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3D Printing

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Jessy Jenkins

on 17 September 2015

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Transcript of 3D Printing

3D Printing
ID-Light Process
Developed by Solid Concepts, Inc. for
FDM and Stereolithography 3D printers.
Planes, Trains and Automobiles
Engineers are working on ways to improve the 3D printing technology in order for aerospace, automobile and other types of large scale manufactures to create vehicles that can be printed entirely of 3D material. This would revolutionize the the industry by reducing production costs and increasing efficiency. For example if an airliners weight is reduced by 1kg it is estimated $3000 worth of fuel can be saved per year. (The Economist Newspaper, 2011)
3D Skin Grafting
In September 2014 a team of innovators won the James Dyson Award a national award given to student pioneers for innovation in product and industrial design.
3D Printing is the process of creating a virtually designed model using computer software and producing an object. The object is most commonly made of plastic however recently metal is being used to print 3D objects as well.
3D Printing has primarily been used to create prototypes but in the last several years the technology has progressed and is revolutionizing manufacturing business as we know it.
The technology has progressed to the point that these machines are compact and affordable enough for individuals to purchase for personal and professional use. This is a 3D printer made by Formlabs. Price starting at $3299. (Formlabs, 2014)
Formlabs, 2014
Artists are finding new and creative uses for this technology such as creating clothing. This dress is made entirely of 3D printed material. A perfect example of how refined this technology has become.
"3D printing removes the limitations of the manufacturing process from the equation, which means whatever can be designed on a computer can be turned into an object, 3D printing specialists say."
3D printers are being utilized on a much larger scale by automotive and aerospace industries.
(Parkinson, 2013)
The application of 3D print technology to the medical field is truly extraordinary. Unlike never before perfectly customized materials can be produced to serve in numerous capacities to improve those with health impairments and even save lives.
A light weight, customized back brace intended for scoliosis patients.
In 2013 Oxford Performance Materials announced FDA clearance for the OsteoFab™ Patient Specific Cranial Device (OPSCD). A cranial implant made to replace a bony void in the skull due to trauma or disease.
(Oxford Performance Materials, 2013)
Prosthetic limbs printed by 3D printers at a fraction of the price.
(Kemp, 2014)
(Dunne, 2014)
How does it work?
Additive Technology is the original name for 3D printing. Not all 3D printers use the same technology to realize their objects. There are three methods most commonly used to produce 3D objects. The rapid progression of this technology is also creating a fourth method that will be fully realized in less than a year's time.
What is it?
Sterolithography (SLA)
Most Commonly used. Invented in 1986 by Charles Hull founder of 3D Systems.
Liquid ultraviolet curable photo polymer is placed in a tray below an ultraviolet laser. The laser traces a cross-section of part of the pattern on to the surface of the liquid. The laser cures and solidifies each cross section 0.05 mm to 0.15 mm at a time. This method requires the need for support structures. These support structures are strands of less durable polymer that are also printed around the exterior of the object. In the finished process they are removed so that the final product remains. (3Dprinting.com, 2014)
Current Advances
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
Invented in the 1980's and commercialized in 1990 by Scott Crump founder of Stratasys.
Stratasys is the leader in additive technology manufacturing. Producing high quality products spanning multiple industries.

Plastic filament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and extruded through a heated nozzle which turns the flow of material on and off. The nozzle can move on a vertical and horizontal axis guided by a numerically controlled mechanism which is controlled by a computer aided manufacturing software (CAM). The plastic or metal hardens immediately after extrusion. (3Dprinting.com, 2014)
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Invented in the mid-1980's by Dr. Carl Deckard.
A powdered plastic, metal, ceramic, or glass is placed into the bed of the machine. A high powered laser selectively fuses the material by scanning in cross sections much like a scanner scans a piece of paper. The bed of powder is progressively lowered 0.15mm to 0.1mm layers at a time. A layer of cool powder is spread which cures the heated layer and then that layer is also heated by laser starting the process all over again. Once the process is complete that piece must be cleaned of the residual powder that encases the object. (3Dprinting.com, 2014)
In 2011 Kurt Dudley, Doug Farber, and Chris Marion with Orange Maker, Inc introduced the concept.
A stereolithographic printer design that operates on a rotating axis as a opposed to a vertical and horizontal axis. (Biggs, 2014)
Quite simply, we’ve found a way to streamline efficiency, design, and material economy in 3D printing, a medium that has hitherto suffered from restrictions on variables such as size, speed, and availability of materials.
We’ve reached an ideal—greatly expanding functionality while achieving elegance and simplification through design and engineering.

