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Transcript of Space Politics
Early development of rocketry (Germany, US, UK)
The Space Race
The End of Exploration
Recent US Space Policy
Plans for returning to the mission of space exploration
Resulted from the "Vision for Space Exploration"
Funded beginning in 2005
Obama administration cancelled funding in 2010 as a result of the Augustine Commission
Led to a full-scale review of exploration idea
Obama's Space Policy Speech and the new Space Launch System
Non-US Space Programs
At least 22 countries have independent space agencies, not counting military programs (such as China)
Canada, France, Lithuania, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Hungary, Israel, Turkey, Mongolia, Greece, Belarus, UK, China, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Croatia, ESA, Japan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, South Korea, North Korea
The Commercialization of Space
Space: A Security Issue?
What is space?
Can space be owned or possessed?
Is it a global good?
How do we govern space?
Should it be commercialized?
Early Development of Rocketry
Germany and the development of rockets (1927-1945)
The A series rockets and the development of the V-2 missile
The first launching attempt was made with the A-4 rocket (V-2) at Peenemuende. It rose above the cloud cover, and then fell back, after a climb to 0.8 mile. The V-2 missile stood 46 feet 11 inches tall, and 5 feet 5 inches in diameter. It weighed 14 tons at takeoff. It carried a warhead variously listed as 1,650 and 2,150 pounds. Its maximum range was 200 miles, with a combat trajectory height of 60 miles. Its speed was approximately 3,300 miles per hour at burnout.
The arrest of Wehrner von Braun (1944)
Use of the V-2 in combat led to over 2000 dead and 6000 seriously injured, illustrated its combat effectiveness
The Development of the US Missile Program
The move to Redstone Arsenal (1950)
The Jupiter (1957) - video 1
October 4, 1957: Sputnik - video 2
The founding of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1958)
The Space Race
Soviets have a unified strategy
US has ABMA, ARPA, and NASA
NASA lobbies for the Saturn program, received approval (1959)
April 12, 1961: Yuri Gregarin becomes the first human in space, aboard a Vostok 1 rocket, beating Alan Shephard by a month. Is a major embarassment for the US. Directly leads to President Kennedy's "race to the moon speech" video 3
The Moon Landing and its aftermath
1969: US reaches the moon
(video 4) or did we?
Why would we have faked the video?
Is there proof?
Why did we stop at the moon?
The Space Shuttle
1972: Nixon announces plans for the Space Shuttle, to provide routine access to space, signals a shift in policy
1973: Skylab is launched, first long-term presence of humans in space
April 12, 1981: First space shuttle launch - video 5
The International Space Station
The impact of Challenger (January 28, 1986) and Columbia (February 1, 2003)
Builds on previous effots by the US, Europe, and USSR
Module based system
First module in orbit 1998
Arguably the single most expensive endeavor in the history of mankind
Serves as a research lab on microgravity and space environment
The conclusion of the Shuttle mission raised the question, should we commercialize space?
Becomes particularly important when thinking about sovereignty and the ownership of space
Allows programs like NASA to focus on other things
But at what cost?
The rise of private space enterprise (Space-X and Virgin Galactic)