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The Effects of Teenage Pregnancy Among
Transcript of The Effects of Teenage Pregnancy Among
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
The Effects, Causes and Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy Among Teenage Mothers in Cavite City
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Background of the Study
Teenage pregnancy is becoming an epidemic; it has become a growing concern. It refers to pregnancy occurs in a girl, mostly in the range of 13 to 17 years old.
Also, Philippine Information Agency (PIA) stated that teenage pregnancy has increased by 65 per cent over a 10-year period from 2000-2010 despite the decline in teen marriages.
The Social Penetration Theory (1973) by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor proposes that, as relationships develop, interpersonal communication moves from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more intimate ones.
Scope and Delimitation
The study will focus on understanding the possible causes and effects of teenage pregnancy among teenage mothers in Cavite City, as well as the planned prevention against it.
Review of Related Literature
Human sexuality may involve a person's sexual attraction to another person – which may be determined by their sexual orientation – whether it is to the opposite sex (heterosexuality), to the same sex (homosexuality) (University of California, Santa Barbara's SexInfo), having both these tendencies (bisexuality), to all gender identities (pansexuality or bisexuality), or not being attracted to anyone in a sexual manner (asexuality) (Rice, 2009).
Sexual intercourse, as defined in the World English Dictionary is the act carried out for procreation or for pleasure in which, typically, the insertion of the male's erect penis into the female's vagina is followed by rhythmic thrusting usually culminating in orgasm; copulation.
Other than the need of extending one's family tree, there are many other reasons people have sex. According to one study conducted of college students (Meston & Buss, 2007), the four main reasons for sexual activities are: physical attraction, as a means to an end, to increase emotional connection, and to alleviate insecurity (Schacter, Gilbert and Wegner, 2011).
According to Carlson and Heth (2007), interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty.
Adolescent sexuality refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in adolescents and is a stage of human sexuality. Sexuality is often a vital aspect of teenagers' lives (Lynn, 2000).
Based on Sawyer (2011), in recent years, psychologists have sought to understand how sexual orientation develops during adolescence. Some theorists believe that there are many different possible developmental paths one could take, and that the specific path an individual follows may be determined by their sex, orientation, and when they reached the onset of puberty.
The sexual behavior of adolescents is, in most cases, influenced by their culture's norms and mores, their sexual orientation, and the issues of social control such as age of consent laws (Casey, Getz and Galvan, 2008).
In an article in Philippine Daily Inquirer (Singson, 2008) noted that statistics in the United States show that each year, almost 1 million teenage women—10 percent of all women aged 15-19 and 19 percent of those who have had sexual intercourse—become pregnant and one-fourth of teenage mothers have a second child within two years of their first.
While in the Philippines, based on the 2002 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Study by the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI) and the Demographic Research and Development Foundation, 26 percent of Filipino youth nationwide from ages 15 to 25 admitted to having a premarital sex experience. And 38 percent of the youth are already in a live-in arrangement.
The researcher aims to study the main causes, effects and prevention against teenage pregnancy in Cavite City.
There are different factors why pregnancy happened at such a frail age. Early marriage, low educational level, lack of sex education, peer pressure, lack of knowledge with the use of contraceptives, poverty, sexual abuse, childhood environment and media influence were such.
While several studies have concluded that teenage pregnancy has an impact in terms of socioeconomic, medical and psychological aspect.
According to the unicef-inc.org, teenage pregnancy is most common in developed countries such as United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand while Japan and South Korea has the lowest.
Figure 1. International Comparison of Teenage Pregnancy
In United States, 82% of pregnancies in those between 15 and 19 are unplanned (Marnach, Long and Casey, 2013). The latest data from the United States shows that the states with the highest teenage birthrate are Mississippi, New Mexico and Arkansas while the states with the lowest teenage birthrate are New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Vermont (cbsnew.com).
Figure 2. Statistics of Teenage Pregnancy in South America, Year 2006
Based on Ugochi Daniels, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) country representative, Philippines has the highest rate of teenage pregnancies among youths aged 15 to 19 compared to the other neighboring countries in the Asia Pacific that have a better record of 34 births per 1,000 women. And highest among six major economies in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and urged government to address the problem as this is part of the Millennium Development Goals.
