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# Types and Properties of Waves

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## Justin Bigelow

on 19 September 2017

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#### Transcript of Types and Properties of Waves

Waves
Formation of
Waves
Characteristics of Waves
Medium
: the material that waves travel through can be a solid, liquid or gas
Most
waves need a medium to travel though
They're called

Mechanical Waves
Waves only transfer ENERGY but NOT matter.
Once a waves passes through a medium it returns to
rest position
(original state).
Disturbance-
disruption of matter
Vibration-
a back-and-forth or up-and-down motion
Moving objects have energy which can then transfer through a
medium

(material wave passes through).

Transverse waves

Longitudinal waves

Surface waves
A disturbance in which
energy
is transferred from one place to another.
Transverse
The medium vibrates perpendicular to wave direction.
Longitudinal
The direction of the wave and the medium are the same.
Ex: Sound waves
Waves looking like a stretched spring, are longitudinal waves.
Surface Waves
Act like transverse and longitudinal waves combined
Found at boundaries between two mediums (water, air)
Ex: Water waves
Properties of Waves
Amplitude
Wavelength
Frequency
Speed
Amplitude
Wavelength
Wavelength is a measure of the distance between two crests or two troughs of a wave
Measure of the distance between two compressions/rarefactions for longitudinal wave
Frequency
How often the particles of the medium vibrate.
# of complete cycles per second
One cycle = full crest and full trough
Time for 1 Cycle = Period
Periods per second= Frequency
Speed
The wave speed is measured as the distance traveled by the crests or trough in a given time interval.
SW= speed of the wave
DW = distance traveled by the waves crest or trough
T = time taken to travel the distance
Formula
Speed = wavelength x frequency
Frequency = speed ÷ wavelength
wavelength = speed ÷ frequency
Depends on the medium they travel through.
How they Travel
Sound waves travel as longitudinal waves that move outward from the source.
What happens to matter in a medium as a wave passes?
The water molecules move in a circle but stay relatively in the same place.
What are the 3 types of mechanical waves?
What are Waves?
3 Types of Mechanical Waves
3 Types of Waves
Properties
Sound Waves
Light Waves
QUIZ!!!
Transverse waves
Longitudinal waves
Surface waves
Question
Question
Question
Question
Why do ducks only move up and down on the surface of the water when a wave passes?
The matter returns to its rest position and is not carried by the wave.

A disturbance or vibration of a medium
Crest
: highest point above rest
As the transverse wave passes through the medium ONLY the particles move perpendicular to the wave. They then return after passing.
Trough
: lowest point below rest
Transverse Wave Parts
What happens to a particle in a medium when a wave passes?

What happens after it passes?
Review
As the particles in the medium are disturbed by the longitudinal wave they move back and forth as the wave passes them. However they do not travel all the way through the material as it might appear.
Longitudinal Wave Parts
Compression
: regions of the medium where particles become closer together (coils are closer together).
Rarefaction
: Regions of the medium where particles (coils) are spread out.
The particles of the medium travel up and down like a transverse wave then sided to side like a longitudinal wave creating a circular motion.
Do surface waves move matter?
Activity
2. Create a diagram that will help you understand the movement of particles in each type.
3. Give a description for the movement of particles for each type.
4. Create a Venn Diagram comparing the 3 wave types.

1. With your seat partner watch the 3 animations about the movement of particles in a medium due to Transverse, Longitudinal, and Surface waves.
http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/waves/wavemotion.html
Maximum distance out of place from the rest position.
Transverse Wave Amplitudes
Waves with GREATER AMPLITUDE
(more movement of particles)
have more energy than low waves.
Smaller amplitude waves cause less movement because they have less energy.
Directly related the the height of the crest or dip of the trough.
(the crest and trough will be equal)
The bigger (taller) the wave the greater the amplitude!
This also goes for surface waves
Longitudinal Wave Amplitude
Figured out by how far particles move from their central or rest position one way or the other.
Amplitude and Energy

Which wave has the greater wavelength?

Which wave has the smaller wavelength?
Which wave has the greater period?
How are wavelength and frequency related?
Which wave has the greater frequency?
Relating Period, Frequency & Wavelength
As wavelength decreases frequency increases

As wavelength increases frequency decreases
What causes a wave?
What does a wave transfer as it moves through a medium?
Question
Waves transfer energy.
Properties
Frequency/Wavelength
These determine the pitch of the sound wave.

