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Voorjaarsdagen 2013

Where practice and Science meet

Guts Communication

on 25 August 2015

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Transcript of Voorjaarsdagen 2013

Upper respiratory airway
stridor during labour
choking down, "hitting a wall"
Aidean Boko
recurrent laryngeal neuropathy or idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia?
Lower airway disorders
Dorsal Displacement of the Soft Palate (DDSP)
displacement of the soft palate
either intermittent or permanent
mainly stridor during exhalation
may cause dysphagia
decreased lung ventilation, decreased oxygen uptake
Cause: intrinsic factors
(follicular) pharyngitis
Cause: extrinsic factors
conformation, position and functionality of the larynx relative to the hyoid apparatus
epiglottic shortening/malformation
Tx of the pharyngitis: nebulisation of corticosteroids rest fresh air
Larynx Support Device
laryngeal 'Tie-Forward' (>80%)
staphylectomie (60%)
myectomy sternothyroideus (60%)

laryngoplasty (Tie-Back)

ventriculocordectomy (laser)
Thank you for your attention
The oxygen chain: the heart
Where practice and science meet..
Arnold Mollema, Mollema Racing Stable
Marco de Bruijn, Dierenkliniek Wolvega


The training of a Standardbred
basic schedule:
600 - 800 km in "build up" period of 4-6 weeks

4 days of "jogging" 5 - 10km
2 days off incl Sunday
every 4th day "speed"work: interval 8x800m or
2 or 3 heats of 1700m

young horse vs elderly horse
The training of a Standardbred
how to build up speed?

how to build up stamina?

Training of the Standardbred: performance testing
heart rate
blood lactate
arterial gases
Performance testing
Performance testing: inter-horse
Performance testing: intra-horse
Performance testing: intra-horse
Performance testing: intra-horse
The training of a Standardbred
J Appl Physiol. 1994 May;76(5):1908-13.

daptation and overtraining in horses subjected to increasing training loads.

Bruin G, Kuipers H, Keizer HA, Vander Vusse GJ.

Department of Physiology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

To evaluate markers for overtraining, seven male race horses were subjected to 272 days of training consisting of daily exercise bouts of either endurance running (heart rate 140/min) or interval training (maximal heart rate), both increasing in duration and intensity. An incremental exercise test was held every 4 wk, and from day 187 it was held every 2 wk. Muscle glycogen, muscle lactate, energy-rich phosphates, adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone, plasma and red blood cell volumes, and a number of blood chemical variables were measured. The horses showed symptoms of weight loss, irritability, and an inability to complete the training after the intensity of the endurance exercise was increased. Test performance was not decreased. The adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone was not changed during overtraining. The decline in muscle ATP concentration during maximal exercise was less during the period of staleness, whereas plasma volume, red blood cell volume, and blood chemical variables were unchanged.
It was concluded that as long as exhaustive training is alternated by light exercise, overtraining is unlikely to occur
. Furthermore, no single parameter can be used to detect early overtraining.
The performance limiting factor
1 2 3


well trained

In a well trained horse the performance limiting factor is the oxygen supply via the upper airways and the lungs
The performance limiting factor
Upper airway disorders
Exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage
What's the effect of Small Airway Inflammatory Disease (SAID) on laryngeal function?
What's the effect of SAID on pharyngeal function?
Van Erck E. Dynamic respiratory videoendoscopy in ridden sport horses: effect of head flexion, riding and airway inflammation in 129 cases. Equine Vet J. 2011;43(4):18-24.
Atrial fibrillation
Sound of Silence
converting to sinus rythm
medically: chinidine sulfate
Electrocardiogram during exercise
Feeding Standardbred racehorses
Feeding Standardbred racehorses
Feeding Standardbred racehorses