In 2010, live births by teenage mothers registered with the National Statistics Office were 207,898, compared with 126,025 in 2000. On the other hand, teenage marriages registered with the agency shows a slow but steady decline from 14.8 per cent in 2000 to 13 per cent in 2010.
Figure 3. Statistics of Teenage Pregnancy in the Philippines from 2000 – 2010.
The 2011 Family Health Survey also revealed that one fifth of the country’s population belongs to the 15 to 24 years old brackets or 16.5 million youngsters in 2000 and by 2030 it would reach 30 million.
The country is forced with the glaring truth that the young people of today have children of their own. 30 percent of all births belong to the 15 to 19 year age group and by the time they become 20, 25% of the youth are already mother.
Figure 4. Number of Teenage Mothers in the Philippines who Gave Birth to Their First Baby from 2000 – 2010
The Caraga region has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy in the country, with Agusan del Norte having the highest number of teen mothers among the five provinces in the region, according to the Commission on Population (Popcom).
Meanwhile, according to Terrado (2012), around Cavite City, there are five health centers namely, Dalahican health center, Sta. Cruz health center, Caridad health center, San Roque health center and San Antonio health center. From the entire health center, there are 1,460 young or adolescent parents that being recorded in the year of 2012.
In Corpuz’s (2013) article in ABS-CBN News, she reported that National Youth Commission (NYC) says that the best response to teen pregnancy is the Reproductive Heath (RH) Law which is now being tackled at the Supreme Court. RH Law mandates teaching reproductive health and sexuality education in schools and communities.
Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10354) also known as Reproductive Health Law or RH Bill is a law which guarantees universal access to methods of contraception, fertility control, sexual education, and maternal care.
The theory states that this process occurs primarily through self-disclosure and closeness develops if the participants proceed in a gradual and orderly fashion from superficial to intimate levels of exchange as a function of both immediate and forecast outcomes. Altman and Taylor believe that only through opening one's self to the main route to social penetration-self-disclosure-by becoming vulnerable to another person can a close relationship develop.
With this, the study examined that self-disclosure is one of the factors why teenage pregnancy rate increases. To self-disclose, one must open up their inner feelings, this could be anything from their personal motives or desires. To self disclose could bring a relationship to a new level of intimacy.
Partners believed that by means of self-disclosing, their relationship would develop into deeper and more mature and intimate relationship.
Effects of Teenage Pregnancy
• Low education attainment
• Health issues among teen mothers and babies
• Increase in population
Causes of Teenage Pregnancy
• Low educational level
• Lack of sex education
• Peer pressure
• Lack of knowledge (use of contraceptives)
• Childhood environment
• Media influence
The researcher primarily aims to study the effects of teenage pregnancy to teenage mothers, as well as, its causes and prevention against it in Cavite City.
1. Demographics of teen moms
2. What are the effects of teenage pregnancy among teen mothers in Cavite City?
3. What are the main causes of teenage pregnancy in Cavite City?
4. What are the proposed and implemented preventions against teenage pregnancy in Cavite City?
The outcome of this study would help the teenage mothers know the reasons behind their early pregnancy, as well as the possible risks and effects it could bring to their babies and own lives.
The outcome of the study would be an eye-opener for teens and help them in being aware and knowledgeable about what teenage pregnancy can cause to their lives.
The outcome of this study would serve as a guide for them to supervise and have a stable parental union with their children as they grow up for lesser chances of engaging into premarital sex.
Local Government Unit (LGU).
The outcome of the study would be significant to LGU in making possible plans and projects to prevent the increase of teenage pregnancy in the Philippines.
This study would serve as one of their references in conducting a replication study.
In able to reach the case study of this research, the researcher will use purposive sampling specifically snowball sampling. The researcher would use the said sampling to select particular teenage mothers who are suitable for the purpose and description of the study
A purposive sample is a non-representative subset of some larger population, and is constructed to serve a very specific need or purpose. A subset of a purposive sample is a snowball which is achieved by asking a participant to suggest someone else who might be willing or appropriate for the study. Snowball samples are particularly useful in hard-to-track populations.