Distance between compressions is large
Low Pitch= low frequency/large wavelength
High pitch= high frequency/small wavelength
Distance between compressions is small
Speed
Ex: More or less tension on guitar string
Affected ONLY by the medium it travels through.

The tag line to the movie
"Alien"
says
"In space no one can hear you scream."
but many popular films such as Star Wars say otherwise. Our knowledge of waves says otherwise... why?
Things that could affect speed...

State of Matter (solid, liquid, gas)
Material Type
Temperature
How did the top cups of your stack-it pyramid behave when the table was pounded on to check for stability? What caused these cups to behave this way?
Which state of matter do you think sound would travel fastest and why?
In solids the material/matter is packed closer together so compressions and rarefactions of sound waves take less time to interact/form.
Amplitude
Affects the loudness of the sound measured in decibels
Basics
Do NOT require a medium to travel.
Called Electromagnetic waves
Many different forms based on frequency and wavelength
What would happen if light waves
DID
require a medium to travel?
Main source of light/electromagnetic waves.
Produced by nuclear reactions on the sun
Produces the full electromagnetic spectrum...
If light could not travel through a vacuum (space) the Earth would be in complete darkness...NO LIFE
Microwaves
Infrared waves
Visible waves
UV waves
X-Rays
Gamma Rays
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Spectrum listing types of radiation in order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength

Let's explore...
Microwaves
Infrared Waves
X-Rays
Ultraviolet Waves
Gamma Waves
Visible Waves
Lowest frequency and largest wavelength

Slightly larger frequency than radio waves

Carry signals for T.V and to/from satellites
Smaller frequency than visible waves.
Responsible for warming the Earth
Simply known as heat
Larger frequency waves (visible + UV) are changed to infrared waves on Earth
Make up the part of the spectrum we can see.
Our eyes are able to pick up this frequency range
Contains the colors... ROY G BIV
Greater frequency than visible waves
Can be damaging to our eyes and skin
Are high energy waves
Used to sterilize medical equipment
Very high energy waves
Can penetrate skin and muscle
Greater frequency than UV
Only absorbed by bone because of its density.
Very rare
Occur in space
VERY high energy waves
Largest frequency and smallest wavelength
How does increasing amplitude affect a sound wave?
Question
The energy increases...for sound waves it causes the loudness to increase (decibel level)
Question
What type of electromagnetic wave is responsible for heating the Earth?
Infrared Waves
This is the type of wave that is trapped by the greenhouse effect...warming the atmosphere
Question
What property of electromagnetic waves allows sunlight to reach Earth?
Can then travel through the vacuum of space.
They do NOT require a medium (solid liquid or gas) to travel.
Question
How are frequency and wavelength related?
Increasing frequency = Shorter Wavelength
Ex: Waves on a rope
Are mechanical waves/require a medium
We hear sound when air molecules vibrate one another and travel to our ears.
The question will be shown first. You have 5 seconds to think about the answer and raise your hand. You will only be called on once unless no one else wants to answer. I will look to those with their hand up first.
DONE!
Seismic Waves
Due to a disturbance/vibration in the Earth... plates slipping past each other
P- Waves
Known as "primary waves"
They arrive first
Faster of the seismic waves
Forms a longitudinal wave
Arrives as the first "thud" of an earthquake

S-Waves
Called the "secondary wave"
Arrives second (slower than p-waves)
Travel as transverse waves
Arrive as the first sense of rolling
L-Waves
Also known as long waves
The last to arrive (slower the "p" and "s" waves)
Travel as surface waves (moving up and down)
Do the most damage to buildings
Arrive at the end of an earthquake event
Stage 1:
Stage 2:
Stage 3:
Stage 4:
Stage 5:
Stage 6:
Stage 7:
Interactions with Matter
3 Ways Waves Interact with Matter
Reflect-
when a wave bounces off of matter
Transmit-
when a wave bends around or through matter.
Absorb-
when a wave is absorbed by the matter
Reflection
Determined by the matter...
how much
in which direction
Transmission
When a wave passes through or around matter
Absorption
When a wave enters a substance but is neither transmitted or reflected
the wave may be
emitted
in a different form after being absorbed
Full transcript