deep Life Sharing
5. Native-to-native Discourse
6. Self-sustained growth in community
3. Shared Stories
2. Story
Building
1. Here
& Now
The Six-Phase Program
of the Growing Participator Approach
Before we begin...
Some clarifications of terms
Anthony (1963):
Approach
Method
Technique
“a set of ... assumptions dealing with the nature of language and
the nature of language teaching and learning”
“an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, ... based upon the selected approach”
what actually “takes place in the classroom”
In GPA:
sociocultural dimension
cognitive dimension
temporal dimension

Six-Phase Program
1500 Hours
Dirty Dozen/TPR
Life Story interviews
Native-to-native recordings
Etc.
100 hours
150 hours
250 hours
500 hours
500 hours
The rest of your life!
So, for lab tomorrow:
Bring a pen. (Not to write phonetic transcriptions!)
Get ready to talk a lot! Keep the 20 minutes monolingual!
Don't forget to keep on listening to the nurturer during sessions - and refresh each evening.
This is NOT time to...
Get English translations of new words and phrases
Get lengthy explanations in English of host grammar
Step 7A: Very detailed, past-tense version of the story... including as many details as you talked about - page by page
Step 7B: Less detailed, more natural, flowing version of the story - whole book at one time
More about Wordless Story Books
Develop locally adapted picture stories, which can serve as pre-literacy tools
Difficult for pre-literate people groups
Increase our ability to interact socially

Transition from "here and now" speech to "story speech."

Continuity, built-in repetition

Stories are fun and increase motivation
Visual support makes interaction possible at our level
Nur-turer in the lead
75
hours
Changes from 2A
You've been talking most of the time
Find out what your nurturer would say - your goal is to sound like host people. Structure of sentences, presentation of ideas, etc.
Same kinds of books from 2A, but not the same books.
The Process
5 minutes Small talk
10 minutes Nurturer talks freely, describing
the picture story. Record.
30-80 minutes Massage the recording.
5-10 minutes Debrief
5-10 minutes Listen & point
15 minutes Sound recording of the new
vocab (in context).
End of the book: Page-by-page detailed description in the past tense, then a natural story all at once
Both lead at times
25
hours
Changes from 2B
Making your own picture stories
Basic outline of your birth story to present time
Some portion of you life, life events
The Process
5-10 minutes Small talk
30-70 minutes GP tells a story from his life,
drawing as they go.
10 minutes Nurturer relies on drawings to retell
the story in past tense
5-10 minutes Listen & point
15 minutes Sound recording of the new
vocab (in context).
More ideas:
Have the nurturer and another host person interact
Pay attention to how the listener and speaker interact
Eye contact? What does the listener say? Nonverbal reactions? Interruptions? Long periods of silence?
100 hours
800-
1000 words
Limited, highly constrained activities, common formulas
Words/Phrases on what you can see/do
Pronunciation difficult to understand
Baby relationship with one nurturer
Attaching host-world words
to home-
world
concepts
250 hours
2000 more words
Tell simple stories, conversations on many topics
Complex stories with familiar plots. simple expository speech
Intelligible, improving in case marking & verb agreement
Deep with nurturer, deepening with others
Sharing experience, entering in and discussing it
Phase 3:
Shared Stories

