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South Carolina History - Chapter 2 Spanish South Caro
Transcript of South Carolina History - Chapter 2 Spanish South Caro
Expansion of Overseas Empires
The Ill-fate of San Miguel de Gualdape
Hernan de Soto and La Florida
Spain was still interested in exploring
Hernan de Soto
began an expedition through the Southeast that would end at the Mississippi River.
During this journey, Spanish would encounter the
chiefdom of the Cofitachequi
Spain and her Threatened Empire
strengthened Spain's claims to the lands north of the peninsula of Florida
- 1497, voyage of John Cabot. Claims all of eastern North America.
- 1524, Giovanni de Verrazano. Explored as far south as present-day Grand Strand.
The Spanish and French attempt to Colonize
1564, another French expedition was sent to the south Atlantic. Built "
" on St. John's River,
End of 16th century;
Port Royal Sound/
Both are credited with
possibly introducing peaches into the New World
deadly legacy of disease
impact of disease on the Indian pop.
beneficial to future European settlers
In sixteenth century, Europe; creation of overseas empires -
ambitions of monarchs
England, France, and the Netherlands
financed explorers who were to lay claim to territory in the name of their royal sponsors.
Spain and her Caribbean Colonies
Labor shortage due (disease and their mistreatment)
Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon
sends exploration expedition in search of more slave labor.
Off south Atlantic coast, discovers natives robust natives.
1521; second expedition sent out.
continuing the cycle of
European treachery and mistreatment of the Indians
Tragedy and Chicora
In present-day South Carolina, the Spaniards lured natives on ships with intent to sell them into
En route, one of the Spanish ships wrecked and many of the would-be slaves drowned and died.
One of the few Indian survivors was a man who was given the name
Francisco de Chicora.
Chicora and Charles V
Chicora assimilated into Spanish culture.
1523, travels to Spain where he entertains the Spanish court.
Chicora's tales helped intrigue the Spanish court regarding the New World.
Chicora assisted Ayllon with obtaining a support from Charles V to explore/ settle the area north of today's Florida peninsula
August 18, 1525
(St. Helena's Day) Spanish scouts sight coastline. In reverence to the saint, they dubbed this piece of land and its surrounding waters as
San Miguel de Gualdape
Colonizing expedition dispatched.
livestock, slaves, missionaries
sent to the New World.
Summer of 1526; somewhere on the coast of South Carolina party lands.
Spaniards founded the town of
San Miguel de Gualdape
Supplies were lost at sea when a supply ship capsized.
Franciso de Chicora
, quickly abandons Spaniards as they reached shore.
The Revenge of Chicora
Disease, Death, and Dishonorable Acts
Many of the Spaniards, including
caught a fever and died in late 1526.
group of malcontents mutinied, jailed his successor, and took over the colony.
Mutineers mistreat local Native Americans/ slaves.
Groups combine forces and turned on their oppressors.
Majority of Spanish colonists killed
mounted what became the first slave rebellion in North America
Collapse of the Colony
Winter set in - the colonists struggle to survive on dwindling supplies while fighting off hostile Indian neighbors.
Less than 3 months
, the colonists abandon the settlement and set sail for Espanola.
Journey back - many surviving settlers froze to death.
Legacy of San Miguel de Gualdape
Ultimately a failure
set sail from the Caribbean in the summer of 1526, only
First European colony in South Carolina
Soto and the Cofitachequi
greet Spaniards warmly.
Cacica of the Cofitachequi
Treated as noble guests.
At their departure, de Soto orders men to kidnap the Cacica/ some of her women as protection/ guides.
Legacy of Spain and her colonies
First 3 contacts between the Indians and the Spaniards
betrayal and mistreatment
Spain also left a
legacy of disease
that may have wiped out as much as half the Cherokee nation.
unintentional biological warfare.