-Kurtis Dudly, Inventor
Process for creating large scale 3D Models. An inner scaffolding is created to support the hard outer shell. The structure appears solid but weighs 1/12th of a traditionally 3D printed model.
This is true of automobiles as well. Cars of the future are depending upon the advancement of 3D technology to produce a lightweight body in order to create the cars of the future. An example is Urbee. Urbee is a "green" automobile concept that would run on ethanol as its primary source for fuel.
(Kor Ecologic, Inc., 2014)
The Future
A Canadian team won for a Moziac Printer called "The Ladybug". The printers purpose is to print new biologically compatible skin for burn victims far more quickly than existing methods.
"Currently the patented bioprinter is at the stage of pre-commercial prototype. Human clinical trials for this lifesaving technology are reportedly just three years away."
(Taylor, 2014)
Medical applications of 3D printed products will be heavily driving the industry forward. Potential medical uses include:
Hip Joints
Replacement Knees
False Teeth
Model of a spine with a 3D-printed artificial axis in Beijing, where doctors this year claimed they successfully implanted one into the spine of a bone cancer patient for the first time. Photograph: Jason Lee/Reuters
(Butler, 2014)
(Grunewald, 2014)
3 Methods
3D Printing is also known as additive technology. This technology has only been around for about thirty years. The advancements in the last five years are allowing for projections that 3D printing is the wave of the future for the manufacturing business. There will be fewer restrictions allowing for a wealth of possibilities.
The Wave of the Future
(RepRap, 2014)
(Parkinson, 2014)
(Orange Maker, LLC., 2014)
Leading Industry Uses for 3D Printing
3D Printing.com. (2014). What is 3D Printing? Retrieved October 5, 2014, from 3D Printing: http://3dprinting.com/what-is-3d-printing/

Biggs, J. (2014, 11 July). The Orange Maker Spins The Plate to Make Better 3D Prints. Retrieved 5 October, 2014, from Techcrunch.com: http://techcrunch.com/2014/07/11/the-orange-maker-spins-the-plate-to-make-better-3d-prints/?ncid=rss

Butler, S. (2014, August 24). Medical implants and printable body parts for drive 3D printer growth. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/business/2014/aug/24/medical-implants-drive-3d-printer-growth

Deighton, B. (2013, March 6). Rethinking objects and form are key to 3D printing revolution. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Reuters.com: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/06/us-3d-printing-idUSBRE9250OR20130306

Dunne, C. (2014, June 13). A 3-D Printed Back Brace Scoliosis Patients Might Not Hate Wearing. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Fast Company: http://www.fastcodesign.com/3031810/a-3-d-printed-back-brace-scoliosis-patients-might-not-hate-wearing?utm_content

Formlabs. (2014). Formlabs Form 1 Plus. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Formlabs: http://formlabs.com/en/products/form-1-plus/

Grunewald, S. J. (2014, September 5). Solid Concepts Introduces New Ultra-Lightweight 3D Printing Process. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from 3D Printing Industry: http://3dprintingindustry.com/2014/09/05/solid-concepts-introduces-new-ultra-lightweight-3d-printing-process/

Kemp, J. (2014, July 28). Florida boy, 6, gets prosthetic arm built with 3-D printer. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Daily News: http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/florida-boy-6-prosthetic-arm-built-3-d-printer-article-1.1882546

KOR Ecologic Inc. (2014). Kor Ecologic. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Kor Ecologic: http://korecologic.com/

Orange Maker, LLC. (2014). OrangeMaker.com/about us. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from OrangeMaker.com: http://www.orangemaker.com/about-us/

Oxford Performance Materials. (2013, February 18). OsteoFab™ Patient Specific Cranial Device Receives 510(k) Approval . Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Oxford Performance Materials: http://www.oxfordpm.com/news/article/2013-02-18_osteofab_patient_specific_cranial_device_receives_510k_approval_-_osteofab_implants_ready_for_us_market_and_beyond

Parkinson, A. (2014, July 21). Skateboard Design Challenge Winners. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Solid Concepts Blog: https://blog.solidconcepts.com/evolution-custom-manufacturing/skateboard-design-challenge-winners/

Parkinson, A. (2013, December 17). The Low-Cost Test Platform UAV Could be the Holy Grail for Future Aircraft. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Solid Concepts Blog: https://blog.solidconcepts.com/industry-highlights/low-cost-test-platform-uav-holy-grail-future-aircraft/

RepRapBCN. (2014). RepRapBCN. Retrieved 5 October, 2014, from RepRapBCN: http://www.reprapbcn.com/en

Stone, M. (2014, September 2). 3d Printed Dresses Are Radically Changing the Meaning of Haute Couture. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/3d-printed-fashion-2014-8

Taylor, S. (2014, September 21). Skin 3D Bioprinter Wins James Dyson Award. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from 3D Printing Industry: http://3dprintingindustry.com/2014/09/21/skin-3d-bioprinter-wins-james-dyson-award/

The Economist Newspaper. (2011, February 10). 3D Printing: The Printed World. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/node/18114221

By Jessica Jenkins

October 2014
GIT335 Computer Systems Technology
Nicholas Lindquist
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