hay or silage?
mastication time?
of the ground or slow feeders
Feeding Standardbred racehorses
unsaturated fatty acids vs carbohydrates
postpones hyperlactatemia
increases insulin sensitivity
however decreases glycogen storage in liver and muscle
Animal. 2012 Dec 11:1-8. Growth, training response and health in Standardbred yearlings fed a forage-only diet. Ringmark S, Roepstorff L, Essén-Gustavsson B, Revold T, Lindholm A, Hedenström U, Rundgren M, Ogren G, Jansson A.
Equine Vet J Suppl. 2010 Nov;(38):341-6 Effects of crude protein intake from forage-only diets on muscle amino acids and glycogen levels in horses in training. Essén-Gustavsson B, Connysson M, Jansson A
Feeding Standardbred racehorses
electrolyte supplementation and rehydration post exercise
J Appl Physiol. 2009 Jan;106(1):91-100. Fluid and electrolyte supplementation after prolonged moderate-intensity exercise enhances muscle glycogen resynthesis in Standardbred horses.
Waller AP, Heigenhauser GJ, Geor RJ, Spriet LL, Lindinger MI
pre event feeding
speed> 40km/u (1.30 min/km): anaerobic pathway is activated: glycogenolysis
Equine Gastric Ulceration Syndrome EGUS
Prevalence of equine gastric ulceration syndrome in standardbreds.
de Bruijn CM, Schutrups AH, Seesing EH.
Vet Rec. 2009 Jun 27;164(26):814-5.
the prevalence of gastric ulceration in the Dutch Standardbred population is considerably high (53%) and similar to the prevalence in studies in other (European) countries
predisposing factors
high intensity exercise
meal feeding
low fibre/ high carbohydrate diets
less saliva with bicarbonate
high VFA
nutritional solutions
luzerne: alkalinizing effect
increase fibre content /roughage
beet pulp

management solutions
increase mastication time

medical solutions
Yanantin Boko
Yanantin Boko
The training of a Standardbred
The training of a Standardbred
Equine Vet J. 2002 Jul;34(4):395-9.

Effect of tapered normal and interval training on performance of Standardbred pacers.

Shearman JP, Hamlin MJ, Hopkins WG.
epartment of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, UK.

Human athletes taper or reduce their training load before a race to enhance performance, apparently because recovery from the effects of fatigue occurs faster than the loss of fitness from the reduced training. However, there appear to be no previous studies of tapering of equine athletes. Our aim in the present study was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of tapering with Standardbred pacers. We determined the effect of repeated cycles of tapered training on performance of Standardbred pacers. After 8 weeks of jogging and 3 x 2 week cycles of pace work, 19 horses were randomised to a taper and a control group. The taper group completed 5 consecutive 2 week cycles, each incorporating a 7 day taper; some cycles included high-intensity interval training. The control group continued with 5 more cycles of pace work. All horses completed a 2400 m individual time trial after each cycle. Peak and mean speed of the taper group were faster than those of the control group in all cycles; the differences were clear-cut in all cycles for peak speed (overall 4.4%, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 7.1%), but only in one of the interval-training cycles for mean speed (2.4%, 0.3 to 4.7%). Four horses in the taper group were injured during interval training.
Repeated tapering produces a worthwhile enhancement of performance in Standardbreds, but the addition of interval training appears to increase the risk of injury
Equine Vet J. 2002 Jul;34(4):383-8.

Changes in physiological parameters in overtrained Standardbred racehorses.

Hamlin MJ, Shearman JP, Hopkins WG.

Department of Physiology, University of Otago, School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Various changes in physiological parameters are associated with overtraining, which can be a serious problem for human and equine athletes. A 34 week longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the effects of an acute training overload on physiological parameters in 10 Standardbred racehorses. After 24 weeks of training, horses received 8 weeks of increased workload, followed by 2 weeks recovery. Horses performed a 2400 m time trial and a progressive submaximal exercise test on alternate weeks. By the end of the heavy training period, the average time for the final 1200 m of the time trial increased by 4.0% (95% probable range of true value 1.7-5.8) and
peak velocity decreased
by 6.9% (4.7-8.9), indicating that overtraining had occurred. Acute overtraining coincided with an
increase in blood lactate
concentration after the time trial and submaximal test. There were also substantial
decreases in bodyweight, plasma cortisol
concentration and packed cell volume after the time trial, and in the velocity at a heart rate of 200/min (V200). Parameters that showed no clear-cut change with overtraining included maximal and recovery heart rate, basal plasma cortisol, plasma and red cell volume, and markers of skeletal damage (plasma concentrations of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase). Bodyweight, V200, postexercise blood lactate and plasma cortisol concentrations may all be useful for detecting acute overtraining in equine athletes.
The Performance limiting factor
Standardbred and Thoroughbred race horses running at top speed are likely limited by oxygen transport. The malleable components of the oxygen transport chain (red cell mass, mitochondrial volume, muscle capillarity) have adapted to the extent that the capacity of these components approaches or exceeds the capacity of the non-malleable components, such as lung volume or tracheal diameter. A reduction in the capacity of the non-malleable components, for example a reduction in laryngeal diameter secondary to laryngeal hemiplegia, will reduce the capacity of the whole system.
Kenneth Hinchcliff, University of Melbourne
Improving performance
the limits to maximal performance: Thoroughbred racetimes have not improved significantly since 1970
is there no further genetic potential to increase speed?
Improving performance
in Standardbreds: consistent reduction in race times
well documented for Swedish and Italian trotters
reduction is exponential and appears to approach an asymptote
Trends and asymptotic limits for racing speed in standardbred trotters.