100
hours
Bridge Stories
Our world
Host world
Story from another time, place, culture
A story both the GP and the Nurturer are familiar with
A "world story" the GP is familiar with that the Nurturer can read in a majority language and then tell in her own words.
or
such as:
Goldilocks
Cinderella
Noah & the Flood
The First Man & Woman
"Script of Life" Activity
Action Cartoon Activity
Shared Experience & Reminiscing Activity
1. Listen as the nurturer tells or reads you the story. Record.
2. Unpack the recording in the host language.
A day-to-day activity familiar to both the GP and the Nurturer
Training: Help your nurturer write down the first script so they see how much detail you want.
Nurturer reads through each step in the script. You can expand it, then unpack the recording.
Watch the cartoon privately to be aware of it
Nurturer watches and tells you what's happening (don't watch together). Record.
Watch the cartoon together while listening to the recording.
Unpack the recording.
Do something together, interact naturally as you go.
The next day, make a recording of the nurturer describing in detail what you did.
Unpack the recording.
Other Activities in Phase 3a
Descriptions of familiar places
Conversations centered around a common object
Role plays
Input and Output flooding
GP chooses grammatical structure he finds difficult
Input: Nurturer gives many examples of the structure
Output: GP works through the same types of examples
75
hours
About relationships in Phase 3
Consider employing a 2nd nurturer
A few hours/week of socializing can be counted toward hours
Mid-Late Phase 3, consider moving in with a host family
Host Stories as Shared Stories
Nurturer makes a list of widely-known stories and records one of them
Someone translates and records the story in English or another language you know well
You listen to the story many times so it becomes very familiar to you.
Listen to and unpack the host story with your nurturer.
75
hours
Beyond literal stories...
Familiar Topic activity
Helps us move from narrative discourse to expository discourse
Nurturer talks to you or reads to you about a topic highly familiar to you
More ideas in the Shared-Story spirit
Movie plots
Book plots
News broadcasts
Earlier stories in more advanced versions
Pretty much "anything goes," as long as it fits:
Listening to speech you can understand with a moderate amount of massaging
At least 8 new vocab items per hour
Lots of interaction with your nurturer
Lots of opportunity for you to talk
500 hours
3000 more words
Tell complex stories, rich and deep conversations
Complex expository speech, much native-to-native conversational
Able to use verb forms needed for "textured stories"
Deep with several, casual relationshipseasy
Exploring host life with an "insider" perspective
Phase 4:
Deep Life Sharing

Important information about Phase 4
General disclaimer on "language learning" vs. "growing in participation"
This is the "sink or swim" phase
Phase 4 is the middle phase
500 hours
500 hours
500 hours
Phase 1, 2, 3
Phase 4
Phase 5
Phase 4 is a key time for learning culture. What is our goal as GPs?
Participate in life with less
they stories
by entering into
their story
- learn culture by way of learning language.
Activity 1:
Life Story Activity
Beginning of George’s life story
I was born in Los Angeles in 1947, and spent my early childhood there. However it was when I was nine years old, and we made our first trip to Canada that my life truly began. Not much interesting happened before that, but that summer of 1957 we spent two months in the wilderness camping and fishing. We went back for even longer in 1959 and became really close to some of the ranchers in that wilderness area, and even bought a ranch of our own. We worked on our ranch, and socialized with other ranchers in the summers of 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, and 1965. In fact, in 1962-1963 we spent the whole fall, spring and winter on the ranch as well as the summers, and the other summers we took our full three-month school break, plus another week or two before and after, to be working our ranch, and to be part of the rancher society of that area. The winters—I was back in California—I more and more kept to myself, as I felt I wasn’t one of them, and they would never know the real me—who I was up in Canada! In 1966 I worked one last time on a ranch there for five months, but my life was about to take a new direction…


Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Step 5:
Step 6:
Step 7:
listen, make initial recording
listen to recording on your own
upack the recording
look for places to expand
expand, record the expansion
listen to recordings you've unpacked
summarize in your words
First problem part:
spent my early childhood there
Exact problem:

You aren’t sure what “spent” means. You think it has something to do with money.
How you deal with it:
Host friend explains about spending money, and then gives examples of spending time—an hour, a week, June, the summer, someone’s whole childhood, someone’s whole life.

Second problem part:
wilderness
Exact problem:
Unknown word.
How you deal with it:
Host friend explains word.

