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The Romans by: James, Ali and Tomas
Transcript of The Romans by: James, Ali and Tomas
Ali, Tomas and James
The colosseum was completed in AD 80. This colosseum could hold 50,000 people at one time. It is a beutifull structure of arches.The colosseum was used for entertainment purposes. Some of the entertainment at the colosseum was gladiator fighting, they also use to send in people and a lion and watch them die!
When a gladiator won the emperor decided if he wants the gladiator who lost to die or not. If he put his thumb up the gladiator would survive if the thumb went down he would not. The colosseum is made out of really strong bricks but now over time its got broken.
The legionnaire carried a curved shield. This gave the Roman soldier a great deal of protection as it curved around his body. It was also used by the Romans when they used what was known as a tortoise formation to move forward to a target. A 'tortoise' was when the soldiers lifted the scutums flat above their heads to protect themselves from any spears thrown at them from above.
A solider belonged to a Legion which had about 5,000 or 6,000 men. Each Legion was divided into companies of 80 men called Centuries. Each group of century were led by a centurion. The Roman soldier was a professional soldier. This means that he joined the army for 25 years and would be paid a salary. Legionnaires were trained to fight in an organized way. A whole legion could be punished for failing to fight well in battle. Training was brutal and tough but it was important for the Romans success. As well as being good fighters, the legionaries were good engineers and craftsmen.
The Poorer Romans ate sitting at wooden table, on wooden stools. The slaves were only allowed to sit on the floor or on a straw mat. The rich Romans ate in a more formal way, lying down on couches around a table. These formal dining rooms were called triclinia, because there were usually only three couches in a room. (Triclinia - Tri-three and Clinia- down)
The Roman woman were not allowed to attend these dinner parties with men.
The Roman Army
The Roman Army, was a strong fighting machine. It conquered what we now call England/Wales, Spain, France, most of Germany, the northern coast of Africa, the Middle East and Greece. This was known as the Roman Empire and lasted many centuries. The Roman Army was successful because it had better equipment and was organized. The Army also took many riches back to Rome.
The Roman homes were made of brick with red tile roofs. The rooms were arranged around a central courtyard. The windows and balconies faced the courtyard and not the street, to keep homes safe from burglars. There were painting on the walls and beautiful mosaics on the floor.
1. A pilum, was a spear thrown by the legionnaires at the enemy as they ran at them from a distance. It was not for hand-to-hand fighting. It was to distract the enemy at the beginning of the battle before the organized legionnaires attacked.
2. The gladius was the main weapon for the Roman soldier when he got into close fighting. This was a sword which was kept sharp. Anyone on the receiving end of a blow from a gladius would suffer bad injuries.
3. The soldiers also used a small dagger in battle if all else failed.
Siege Warfare: the constant attack by one army on the fortified position of another until they are forst to give in.
Consul: The title of the two chief magistrates or officials in Rome. Consuls serve for one year and were incharg of law and order, and the army of Rome.
Legion: The largest division in the Roman army. It consisted of 4000 to 6000 foot soldiers and cavalry and was lead by a legate.
Cavlalry: Part of the army on horseback.
Legate: The leader of a leagion.
Testudo: A protective covering of overlapping shields used by Roman soldiers. The word comes from the Latin testudinis meaning 'tortoise shell'.
Fortified: A place made strong against attack.
Magistrate: A person who's job is to creat law and make sure they are carried out.
The Army had a demanding training schedule and practiced often. Soldiers had to be in shape and strong. Training was tough and there were punishments for failure. In a battle, new soldiers were placed in front of the more experienced soldiers in the army. There were three reasons for this. The first was to give them confidence because behind them were experienced soldiers who had fought in battles before. Secondly, it stopped the new soldiers from running away if they lost their courage. Lastly, those who were more likely to be killed in the beginning of a battle were at the front. The experienced legionnaires were at the rear because The Roman Army did not want to lose them.
The Romans also developed an early form of large attack catapults. These hurled large stone boulders at a wall to smash it down. The Romans also used catapults to fire iron bolts at the enemy lines.
This took lots of training. The most important group were the centurions. Each centurion was required to ensure that his century was a strong fighting force. Any century that did not wok well together in battle might pay the price and be 'decimated'. The group would stand in line and every tenth man would be taken out and killed. This punishment served as a strong warning to other groups.
Roman mosaics were common feature of private homes and public buildings across the empire. A roman mosaic is important because it has large historical value,they are beautiful and some tell stories/myths.
Three types of weapons used by The Roman Army:
When controlling a country the Army built camps throughout the country. Each camp would be a defensive site and would have everything the soldiers needed. Each camp would be rectangular, protected by a ditch and a wall. The soldiers would live in wooden huts built in straight rows. When they were in battle and moving to different places the soldiers had to build a camp every night. Then they would sleep in tents in straight rows.
A roman kitchen had a built-in clay oven which had a kind of burner.These ovens were heated by a charcoal fire inside them.The kitchen also had wooden cupboards,in which dishes and food was kept.They had pot racks for the pans and pots.
Romans were the first people to invent bridges. They made it out of strong bricks
Basic Soldier's clothing
The materials used to make their clothing was practical - lighter cloth such as linen for hot climates and heavier cloth such as wool for colder climates. The styles of a Roman Soldiers clothing also changed to suit colder climates, adding leggings, a coat, long sleeves, and boots if needed. The basic clothing included a tunic or coat that was either red or off-white color. The protective armor that covered the clothes of the soldier was a helmet made of metal and shoulder, arm and leg guards all made out of metal.
Roman gardens influences by egyptian,persian and greek gardening techniques. Privvate Roman gardens were separated into three parts.First,xytus,was the terrace that served as an open air drawing room which connected to the home through a covered portico.The ambulatio consisted of variety of variety of flowers,trees served as a relaxing area to walk through.The gardens was a place of peace where people could get away from the noisy public places.
It is a large open space situated inside the house. It was used to provide light and ventilation to the interior.The latin word atrium is referred to the open central court from which enclosed rooms led off. The impluvium was shallow pool sunken into the floor to catch the rainwater
The poorer Romans ate sitting at wooden table, on wooden stools. The slaves were only allowed to sit on the floor or on a straw mat. The rich Romans ate in a more formal way, lying down on couches around a table. These formal dining rooms were called triclinia, because there were usually only three couches ina room. (Triclinia - Tri(three) and Clinia (down). The Roman woman were not allowed to attend these dinner parties with men.
Is a columned porch in a building surrounding a court that may contain an internal garden. The columns are made of stone / marble and they were used to hold the shady roofed porch. The inner wall usually contained beautiful wall paintings of landscapes.