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APES: Ch 15 Nonrenewable Energy

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Valerie Head

on 17 February 2015

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Transcript of APES: Ch 15 Nonrenewable Energy

Ch 15 Nonrenewable Energy

15-1: What Major Sources of Energy Do We Use?
The sun provides almost all of the energy that heats the Earth.
15-5: What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy?
After the quiz, take out another sheet of paper.
Make 4 columns about Nuclear Energy:
1. Power Plant Design
2. Pollution
3. Radioactivity
4. Disasters

Fill in as much as you know about nuclear energy within these categories.
Energy Unit Math Problems
Power= amount of work done per time
most common unit is kWh
15-2, 15-3, 15-4: Fossil Fuels
Crude oil is formed from the
of ancient marine organisms that were buried beneath sediments and subjected to
high heat and pressure
What is Oil?
-mixture of many different
liquids and gases that
provide a variety of energy uses
liquid components
like fuel oil and gasoline are used to heat homes and transportation
gaseous components
such as propane and butane are used for cooking and heating
solid components
include grease, wax, petroleum jelly, and asphalt
Most of the oil reserves are in the Middle East and are controlled by OPEC.
The US has an intense dependence on oil.
There is concern over the reliance on politically unstable governments for such an important energy resource.
led to the call for renewed oil exploration and drilling in environmentally sensitive areas like
offshore and in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
Because crude oil is a mixture of liquids, it requires
separation and purification
after it has been extracted.
This happens at an
oil refinery
and uses the process of
fractional distillation
that separates liquids at different boiling points.
This refining of oil produces many different products like the ones listed previously and also
that can be made into synthetic fibers, plastics, pesticides, paint, etc..
Oil Shale and Tar Sands are both oily deposits than can yield oil when processed.
although there are large reserves of these energy sources (especially in Canada) it still requires the same destructive techniques that we've seen from mining.
is the most abundant fossil fuel, and is used to produce most of the world's
1. Once coal is extracted from the earth it is pulverized into small pellets and
to produce steam.
2. The steam is directed across blades of a
to rotate it and a generator that makes electricity.
Environmental Costs of Mining Coal:
1. large quantities of air pollution that include heavy metals, particulates, and sulfur dioxide
2. large quantities of water pollution that include heavy metals, mercury, and sediments from overburden
3. produces more CO2 than any other fossil fuel
Coal Formation Process
1. Coal formation starts with
, which forms from partially decomposed plant debris in waterlogged anaerobic conditions.
2. After being
buried by millions of years
of sediments, heat and pressure squeeze the water from the peat and initiates
transformations to coal
Ranks of coal:
Peat (lowest energy content)
Anthracite (highest energy content)
Natural Gas is mostly methane and is formed and found alongside crude oil.
1. Electricity
2. Cooking
3. Heating
Benefits of Natural Gas over other fossil fuels:
1. Produces less CO2
2. Burns cleaner and emits fewer heavy
metals, particulates, etc.
3. Easy to transport via pipelines

if in
liquid form
A major disadvantage to extracting natural gas is the use of
hydraulic fracturing or FRACKING
Fracking is when water and other secret chemicals (that are known to be carcinogens) are pumped underground to fracture the rock and create pressure that will pump out the natural gas.

Where do you think these chemicals end up?
Indirect Solar Energy- What is the sun's role?
Commercial Energy- sold in the marketplace that comes from extracting and burning nonrenewable energy sources from the Earth's crust
Mostly fossil fuels: OIL, COAL, NATURAL GAS
History of Fossil Fuel Use
"It takes energy to get energy."

What is net energy and why is that important?
1 kW= 1000 watts
1 MW= 1000 kW
1 MW= 1,000,000 watts

kWh= (kW)(h)
Energy- ability to do work
unit is the joule (J)

1 kJ = 1000 joules
1 J= 1 watt/sec
1 kWh= 1000 j/sec

#45 on Full Mock #2...
How much energy is saved, in kWh, if a family that uses a 100 watt lightbulb for an hour a day for 30 days switches to a 60 watt bulb instead?
Initially, the family uses 100W x 30 hours = 3,000 Wh
*Convert to kWh, so they're using 3 kWh

Then the family uses 60W x 30 hours= 1800 Wh
*Convert to kWh, so they're using 1.8 kWh

SOOO.... How much do they save??
3 kWh- 1.8 kWh= 1.2 kWh
Groups of 4: Complete example problems together and submit your best and final answers as a group.

Remember you must set up the problem correctly with units.

No calculators!
Why are gas prices so cheap? Here is a quick explanation...

Update: President Obama Calls Protection of ANWR as a Wilderness


Ecological success right?! However, some people are really upset about this... Why?
Oil Spills: Groups of 3 or 4
Choose 1 to research and make a quick powerpoint.

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill 1989
Gulf Oil Spill 2010

Environmental Issues Associated with Fracking:
Groundwater and Surface WaterContamination-
fracking chemicals, methane, liquid waste stored in
Surface Water Contamination
Excessive Water Use and Consumption
Habitat Destruction at drilling site
Earthquakes can result from fracking
Methane (a greenhouse gas) can leak into the atmosphere
Land subsidence
Benefits of Fracking
Development of domestic energy source
Individual financial gain for land leases
Like fossil fuels, nuclear energy is
and several
environmental costs
are associated with extraction, processing, use, and disposal of radioactive fuel.
In the 1950s, nuclear power was thought to be the solution to the world's energy needs!
But... there were many concerns about safety and cost.
There are currently 61 commercially operating nuclear power plants with 99 nuclear reactors in 30 states in the United States.
However, about 5-10% of electricity in the US comes from nuclear energy. France generates 75% of its electricity from nuclear energy.
Instead of burning (combustion of) coal, nuclear power plants use the process of
nuclear fission
Nuclear power plants use the same general method as those fired by fossil fuels-
heat water to produce steam which turns a turbine connected to a generator to make electricity.
Nuclear Power Plant Process:
is packed into
fuel rods
that are placed in the
reactor core
, along with a
that is used to slow down neutrons that are released during nuclear fission.
Control rods
are interspersed with fuel rods to
the rate of fission and the amount of energy produced.
3. After the used fuel rods are removed they are
stored onsite
in water filled tanks.
*There is no long term disposal site presently available for spent fuel rods and other waste (high level radioactive waste)
A proposal to open the first high-level radioactive waste repository in the world at
Yucca Mountain, Nevada
has been delayed due to safety and security concerns. President Obama does NOT want to use Yucca Mountain for nuclear energy waste storage.
Take a sheet of paper and make 3 sections and label each as:
1. Three Mile Island 2. Chernobyl 3. Japan Nuclear Disaster

Questions you will answer will be:
-when and where did it take place
-what caused the disaster
-name several impacts of the disaster
Environmental Costs of Nuclear Energy:
1. waste, runoff, air pollution, and land damage that result from the mining, processing, and transportation of
2. ecological damage due to
accidental release
of radioactive materials
thermal pollution
in bodies of water used as coolant for nuclear power plants
4. lack of long term
of nuclear waste
5. concerns over how to
old nuclear power plants
6. fear of
natural disasters
near nuclear power plants
Benefits of Nuclear Energy
1. Large fuel supply (uranium)
2. No greenhouse gas emissions
3. Low risk of accidents due to many safety regulations.
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