Third problem part:
camping
Exact problem:
Unknown concept (a whole area of unknown host life experience—in your home languaculture, there is no concept of recreational camping.)
How you deal with it:
Host friend briefly explains camping. You still won’t have much understanding of it, but you have a basic idea that your host friend slept in a tent near lakes in the forest, and cooked on an open fire.
Ideas for expansion
Which of these would not fit according to Rule 3?
1)George, you said you were born in 1947, right? Have you been told anything about the time when you were born?
2)From birth to nine years old is a long time. It’s interesting that you have so little to say about it. Do you remember very much about it?
3)Tell me all about those two months in 1957. That must have been really exciting.
4)What happened in 1958?
5)Tell me about those ranchers you became friends with.
6)Do you remember much of each summer? How about the fall, winter and spring that you stayed on the ranch in 1962-1963?
7)It sounds like you weren’t really happy back in California. What all do you remember about those times?
8)Could you tell me more about the difference between who you were in Los Angeles and who you were in Canada?
9)Tell me about that last summer.
10)Did you graduate from High School? When?
11)Did you have any girlfriends?
RULE 1
Nurturer doesn't have to follow any rules!
RULE 2
Show genuine interest in what she says!
RULE 3
Don't ask about things she hasn't mentioned
Principle:
We grow in understanding
of host life
by understanding individual host lives
Grand Tour Questions
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
ask "grand tour" question and record the response
unpack the recording
write down possible future questions
ask follow-up question and repeat the steps
Activity 2:
Walk of Life Interview
A typical year
Typical day during times of the year
Description of the layout of the ranch
Description of fencing (lengthy activity)
Bringing hay down from the meadow
Mini Tour Questions
Making the fire in the cookstove
Putting on the coffee
Getting the team and hitching them up
Description of the barn
Eating dinner
Cultural Domains
Things that need workin' on
Ellen's tasks
Breaks during the day
Places where there is hay
After supper activities
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Identify "social situations" and choose one for observation
Visit the social situation & take notes
Relying on jottings/notes, describe the situation to host friend
Record your host friend's summary & commentary
Activity 4:
Detailed Observation
"thin" vs. "thick" descriptions
places, actors, and activities
head notes & jottings
learn what your friend thinks
Problem Solving
Problem 3:
Your vocab isn't growing very quickly
Problem 2:
You know the words you need, but you struggle to put them together like a native speaker would
Problem 1:
You aren't talking enough
Cartoon or silent movies
Busy books
Wordless story books
Shared stories
Record yourself for feedback
Writing activities
Detailed observations
Retelling summaries
Retelling stories to others
Communities of practice
Active social life
500 Hours
4000 more words
Complex expository speech on many topics; writing
Wide variety of speech and written; much native-to-native
Pronunciation easy to understand, variety of grammar use
Moving into COPs as a legitimate peripheral participant
Filling in details, becoming more host-like
Phase 5:
Native to Native Discourse

We assume you know...
Process of a session
(small talk, massaging, vocab recordings)
How to massage a text
How to expand on what you heard
Retelling/summarizing by N
Retelling/summarizing by GP
How to keep a Listening Library
Recording yourself for feedback
Phase 5
Activities
Comprehension
Production
Ask a previous language helper to do life story interviews
Naturally-occurring discourse
Conversations in regular "hang outs"
Family conversation times
Public speeches, sermons, talks
"Campfire" stories, legends
Stories of memorable life incidents
Semi-natural discourse
Autobiographical narratives
Walk of life interviews
Pairs or groups talk about a designated topic
Unplanned small talk by people who are asked to talk about "whatever"
Additional resources for major languages
Radio broadcasts
Television broadcasts
Audio books
Printed media
Other ideas?
Why Native to Native?
Communication ability is a joint ability
Listening in on other conversations helps us in our conversations
Goal: Understanding host conversations so our growth can become self-sustaining
Sessions as needed
Increasing by the thousands
Basically unrestricted, may struggle initially with new topics
Almost anything a typical host person would understand
Becoming more and more host-like
Recognized participant in COPs, deep relationships form readily
Acting appropriately in word
and deed
Phase 6:
Self-sustaining growth in community

Defining Phase 6
When will I be "done"?
How to continue growth in Phase un-6
How to keep yourself from self-sustaining growth
Quitting after Phase
4 and relying on social interaction only
100 Waking Hours
10%
Phase 6
Phase un-6
1. You have the ability to understand most of what people see (and do) around you
2. You hear and see host people a lot.
1. You're not in Phase 6 because one or both parts of the definition don't apply to you
2. You're devoting little or no time to "language learning activities" thus you're not in Phases 1-5
Continued growth in the community
requires giving host life a
reasonable amount
of time.
Phase 6 is not really a “next stage” after Phases 1 through 5. Phase 6 is a road that we hope to find ourselves on.
Once we're on the Phase 6 road, we'll most
likely continue for all the years we can give to it.
Limited vocabulary
(less resources to draw upon)
More chances to use those resources
Quicker path to sounding "fluent"
No motivation to grow
"Needs analysis" activities
Mass media and reading
Good step into practical vocab growth
Can be supercharged if you have laid the social foundation
Look for broadcasts that challenge you
Read a lot!
If you have access to speakers but aren't growing...
If you don't have continued access to speakers...
Form an archipelago
Give more time to your home identity than to your host identity
Home life in the host context is not wrong. But how well are we balancing our two lives?
of the Growing Participator Approach by Greg Thomson
Host a discussion group (and, if possible, leave the room while they talk!)
Speak about challenging and relevant topics bit by bit
Have language helper take notes and record in their own words
Talk about the same subject from day to day until you become more comfortable
Full transcript