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2013 BND1101 Case Study Summative

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Iris Yan

on 5 June 2013

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Transcript of 2013 BND1101 Case Study Summative

Part 2 Cardiovascular Disease Dakota Rhys-Jones Monica Rundle
Melise Nezire Songur Vernelle Tham Iris Yan In March Denise’s daughter Emily was visiting from college
She was finding it hard to spend time with her as her catering business was getting much busier over the wedding season
She constantly felt fatigued and out of breath however she attributed these symptoms to peri-menopause STORY Myocardial infarction
Cardiac arrest
Arrhythmia
Coronary artery disease Q1:Explain terms below using appropriate images Q2:Explain cholesterol and lipoproteins and how are they carried around the body. Why are some of these called as ‘good cholesterol’ and ‘bad cholesterol’? References Cardiovascular Disease
(Part 2) Denise was having dinner with her family one night when Emily noticed her mothers face beginning to grow paler
Denise began to have severe troubled breathing and her heart began racing – shortly after she fainted
Denise found herself in the middle of a heart attack whereby there was restricted oxygen to her heart due to a blockage in her coronary artery Denise was taken to hospital where the doctor informed her husband, Jeremy, that Denise had experienced a heart attack to her left ventricle
Doctor noticed that Denise had some scar tissue and this damage could be attributed to the trauma that she suffered during Part A of this case study
The doctor informed Jeremy that his wife had high cholesterol and high blood pressure two major contributors of heart disease However on reflection he considered the stress levels associated with her job, events of breathlessness and tiredness and fatigue
Jeremy also noted that his wife had never complanied of any chest pain
The doctor explained to Jeremy that women and men have varying heart attack symptoms and these are subtler in women About Heart Myocardial Infarction Myocardial Infarction – Infarction refers to tissue death, the results from a local lack of oxygen, due to an obstruction of the tissues blood supply
A Myocardial infarction is more commonly known as a heart attack Cardiac Arrest Cardiac arrest can be explained as an abrupt loss of heart function in a person who may or may not have diagnosed heart disease
The term "heart attack" is often mistakenly used to describe cardiac arrest Arrhythmia An arrhythmia is a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat
During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm
In order to understand Arrhythmias it is important to understand the Hearts internal electrical system: Arrhythmia A problem with any part of this process can cause an arrhythmia.
There are many different types of arrhythmias with the most common being:
Premature (Extra) Beats
Supraventricular Arrhythmias
Ventricular Arrhythmias
Bradyarrhythmias Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and the World Health Organization estimate that it will be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide by 2020
Coronary Artery disease (CAD) is a disease in whereby a waxy substance (cholesterol) called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries
Hardened plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart Cholesterol belongs to the steroid family, is an organic compound with the formula C27H460 Cholesterol is synthesised in the liver, yet the modern day diet means that humans consume a considerable amount of cholesterol
Cholesterol is essential to our lives, as it aids in fluidity and support of the plasma membranes surrounding every one of our cells It also is a precursor for the synthesis of bile acids, Vitamin D and steroid hormones such as the male sex hormones/androgens
So therefore while cholesterol may be known as bad or dangerous, it is a essential component to the biology of all humans and animals Cholesterol is insoluble as it contains many C-C bonds and C-H bonds
Due to the large amount of this non-polar bonding, the entire molecule is non-polar, even though there is one hydroxyl functional group
Due to its non-polarity, it cannot be transported freely in the aqueous medium in the blood, so therefore is transported by lipoproteins Q4:Lifestyle Changes Smoking
excess alcohol
physical inactivity – risk of atherosclerosis Q3:Heart-Healthy Diet: What foods/nutrients should be limited and specifically what foods/nutrients are beneficial and why? Specific Nutrients that are beneficial:
Omega-3-fatty acids
Phytosterols
Fibre
Vitamins (C & E)
Antioxidants
Folate
Allicin Nutrients that are non-beneficial High consumption of saturated fats
High consumption of trans fats
High consumption of sodium In general a balanced diet that is full of fruit and vegetables, contains protein and with plenty of whole grains, whilst avoiding foods high in saturated and trans fats and high salt (sodium) foods. Limitation of alcohol consumption is also recommended. (a).What activities are HAZARDOUS to heart health and what are some solutions? Smoking Smoking – blood pressure
Nicotine – blood pressure
Carbon monoxide – oxygen in blood
Fibrinogen – blood becomes stickier Alcohol Alters liver function
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
High calorie content Energy drinks High sugar & usually caffeine - blood pressure
Contain many additives (b).What are the benefits of exercise concerning heart health? Sedentary lifestyle Obesity & diabetes – risk of CVD Strengthen cardiorespiratory endurance
Increase the amount of haemoglobin, white&red blood cells
Prevent arteriosclerosis - avoid thickening and hardening of arteries
Decrease the possibility of getting heart diseases effectively Benefits to heart health Exercises: Aerobic & Anaerobic