Arnason, T. Livestock production Science 72, 135 (2001)

Racing data on 44,372 Standardbred trotters in Sweden, spanning a period of nineteen years, were analyzed. Racing speed of any i-th horse was measured as the best average racing time (ki=sec/km) obtained in a trotting race of a length ≥1640 m, as a 3- to 5-year-old. The distribution of the best average racing time records was found to be asymmetric within the population. A scaled logarithmic function of best average racing time of male horses (yi=ln(ki−68.2)) was found to be normally distributed (zero skewness and low kurtosis). This means that best average racing time records can be expressed as: ki=ey(i)+x, where the constant x=68.2 sec/km was interpreted as the asymptotic limit for trotting speed in the population of male Standardbred trotters. An equation Kbirth-year=x(1+e−pt) was fitted to the data for estimating trends in average, minimum and maximum best average racing time records at time t=(birth-year−z) in Swedish Standardbred trotters. The constants p and z were estimated by least-squares grid search.
The trend in the average of best average racing time in male trotters can be predicted by the following expression: AverKbirth-year=68.2(1+e(−0.015 (birth-year−1861))). The corresponding prediction of the fastest racing time records is: MinKbirth-year=68.2(1+e(−0.019 (birth-year−1853))
). The log linear scale effects may be interpreted as successive reductions in marginal substitution effects of genes and environmental factors affecting racing time as measured on the original scale.
Observed trend in racing time (ki=sec/km)
in Swedish Standardbred trotters (males)
Predicted trend in the best average racing time records
in the population of Swedish Standardbred male trotters
Perissodactyla: Tapirs and Rhinoceroses
Equids: Hindgut fermenters
Ruminants: low intake/slow throughput/thorough digestion
Equids: Hindgut fermenters
Equids: high intake/fast throughput/cursory digestion

free ranging equids spend 50-80% of time grazing
this is in contrast to meal feeding
so under stabled conditions
Equids: high intake/fast throughput/cursory digestion

lower digestibility of forage

complex molar surface: excellent reduction in particle size
increases digestibility
enables high food intake/fast throughput
oral stereotypies
especially after meals with low fibre
anticipatory stereotypies
waiting for next meal
Yanantin boko
Horse transport
oral rehydration
estimation of dehydration
moderate: 5% of bwt
severe : 10% of bwt
by nasogastric tube: up to 8-10l/h (500kg horse)
plain tap water may lead to electrolyte abnormalities “ideal” composition: 5.9 gram NaCl, 0.3 g KCl en 3.4 g NaHCO3/l
“if the gut works, use it”
The training of a Standardbred
Not just speed and earnings...
e.g. does the horse need additional tools to trot?
is it a quick student?
what are its acceleration capacities?
is it a fighter? does it want to finish?
the oxygen chain
Dynamic respiratory videoendoscopy in ridden sport horses: effect of head flexion, riding and airway inflammation in 129 cases

Van Erck E. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2011 Nov;43 Suppl 40:18-24
Ventricular premature beats
the downside of
meal feeding
large quantities of carbohydrates and
limited access to roughage
Feeding Standardbred horses

the emphasis on aerobic oxidation of carbohydrate and fatty acids
eg: human 100m sprint: 100% anaerobic glycolysis whereas Thoroughbred 1000m sprint: 30%
man vs horse
Feeding Standardbred racehorses

Exercise- and metabolism-associated blood variables in Standardbreds fed either a low- or a high-fat diet.

Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM, Annee MP, Verdegaal EJ, Lemmens AG, Beynen AC. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2002 Sep;(34):29-32.

Feeding a high-fat diet increases fat utilisation and may decrease glycogen utilisation resulting in a lower lactate production during moderate exercise. The effects of fat feeding on exercise- and lipid metabolism-associated blood variables were evaluated in 6 Standardbred horses during submaximal exercise. The horses were fed a high- (11.8% fat in total dietary dry matter) or a low-fat diet (1.5% fat) in a cross-over experiment with feeding periods of 4 weeks. At the end of each feeding period, the horses were subjected to a submaximal standardised stepwise exercise test on a treadmill. Blood samples were obtained prior to the start, during the last 10 s of each exercise step, and after recovery (40 min walking in hand). Pre-exercise test values for plasma lactate, pH, pCO2, ionised sodium, ionised potassium, ionised calcium, ionised chloride, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids and glycerol did not differ for the 2 diets. The pre-exercise concentration of triacylglycerols was significantly lower on the high- compared to the low-fat diet (mean +/- s.d. 0.17 +/- 0.06 and 0.23 +/- 0.08 mmol/l, respectively), whereas the concentrations of cholesterol (3.00 +/- 0.47 and 2.11 +/- 0.49 mmol/l, respectively), HDL cholesterol (1.80 +/- 0.18 and 1.35 +/- 0.27 mmol/l, respectively) and phospholipids (2.30 +/- 0.11 and 1.72 +/- 0.20 mmol/l, respectively) were significantly higher. There was significantly less plasma lactate accumulation during exercise when the horses were given the high-fat diet (P = 0.011). Horses on a low-fat diet had significantly different plasma lipid values when compared to being on a high-fat diet. The alterations in these values during and after moderate exercise were comparable for both diets.
These results indicate that fat metabolism is significantly adapted on a high-fat diet; feeding such a diet may enhance potential performance by delaying lactate accumulation and thereby delaying the onset of fatigue.
Feeding Standardbred racehorses

Exercise response, metabolism at rest and digestibility in athletic horses fed high-fat oats.

Lindberg JE, Essén-Gustavsson B, Dahlborn K, Gottlieb-Vedi M, Jansson A.
Equine Vet J Suppl. 2006 Aug;(36):626-30.

High starch intakes increase the risk for metabolic disorders and therefore alternative feedstuffs are of interest. High-fat oat varieties have a lower starch and higher energy content than regular oats and may therefore be useful in this context.
Feeding high fat oats causes no adverse effects on the response to exercise and that the total amount of oats offered could be reduced compared to feeding with regular oats.
Twelve Standardbred trotters were fed regular oats (diet C), high-fat oats (F), and a mixture (50:50) of C and F (M), together with haylage (30:70), in a Latin square design trial. High-fat oats replaced regular oats in a 0.9 to 1.0 ratio in diets F and M. On Day 18 in each 21 day experimental period, horses were subjected to a standardised near-maximal treadmill exercise test with collection of blood samples and muscle biopsies before and after exercise. This was followed by a 3 day period of total collection of faeces and urine.
There were no significant effects of dietary treatments on bodyweight, heart rate, plasma lactate and glucose, or on muscle glycogen and lactate concentrations following exercise. However, plasma insulin was reduced during exercise on diets F and M compared to diet C. The total tract digestibility of dry matter, fat, protein, NDF and organic matter were higher for diet F than for diet C.
High-fat oats can replace regular oats in the diet of athletic horses without any adverse effects on metabolism and exercise response.
Due to the high energy content and a high digestibility of dietary components in high-fat oats the daily allowance of oats can be reduced and thus the intake of starch.
The will to win
the "sensible" ones
The training of a Standardbred
Cave: to soon too fast!
Warming up and cooling down!
make the horse feel good!
Energy Expenditure human vs horse according to discipline
Freiherr As
Yardley Rich
Aortic valve insufficiency
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