Acebuche & Simon (2013), Raj et al (2010), Fredericton (2006), examiner.com, popcom6.com and tempo.com.ph agreed that lack of education is one of the factors contributing to the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Fredericton (2006), Alan Guttmacher Institute (2004), popcom6.com and thejakartaglobe.com agreed that poverty is one of the factors that affect the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Park (2008), Chandra (2008), Singson (2008) and Quinlivan (2008) agreed that media is one of the factors which influence the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Arellano (2008), Raj et al (2010) and tempo.com.ph agreed that economic reasons are the factors contributing to the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Singson (2008), Raj et al (2010) and Arellano (2008) agreed that family is one of the factors that affect the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Saewyc, Magee & Patingel (2004), popcom6.com and tempo.com.ph agreed that child abuse is one of the factors which influence the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Acebuche & Simon (2013), Raj et al (2010) and Alan Guttmacher Institute (2004) agreed that access to reproductive health services is one of the factors contributing to the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Collin (2013) and Singson (2008) agreed that peer pressure is one of the factors that affect the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Santelli & Melnikas (2010) and Raj et al (2010) agreed that pre-marital sex (PMS) is one of the factors which influence the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Acebuche & Simon (2013) and Singson (2008) agreed that sexual misinformation is one of the factors contributing to the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Acebuche & Simon (2013) and Arellano (2008) agreed that religion is one of the factors that affect the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Raj et al (2010) and tempo.com.ph agreed that cultural factors is one of the factors which influence the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Cosmo.ph. and tempo.com.ph agreed that insufficient access to reproductive health service is one the factors contributing to the numbers of teenage pregnancy.
Santelli & Melnikas (2010), Raj et al (2010), Fredericton (2006), National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy (2012), thinkprogress.com, guttmatcher.org and streetdirectory.com agreed that low education attainment/undereducated is one of the effects of teenage pregnancy.
Santelli & Melnikas (2010), Raj et al (2010), National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy (2012), Philippine Information Agency, FNRI-DOST, World Health Organization and streetdirectory.com agreed that medical risks among teen mothers and babies is one of the effects of teenage pregnancy.
Santelli & Melnikas (2010), Fredericton (2006), streetdirectory.com and guttmatcher.org agreed that unemployment is one of the effects of teenage pregnancy.
Santelli & Melnikas (2010), Raj et al (2010) and streetdirectory.com agreed that a high divorce rate is one of the effects of teenage pregnancy.
Santelli & Melnikas (2010) and streetdirectory.com agreed that poverty is one of the effects of teenage pregnancy.
Acebuche & Simon (2013), Raj et al (2010), Caltbiano (2008), Alan Guttmacher Institute (2004) and National Campaign to Prevent Teenage and Unplanned Pregnancy (2012) agreed that sex education is one way to avoid teenage pregnancy.
Method of Research
The documentary analysis and survey methods were used in the study. According to campus.educadium.com, documentary analysis is social research method which is used as a tool for obtaining relevant documentary evidence to support and validate facts stated in research, especially during the chapter of literature review. On the other hand, in the survey method, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. In this study, the researcher used documentary analysis to collect the secondary data which were necessary and significant for this study. A structured survey questionnaire and interview guide questions were utilized to gather primary data for this study. Data collected were compiled, analysed, and interpreted.
Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique
The population of the study involved teen mothers. All respondents who participated in this study were chosen using purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a form of non-probability sampling in which decisions concerning the individuals to be included in the sample are taken by the researcher, based upon a variety of criteria which may include specialist knowledge of the research issue, or capacity and willingness to participate in the research (Jupp, 2006).
Interview guide questions and one structured survey questionnaires will be developed by the researcher; each instrument was designed for each group of respondents, which served as a main tool in gathering the primary data or information from the respondents. The questionnaire and interview guide questions will be validated by consulting two mass communication expert from San Sebastian College –Recoletos de Cavite. They will be reviewing and give inputs for the improvement and validity of the tools.
The respondents will be requested to check the column that corresponded to their answers using the following criteria: 1-Strongly Disagree, 2-Disagree, 3-Undecided, 4-Agree; and 5-Strongly Agree.
Also, the researcher will focus and observe on two case studies to further analyze the reason behind, effects and prevention against teenage pregnancy in Cavite City.
The following steps were taken in the conduct of the study:
1. The researcher will be asking for the approval of the chosen population to conduct the study.
2. The documentary analysis will be conducted.
3. As approved by the chosen population, the survey and the interviews will be gathered.
4. The data will be collected, tabulated, and interpreted through the assistance of a statistician.