Aerobic
jogging
swimming
cycling
skipping
tennis Anaerobic
sprint
high jump
weight lifting
push-up
sit-up 1- Barber, E. Fat and Protein Metabolism. [Lecture Notes on Internet]. Melbourne: Monash University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences;2013 [cited 2013 May 15]. Available from: http://moodle.vle.monash.edu.au
2- Barber, E. Lipids. [Lecture notes on internet]. Melbourne: Monash University, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences;2013 [cited 2013 April 15]. Available from: http://moodle.vle.monash.edu.au ]
3- Encyclopaedia Britannica [Internet]. Chicago, USA: Encyclopaedia Britannica; 2013. Cholesterol; 2013 [cited May 15 2013]; [location unknown]. Available from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/114106/cholesterol
4- Encyclopaedia Britannica. Molecular view of the cell membrane [Image on internet]. Chicago, USA: Encyclopaedia Britannica; 2013 [cited May 15 2013]. Available from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/114106/cholesterol
5- Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. 5th Ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning; 2009. 144-158 p 6- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Atherosclerosis [Image on Internet]. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services; June 1 2011 [cited May 15 2013]. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis/
7- Ultranutrition. Relationship between glycaemic index and serum cholesterol [Image on internet]. Australia: [Publisher unknown]; 21 February 2013 [cited May 15 2013]. Available from: http://ultranutrition.blogspot.com.au/2013/02/relationship-between-glycemic-index-and.html
8- Dr Stephen Parker. LDL Cholesterol: The Link Between Alzheimer’s and Heart Disease [Image on Internet]. Melbourne, Victoria: Heart Currents; April 20 2013 [cited May 15 2013]. Available from: http://heartcurrents.com/ldl-cholesterol-link-alzheimers-heart-disease/
9- Scientific Psychic. Relative Sizes of Lipoproteins [Image on Internet]. Bethesda, MD: Antionio Zamora; 2013 [cited May 15 2013]. Available from: http://www.scientificpsychic.com/health/lipoproteins-LDL-HDL.html
10- Santa Monica College. Cholesterol, Phospholipids, Triglycerides and Lipoprotein [Image on Internet]. Santa Monica, USA: Santa Monica College; 2013 [cited May 15 2013]. Availale from: http://homepage.smc.edu/wissmann_paul/anatomy2textbook/1cholesterol.html 11- Action on Smoking and Health. Smoking, the heart and circulation [fact sheet]. United Kingdom: ASH; 2011. Available from: http://ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_111.pdf
12- American Heart Association. Smoking & cardiovascular disease (heart disease) [Internet]. United States: AHA; updated 2013 Feb 15 [cited 2013 May 14]. Available from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/QuitSmoking/QuittingResources/Smoking-Cardiovascular-Disease_UCM_305187_Article.jsp
13- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Your Guide to Physical Activity and Your Heart [Internet]. United States: NIH; 2006 [cited 2013 May 14]. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/phy_active.pdf
14- University of Maryland Medical Centre. Exercise’s effects on the heart [Internet]. Maryland, United States: UMMC; 2011 [cited 2013 May 14]. Available from: http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/what_effects_of_exercise_on_heart_circulation_000029_3.htm
15- American Heart Association. Alcoholic beverages & cardiovascular disease [Internet]. United States: AHA; updated 2011 Mar 31 [cited 2013 May 13]. Available from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/Alcoholic-Beverages-and-Cardiovascular-Disease_UCM_305864_Article.jsp 16- National Heart Foundation of Australia. Cardiomyopathy [pamphlet]. Australia: NHF; 2010 [cited May 14]. Available from: http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/Cardiomyopathy.pdf
17- Francis G. A new definition of a Acute Myocardial Infarction. The Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2009; 76(3): 160-166.
18- Paradis NA, Halperin HR, Kern KB. Cardiac Arrest: The Science and Practice of Resuscitation Medicine. Cambridge University Press. 2007.
19- Braunwald E. The treatment of acute myocardial infarction: the Past, the Present, and the Future. European Heart Journal. 2012; 1(1): 9-12.
20- Chilton RJ. Pathophysiology of Coronary Heart Disease: A Brief Review. Journal of American Osteopahic Association. 2004; 104(9): 5-9. 21- Davies SW. Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease. British Medical Bulletin. 2001; 59 (1): 17-27.
22- The generalized nature of atherosclerosis: how peripheral arterial disease may predict adverse events from coronary artery disease. Criqui MH, Denenberg JO. Vascular Medicine. 1999; 4(3); 135-142.
23- Francis G. A new definition of a Acute Myocardial Infarction. The Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2009; 76(3): 160-166.
24- Paradis NA, Halperin HR, Kern KB. Cardiac Arrest: The Science and Practice of Resuscitation Medicine. Cambridge University Press. 2007.
25- Braunwald E. The treatment of acute myocardial infarction: the Past, the Present, and the Future. European Heart Journal. 2012; 1(1): 9-12. 26- Chilton RJ. Pathophysiology of Coronary Heart Disease: A Brief Review. Journal of American Osteopathic Association. 2004; 104(9): 5-9.
27- Davies SW. Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease. British Medical Bulletin. 2001; 59 (1): 17-27.
28- The generalized nature of atherosclerosis: how peripheral arterial disease may predict adverse events from coronary artery disease. Criqui MH, Denenberg JO. Vascular Medicine. 1999; 4(3); 135-142.
29- Better Health Channel. Heart Disease and Food. [internet] Victoria: State Government of Victoria. 2013 [last updated on 30/1/13; cited on 16/5/13] available from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Heart_disease_and_food
30- Feng J.H, Burnier M, MacGregor G,A. Nutrition in cardiovascular disease: salt in hypertension and heart failure. European Heart Journal [internet] 35/5/11 [cited 16/5/13] ;32 (24) pp3073-3080. Available from: http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/content/32/24/3073
31- Honarbakhsh S, Schacter M. Vitamins and Cardiovascular Disease. British Journal of Nutrition [internet] 1/10/08 [cited 16/5/13]; 101 (8) pp1113-1131. Available from: http://journals.cambridge.org.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/action/displayFulltext?type=6&fid=5465664&jid=BJN&volumeId=101&issueId=08&aid=5465660&bodyId=&membershipNumber=&societyETOCSession=&fulltextType=RV&fileId=S000711450809123X
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