First exploring expedition
San Miguel de Gualdape
Punta de Santa Elena
1559, Philip II of Spain orders colony of
Punta de Santa Elena
1561; Expedition finds
Port Royal Sound
4 ships destroyed in a hurricane, 26/100 die
Ultimately, a failure
Sp. abandons efforts to settle Santa Elena reasoning that France was no longer a threat.
Coligny and the Huguenot Colony
south Atlantic coast, to
undermine Spain's claim to the land and to
build a religious haven for his fellow Huguenots
Colony to Cannibalism
Supply ships delayed.
supplied food temporarily.
Their supply house burns down and the men mutiny and murder their leader, abandoning the colony.
Return journey - men turn mad and result to cannibalism before being rescued.
Charlesfort and Gualdape Comparison
Both settlements were built on swampy locations/ difficult to grow crops
Both leaders both removed
(Allyon died and Ribaut left)
Both successors faced mutiny/ death at hands of fellow colonists
Settlers unprepared for rigors of colonization
Both abandoned their colonies
Both survivors' journey home were gruesome endings.
de Aviles and St. Augustine
Menendez de Aviles
sent to eliminate the French threat/ est. a permanent settlement.
St. Augustine; 1565
Spanish capture/ massacre Ft. Caroline
Fort San Felipe
built to guard the settlement of Santa Elena (home base)
History Repeats Itself
Desertion, mutiny, inadequate supplies
threatened the enterprise
July 1566; reinforcements arrive
Esteban de las Alas
governor and captain-general of La Florida.
named the capital of La Florida.
Pardo and the Interior
1566 and 1567,
Capt. John Pardo
led two expeditions into the interior with three mission goals:
Assure the Indians of Spain's friendship
Search for wealth
Find/ protect an overland route to Mexico
Pardo and his Two Treks
First trek - lasted 4 months
end up in mts of North Carolina
Fort San Juan
in the foothills of the mountains.
Second trek - marched inland and built garrisoned forts.
Settling Santa Elena
free passage, fertile land, farm animals, a two year subsidy
Oct. 1569; 327 men, women, and children,soldiers, farmers, artisans, doctors, tailors
Spanish maxim "
poblar es conquistar
" (to settle is to conquer).
Establishing Spanish Institutions
Social hierarchy developed
Spanish institutions were established including a -
" (city government)
an elected "
Roman Catholic Church
Economics and Agriculture
Eco. - the colony flourished.
Agri. - the colony suffered.
The land surrounding Santa Elena was poor and subject to flooding.
livestock never arrived.
garrison stole crops
1573, las Alas unable to befriend the native Carolinians/ returned to Spain.
Succeeded by a series of inept, corrupt individuals.
Within 3 years the existence of Santa Elena and all of La Florida in jeopardy
The Escamacu War
- Spaniards murder three local chieftains/ terrorized Indian villages.
22 June 1576;
500 Indians attacked Santa Elena/ forced colonists to retreat to Fort San Felipe.
The Spanish and French Attempt to Colonize Further
Port Royal Colony Take Three
December 1576 - French mil. colony est. in
Indians infuriated -
kill majority of French colonists
Spanish forces hunted down/ executed those living among the Indians.
France had failed at three attempts at defying Spain/ plantcolonies in La Florida.
Fort San Marcos and Santa Elena
Fort San Marcos
- substantial wooden citadel built not far from the site of Fort San Felipe.
Santa Elena reestablished and prospered until 1586
Sir Francis Drake
captured/burned St. Augustine.
The Lost Colony of Roanoke
England failed to establish a colony on
in present-day North Carolina.
attempt re-establish it 2 years later but also failed.
Became a part of American folklore as the "
sent to lead the expedition in 1562.
Port Royal Sound
Build a fort on present day
June 1562; Ribaut/ majority of the party return to France for men/supplies.
Ribaut in South Carolina
Chronic food shortages = regular raids against Indian
1570; Indians attack settlement
July 1576; colonists abandon the settlement and the Indians burn down the fort/ village
Escamacu War -Resulted in the decimation of the Spanish settlements and missions throughout La Florida